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Years before the advent of plate tectonics―the widely accepted theory,

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Years before the advent of plate tectonics―the widely accepted theory, [#permalink]

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Question 1
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Question 2
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Years before the advent of plate tectonics―the widely accepted theory, developed in the mid-1960's, the holds that the major features of Earth's surface are created by the horizontal motions of Earth's outer shell, or lithosphere―a similar theory was rejected by the geological community. In 1912, Alfred Wegener proposed, in a widely debated theory that came to be called continental drift, that Earth's continents were mobile. To most geologists today, Wegener's The origin of Continents and Oceans appears an impressive and prescient document, containing several of the essential presumptions underlying plate tectonics theory: the horizontal mobility of pieces of Earth's crust; the essential difference between oceanic and continental crust; and a causal connection between horizontal displacements and the formation of mountain chains. Yet despite the considerable overlap between Wegener's concepts and the later widely embraced plate tectonics theory, and despite the fact that continental drift theory presented a possible solution to the problem of the origin of mountains at a time when existing explanations were seriously in doubt, in its day Wegener's theory was rejected by the vast majority of geologists.

Most geologists and many historians today believe that Wegener's theory was rejected because of its lack of an adequate mechanical basis. Stephen Jay Gould, for example, argues that continental drift theory was rejected because it did not explain how continents could move through an apparently solid oceanic floor. However, as Anthony Hallam has pointed out, many scientific phenomena, such as the ice ages, have been accepted before they could be fully explained. The most likely cause for the rejection of continental drift―a cause that has been largely ignored because we consider Wegener's theory to have been validated by the theory of plate tectonics―is the nature of the evidence that was put forward to support it. Most of Wegener's evidence consisted of homologies―similarities of patterns and forms based on direct observations of rocks in the field, supported by the use of hammers, hand lenses, and field notebooks. In contrast, the data supporting plate tectonics were impressively geophysical―instrumental determinations of the physical properties of Earth garnered through the use of seismographs, magnetometers, and computers.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

VRC00416-04
Q1: The author cites Hallam on the ice ages primarily in order to

(A) provide an example of a geologic phenomenon whose precise causes are not fully understood by geologists today

(B) criticize the geological community for an apparent lack of consistency in its responses to new theories

(C) offer evidence held to undermine a common view of why Wegener’s theory was not accepted in its day

(D) give an example of a modern scientist who believes that Wegener’s theory was rejected because it failed to adequately explain the mechanical basis of continental drift

(E) support Gould’s rationale for why Wegener’s theory was rejected by most geologists in the early twentieth century


[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

VRC00416-03
Q2: The author of the passage refers to the "considerable overlap" between continental drift theory and plate tectonics theory most probably in order to

(A) suggest that plate tectonics theory is derived from Wegener’s work

(B) introduce a discussion comparing the elements of the two theories

(C) examine the question of whether continental drift theory was innovative in its time

(D) provide a reason why it might seem surprising that continental drift theory was not more widely embraced by geologists

(E) cite an explanation that has been frequently offered for Wegener’s high standing among geologists today


[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

VRC000416-02
Q3: The author of the passage suggests that the most likely explanation for the geological community’s response to continental drift theory in its day was that the theory

(A) was in conflict with certain aspects of plate tectonics theory

(B) failed to account for how mountains were formed

(C) did not adequately explain how continents moved through the ocean floor

(D) was contradicted by the geophysical data of the time

(E) was based on a kind of evidence that was considered insufficiently convincing


[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

VRC00416-01
Q4: It can be inferred from the passage that geologists today would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about Wegener’s The Origin of Continents and Oceans?

(A) It was a worthy scientific effort that was ahead of its time.

(B) It was based on evidence that was later disproved.

(C) It was directly responsible for the acceptance of the theory of plate tectonics.

(D) It has been disproved by continental drift theory.

(E) It misrepresented how horizontal displacements cause the formation of mountain chains.


[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

VRC00416-05
Q5: The author of the passage discusses the “essential presumptions” (see highlighted text) of The Origin of Continents and Oceans most in order to

(A) indicate features of Wegener's theory that caused it to be doubted in its day

(B) show why Wegener's theory is now regarded as prescient

(C) indicate differences between plate tectonics and the theory of continental drift

(D) cite features of the theory of continental drift for which no evidence was available in Wegener’s day

(E) point out aspects of Wegener's theory that were accepted well before the advent of platetectonics

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #4 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #5 OA

Last edited by hazelnut on 19 Oct 2017, 19:48, edited 7 times in total.
Added Question 5

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Re: Years before the advent of plate tectonics―the widely accepted theory, [#permalink]

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New post 11 Sep 2010, 12:47
This RC was difficult for me.
1. C
2. D
3. E
4. C - even after searching 3 times, I couldn't find proof for this question
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Re: Years before the advent of plate tectonics―the widely accepted theory, [#permalink]

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New post 13 Sep 2010, 16:34
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Re: Years before the advent of plate tectonics―the widely accepted theory, [#permalink]

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New post 29 May 2013, 21:09
1.D 2.D 3.A 4.B

Expert please advice and explain where I have gone wrong

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Re: Years before the advent of plate tectonics―the widely accepted theory, [#permalink]

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New post 25 Nov 2014, 01:40
i dont understand Q4. It has to be wrong. Please someone explain.
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Re: Years before the advent of plate tectonics―the widely accepted theory, [#permalink]

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New post 14 Mar 2015, 18:22
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My take on question 4 is that the key phrase in the question stem is the title of the book "The Origin of Continents and Oceans" so look for it in the passage. There's only one reference to the book title, which is in the first paragraph, being: To most geologists today, Wegener's The origin of Continents and Oceans appears an impressive and prescient document...

