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With the enactment of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act school lunch

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With the enactment of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act school lunch  [#permalink]

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New post 24 May 2019, 23:11
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A
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  45% (medium)

Question Stats:

62% (01:35) correct 38% (01:39) wrong based on 289 sessions

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Project SC Butler: Day 116 Sentence Correction (SC1)


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With the enactment of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act, school lunch program administrators have increased healthy fruit and vegetable choices, whole grain options, lean protein selections, and have reduced high calorie and high fat food options

A) have increased healthy fruit and vegetable choices, whole grain options, lean protein selections, and have reduced

B) increased healthy fruit and vegetable choices, whole grain options, lean protein selections, and reduced

C) have increased healthy fruit and vegetable choices, whole grain options, and lean protein selections, and have reduced

D) have increased healthy fruit and vegetable choices, whole grain options, lean protein selections; and they have reduced

E) have increased healthy fruit and vegetable choices, whole grain options, lean protein selections, and


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Re: With the enactment of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act school lunch  [#permalink]

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New post 24 May 2019, 23:14
All correct answers that contain reasonable explanations will be awarded ONE KUDOS.

Exceptional answers may be "bumped" to Best Community Reply.

Kudos will be awarded after the OE is posted.
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Re: With the enactment of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act school lunch  [#permalink]

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New post 25 May 2019, 00:49
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With the enactment of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act, school lunch program administrators have increased healthy fruit and vegetable choices, whole grain options, lean protein selections, and have reduced high calorie and high fat food options

A) have increased healthy fruit and vegetable choices, whole grain options, lean protein selections, and have reduced

we have a list that starts from fruit and vegetables choices, whole grain options, (MISSING AND), lean protein selections, and have reduced (this part is correctly connected with the earlier HAVE INCREASED)

B) increased healthy fruit and vegetable choices, whole grain options, lean protein selections, and reduced

repeat error of A further changing of tense from present perfect to simple past changes the meaning.


C) have increased healthy fruit and vegetable choices, whole grain options, and lean protein selections, and have reduced

correct option.


D) have increased healthy fruit and vegetable choices, whole grain options, lean protein selections; and they have reduced

Again repeats error in A, further THEY is not required and may be redundant and also distorts parallelism in the sentence.


E) have increased healthy fruit and vegetable choices, whole grain options, lean protein selections, and

Again repeats error in A, further, changes last portion into simple past from present perfect thereby conveying an illogical meaning.
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Re: With the enactment of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act school lunch  [#permalink]

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New post 25 May 2019, 02:04
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There is a list of 2 actions performed- Have reduced and have increased
There is also a list of things increased- fruits and vegetable choices, grain options and lean proteins.

We need the following structure : have increased A,B and C and have reduced D

Only C follows this structure.

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Re: With the enactment of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act school lunch  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 25 May 2019, 17:31
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IMO C

With the enactment of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act, school lunch program administrators have increased healthy fruit and vegetable choices, whole grain options, lean protein selections, and have reduced high calorie and high fat food options

A) have increased healthy fruit and vegetable choices, whole grain options, lean protein selections, and have reduced
Have increased and have reduced - ensures parallelism but misses connecting word between whole grain options and lean protein selections

B) increased healthy fruit and vegetable choices, whole grain options, lean protein selections, and reduced
The action started in the past and its effect still continues - hence require the ''present perfect tense'' and not ''simple past''

C) have increased healthy fruit and vegetable choices, whole grain options, and lean protein selections, and have reduced
Looks good - verb tense, parallelism and connecting word issues are eliminated

D) have increased healthy fruit and vegetable choices, whole grain options, lean protein selections; and they have reduced
";" - requires two independent clauses. the second sentence starting with "and" is not an independent clause

E) have increased healthy fruit and vegetable choices, whole grain options, lean protein selections, and
the second part of the sentence does not have the verb "reduced" so it distorts the meaning

Originally posted by Ashokshiva on 25 May 2019, 02:54.
Last edited by Ashokshiva on 25 May 2019, 17:31, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: With the enactment of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act school lunch  [#permalink]

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New post 25 May 2019, 08:03
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Administrators have increased A, B, C and D and have reduced X and Y.
Ans. C.