Impressive = worthy scientific effort
Prescient = ahead of its time

That should be enough to point to A. I didn't look at the other answer choices because A directly answered the question, but you can't make the same inference as to what geologists think about the book from the other options (if anything, they refer to other parts of the passage).

Hope that helps!

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Re: Years before the advent of plate tectonics―the widely accepted theory, [#permalink]

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New post 19 Mar 2015, 07:36
C D E A Took me 8 minutes. Great passage.
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Re: Years before the advent of plate tectonics―the widely accepted theory, [#permalink]

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New post 02 Mar 2016, 08:37
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Took me around 8:30 minutes.

Will give a brief explanation of answer choices later on.

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Re: Years before the advent of plate tectonics―the widely accepted theory, [#permalink]

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New post 18 Apr 2016, 23:08
prasannajeet wrote:
1.D 2.D 3.A 4.B

Expert please advice and explain where I have gone wrong


The author cites Hallam on the ice ages primarily in order to
A. provide an example of a geologic phenomenon whose precise causes are not fully understood by geologists today
B. criticize the geological community for an apparent lack of consistency in its responses to new theories
C. offer evidence held to undermine a common view of why Wegener’s theory was not accepted in its day
D. give an example of a modern scientist who believes that Wegener’s theory was rejected because it failed to adequately explain the mechanical basis of continental drift
E. support Gould’s rationale for why Wegener’s theory was rejected by most geologists in the early twentieth century.

D here is a trap. D is obviously in the passage but not associated with ice age. The author uses ice age to explain that some phenomenons have been accepted without being proved 100% scientifically. So the theory that Wegner's theory was not accepted because of a lack of 100% proof is unfounded. And hence C.


Q3:The author of the passage suggests that the most likely explanation for the geological community’s response to continental drift theory in its day was that the theory
A. was in conflict with certain aspects of plate tectonics theory
B. failed to account for how mountains were formed
C. did not adequately explain how continents moved through the ocean floor
D. was contradicted by the geophysical data of the time
E. was based on a kind of evidence that was considered insufficiently convincing


From the last passage;

Wagner's theory was based on observations in contrast to tectonic plate theory which was based on scientific models and tectonic research. We can infer that the theory was rejected because the nature of evidence Wagner used was not very convincing.


Q4:It can be inferred from the passage that geologists today would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements about Wegener’s The Origin of Continents and Oceans?
A. It was a worthy scientific effort that was ahead of its time.
B. It was based on evidence that was later disproved.
C. It was directly responsible for the acceptance of the theory of plate tectonics.
D. It has been disproved by continental drift theory.
E. It misrepresented how horizontal displacements cause the formation of mountain chains.


Here the best way to go would be elimination :

A: Hmmm, yeah, it was proved to be true later, lets just hold on to it for a second.
B: Nien, it was proved to be true later. So B out.
C: Nien, the reverse is true. plate tectonics made scientists realise the veracity of Wagner
D: Straightforward nien
E: Scientists believed it then. (CLASSIC GMAT trap) Not NOW!

So from here, 4. A
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Re: Years before the advent of plate tectonics―the widely accepted theory, [#permalink]

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New post 18 Apr 2016, 23:15
aadikamagic wrote:
i dont understand Q4. It has to be wrong. Please someone explain.


In 1913 The theory was rejected.

But in 1960, a theory which overlapped Wagner's in many aspects was accepted based on proofs ( models and structures ) that we can infer, were not available during Wagner's time. Hence we can conclude that the theory was ahead of its time.
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Re: Years before the advent of plate tectonics―the widely accepted theory, [#permalink]

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New post 27 May 2016, 22:59
C D E A , Nice passage , took me 8 mins 10 seconds
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Re: Years before the advent of plate tectonics―the widely accepted theory, [#permalink]

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6 mins. All correct. Took >3 mins in para but then covered the lag in Q.
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Re: Years before the advent of plate tectonics―the widely accepted theory, [#permalink]

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New post 19 Sep 2016, 12:32
Additional question for the passage :

The author of the passage discusses the “essential presumptions” (see highlighted text) of
The Origin of Continents and Oceans most in order to
A. indicate features of Wegener's theory that caused it to be doubted in its day
B. show why Wegener's theory is now regarded as prescient
C. indicate differences between plate tectonics and the theory of continental drift
D. cite features of the theory of continental drift for which no evidence was available in
Wegener’s day
E. point out aspects of Wegener's theory that were accepted well before the advent of plate
tectonics

Answer B.
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Re: Years before the advent of plate tectonics―the widely accepted theory, [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jun 2017, 23:23
Completed in 6 minutes, 4/5 correct. Question 1 got wrong, close call.

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Re: Years before the advent of plate tectonics―the widely accepted theory, [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jun 2017, 23:26
Someone pls explain why for question 1, option B is wrong?

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Re: Years before the advent of plate tectonics―the widely accepted theory, [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jul 2017, 23:52
for Q5 the answer refers to his "theory" but the presumptions only refer to a segment of his theory, thus i didn't pick it. can someone kindly explain why this is ok?

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Re: Years before the advent of plate tectonics―the widely accepted theory, [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2017, 10:41
Can anyone explain answer to the last question please ?
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Re: Years before the advent of plate tectonics―the widely accepted theory, [#permalink]

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New post 17 Oct 2017, 06:42
I was confused between B and D for question 5 and naturally i picked the wrong answer. Can someone explain why D is wrong and why B is correct in question #5?

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Re: Years before the advent of plate tectonics―the widely accepted theory,   [#permalink] 17 Oct 2017, 06:42
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