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Re: With the enactment of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act school lunch  [#permalink]

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New post 25 May 2019, 08:38
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C should be the correct answer. There are two verbs: increased and reduced, and both are in Present perfect tense. For increased verb - these items in the list must be parallel - healthy fruit and vegetable choices, whole grain options, and lean protein selections. With this consideration only, we can remove other choices.
Needless to say, other options have other errors also. In Option D and E - usage of "and" and semicolon(:) are not correct.

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With the enactment of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act school lunch  [#permalink]

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New post 26 May 2019, 22:34
generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 116 Sentence Correction (SC1)



With the enactment of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act, school lunch program administrators have increased healthy fruit and vegetable choices, whole grain options, lean protein selections, and have reduced high calorie and high fat food options

A) have increased healthy fruit and vegetable choices, whole grain options, [AND] lean protein selections, and have reduced

B) increased healthy fruit and vegetable choices, whole grain options, [AND] lean protein selections, and reduced

C) have increased healthy fruit and vegetable choices, whole grain options, and lean protein selections, and have reduced

D) have increased healthy fruit and vegetable choices, whole grain options, [AND] lean protein selections; and they have reduced

E) have increased healthy fruit and vegetable choices, whole grain options, [and] lean protein selections, and [have reduced


[b]OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

In this sentence we must recognize that we have two verbs that share one subject, and a list with three items.

This sentence is an exception to the normal pattern we see when one subject is followed by two verbs.

• COMPOUND PREDICATE (two verbs, same subject) -
Almost always, do not repeat the subject beefier the second verb
Almost always, do not insert a comma before the second verb
-- When two verbs (have increased and have reduced) share the same subject (administrators), we have a "compound predicate."
The predicate is the part of the sentence that contains the verb or verb phrase.

In a sentence with a compound predicate, almost always
(1) do not repeat the subject or a substitute pronoun in the second part of the predicate.
Correct: He packed his suitcase and checked his email.
Wrong: He packed his suitcase and he checked his email.
Wrong: He packed his suitcase, and he checked his email.

(2) do not insert a comma before the and that joins the verb phrases, unless you need a comma to achieve clarity, a rare instance that happens to be the case in this question;

-- This "no comma" guideline is just an extension of a rule for simple sentences.
In a one subject + one verb sentence, we rarely put a comma between a subject and a verb.
(Occasionally a phrase offset by two commas will intervene, but those commas signal items such as an unimportant comment or nonessential modifier.)

We certainly never insert a comma between subject and verb in a very simple sentence.
-- Always wrong: My friend Sam, lived across the street from me.
-- Correct: My friend Sam lived across the street from me.

We need to keep subjects and verbs as connected as possible.

-- Extend this "no separation" principle to sentences in which one subject is followed by two verbs.
We usually avoid a comma before the second verb in the compound predicate because a comma separates the subject from the second verb.
Correct: He packed his suitcase and checked his email.
Wrong: He packed his suitcase, and checked his email.

I cannot be sure, but few people seem to know this rule.

Regarding this question, I expected someone to say, "We do not need to worry about having separated the second verb from the subject because the itemized list makes an otherwise unsuitable comma necessary." Or something similar. Nope. Hilarious.

The writers of this question believed that they would confuse you with the unusual extra comma before "and have reduced."

You all were too busy getting the list right; by then the unusual comma before the second verb was not even in view. :thumbup:

• SIMPLE PAST vs PRESENT PERFECT
-- is a non-issue because B lacks the word AND before the last item in the list
-- See the footnote* for a few notes on construction and usage of present perfect.

• Split #1 - Lists of more than two items require a COMMA + AND before the last item.

School lunch administrators have increased THREE things (noun is in blue)
(1) healthy fruit and vegetable choices
(2) whole grain options
(3) lean protein selections

-- nouns in blue are the actual nouns. The other words are adjectives or noun-adjectives (nouns that function as adjectives).
Noun-adjectives are common in English: sports car. Race horse. Geography teacher.
The noun-adjective always precedes the noun it modifies. No exceptions.

In a list of more than two items, a COMMA + AND must be placed before the last item. The "Oxford comma"
-- Is rarely used in British English
-- Is rarely used in U.S. journalism (in order to save one space)
-- is always used on the GMAT, no exceptions

The AND is always used for the last item in the list

Options A, B, D, and E lack the word and before lean protein selections.
Eliminate A, B, D, and E

Answer C

• Two more issues
-- WHY is a comma allowed between the two predicates that share the same subject in this case?
One reason only. Clarity. The list contains commas plus "comma + and." The list mucks things up. We need another comma to distance the second verb from the list.

For that very reason (comma confusion), if the first part of a compound predicate has one comma or more, in formal writing we are allowed to use a semicolon plus AND to clear up the comma confusion. If we use a semicolon this way, we must repeat the subject.
This rule is obscure and you should worry about it. I do not recall any official question in which this construction was ever an option, let alone the correct answer.

-- Does option D have two independent clauses as required by the use of a semicolon? Yes.

If D were by itself and correctly contained AND before the last item in the list on the LHS, D would not be wrong.
Again, I highly doubt that GMAC will ever use a sentence like that in D.

Option (D) contains two independent clauses:
#1 administrators have increased ...
#2 they have reduced ...

COMMENTS

All of these answers are good explanations.
People who follow will benefit from a topic thread whose posters explained the same concepts in different and effective ways.

Nice work, everyone. :)


-- Present perfect: have increased and have reduced

For present perfect in active voice, construction is
HAS/HAVE + past participle (verbED)

For present perfect in passive voice, construction is
HAS/HAVE + been + past participle

• Present perfect (often called a "bridge" between past and present) is used to describe

-- something that started in the past and continues in the present.
I have read voraciously since I was very young. (= and I still do)

-- a action or event that happened during a time period that has not yet finished.
In preparation for her performance, she has rehearsed twice this month. (And the month is not over yet.)

-- a repeated action or event in an unspecified time period between the past and now.
They have collaborated on screenplays many times.

-- actions or events when time is not important
Denzel Washington has been nominated for an Oscar for Best Actor or Best Supporting Actor eight times. (That result is impressive.)

-- with JUST, an action that was completed in the very recent past.
Tommy has just learned to ride a bike.

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Re: With the enactment of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act school lunch  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jun 2019, 16:02
IMO the correct answer is C but not due to the used verb tense (present perfect) but only due to correct pararrelism

While looking at answer choices only in terms of verb tenses I don't see any problem with all options. There is no issue in using past simple (as in ans. B) - the administrators increased ... and reduced... in the past. There is also no problem in using present perfect since the effect of increasing choices and decreasing calories since the effect of this changes lasts till now.

Answer C is right because this is the only option which correctly list nouns by using and with comma before the last listed noun

generis wrote:

Project SC Butler: Day 116 Sentence Correction (SC1)


For SC butler Questions Click Here



With the enactment of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act, school lunch program administrators have increased healthy fruit and vegetable choices, whole grain options, lean protein selections, and have reduced high calorie and high fat food options

A) have increased healthy fruit and vegetable choices, whole grain options, lean protein selections, and have reduced

B) increased healthy fruit and vegetable choices, whole grain options, lean protein selections, and reduced

C) have increased healthy fruit and vegetable choices, whole grain options, and lean protein selections, and have reduced

D) have increased healthy fruit and vegetable choices, whole grain options, lean protein selections; and they have reduced

E) have increased healthy fruit and vegetable choices, whole grain options, lean protein selections, and


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Re: With the enactment of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act school lunch   [#permalink] 08 Jun 2019, 16:02
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With the enactment of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act school lunch

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