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Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's socia

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Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's social wasps, wasps living in a highly cooperative and organized society where they consist almost entirely of females—the queen and her sterile female workers.


A. wasps living in a highly cooperative and organized society where they consist almost entirely of

B. wasps that live in a highly cooperative and organized society consisting almost entirely of

C. which means they live in a highly cooperative and organized society, almost all

D. which means that their society is highly cooperative, organized, and it is almost entirely

E. living in a society that is highly cooperative, organized, and it consists of almost all


The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2018

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 776
Page:

Originally posted by DLMD on 24 Jan 2005, 16:25.
Last edited by Bunuel on 11 Dec 2018, 04:47, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's socia  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2012, 10:15
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A. wasps living in a highly cooperative and organized society where they consist almost entirely of---- wrong because, the reference to ---they-- is ambiguous; it could be wasps, or the 900 or so species or yellow jackets; drop it. In addition, a society is gathering and not a physical place; hence society and where cannot go together.


B. wasps that live in a highly cooperative and organized society consisting almost entirely of --- a good choice using the resumptive modifier wasps that repeats an already stated noun and defines it with further info.


C. which means they live in a highly cooperative and organized society, almost all---- wrong use of ‘which’

D. which means that their society is highly cooperative, organized, and it is almost entirely---- same as in D

E. living in a society that is highly cooperative, organized, and it consists of almost all --- there should be fanboy ‘and’ after cooperative, because the IC --- and it consists of ----is not part of the first list.
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Re: Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's socia  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jul 2010, 00:05
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chiayu wrote:
Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world'd social wasps, wasps living in a highly cooperative and organized society where they consist almost entirely of females- the queen and her sterile female workers.

A) wasps living in a highly cooperative and organized society where they consist almost entirely of
B) wasps that live in a highly cooperative and organized society consisting almost entirely of
C) which means they live in a highly cooperative and organized society, almost all
D) which means that their society is highly cooperative, organized, and it is almost entirely
E) living in a society that is highly cooperative, organized, and it consists of almost all




The correct answer is B.

My questions is why answer B starts with wasps.
Answers C, D, and E are adjective clauses describing previous sentence or wasps. But why answer B starts with wasps. Is it an appositive?

Thank you for your help:)



Lets make sentence a bit simple....

red ants number among the 900 or so species of the worlds ants, ants living in a highly cooperative and organized society where they consist almost entirely of females- the X and the Y.....

C & D are outright wrong because in " which means" which would refer to ants that cannot mean anything stated later on.

E is wrong because even if "It" may refer to society it is redudant and not parallel...the sentence should have been...

living in a society that is highly cooperative and organized, consisting of almost all...

Now between A&B...

First your query....

An appositive is a noun or noun phrase that immediately follows another noun. An appositive explains or defines the noun it follows and is set off by commas.

eg: Mexico City, the biggest city in the world, has many interesting archaeological sites.

Mexico City = the biggest city in the world

Appositives are always set off by commas. Another interesting aspect of appositives is that they can always be exchanged with the nouns they modify as in another example:

The altitude of Lhasa, the capital of Tibet, is over 12,000 feet.
The altitude of the capital of Tibet, Lhasa, is over 12,000 feet.

So clearly wasps living in a highly cooperative.....is not an appositive but a modifier clause that modifies worlds social wasps...


Now again coming back to a&b

A has a big problem....it says that they consist of....where only logical referrant to they is wasps. But we know that wasps can not consist of females but a society can....

So clearly the Answer is B...
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Re: Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's socia  [#permalink]

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New post 12 May 2013, 21:23
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Genopath wrote:
B: Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's social wasps, wasps that live in a highly cooperative and organized society consisting almost entirely of...

Isn't this a run-on sentence?

A run-on sentence is when two independent clauses are connected by a comma. Here, wasps that live in a highly cooperative and organized society consisting almost entirely of... is not independent clause (in fact, it is not a clause at all; it is a phrase).

This kind of contruct is very common on GMAT (because it is not intuitive and is never used in verbal communication). A lot of questions test you on this and you would be well advised to make yourself comfortable. Following are a couple of sentences in OG that use this construct (I have put the correct option in bold and italicized the absolute modifier):

Scientists have observed large concentrations of heavy-metal deposits in the upper twenty centimeters of Baltic Sea sediments, which are consistent with the growth of industrial activity there.
(A) Baltic Sea sediments, which are consistent with the growth of industrial activity there
(B) Baltic Sea sediments, where the growth of industrial activity is consistent with these findings
(C) Baltic Sea sediments, findings consistent with its growth of industrial activity
(D) sediments from the Baltic Sea, findings consistent with the growth of industrial activity in the area
(E) sediments from the Baltic Sea, consistent with the growth of industrial activity there

Another example from Official Verbal supplement:

Floating in the waters of the equatorial Pacific, an array of buoys collects and transmits data on long-term interactions between the ocean and the atmosphere, interactions that affect global climate.
A. atmosphere, interactions that affect
B. atmosphere, with interactions affecting
C. atmosphere that affects
D. atmosphere that is affecting
E. atmosphere as affects

Let me know if you want more examples and I can pull them up. There is no dearth of sentences using absolute modifier: ).
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Re: Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's socia  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jan 2005, 03:24
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Between (A) and (B), will go with (B).

(A) - ... world's social wasps, wasps living in a highly cooperative and organized society where they consist almost entirely of females ... "where" does not do well to qualify the organized society, if that's what it was there for.

(B) - ... wasps that live in a highly cooperative and organized society consisting almost entirely of females ... - cooperative and organized society consising almost entirely ... is a more appropriate usage.
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Re: Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's socia  [#permalink]

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New post 12 May 2013, 14:28
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Genopath wrote:
B: Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's social wasps, wasps that live in a highly cooperative and organized society consisting almost entirely of...

Isn't this a run-on sentence?


Hi Genopath

B is not a run-on sentence.

Run-on error doesn't mean a long sentence, a really short sentence, however, could be run-on.

If you separate two parts in B into two sentences. The second subject would be "wasps" in general. That will changes the intended meaning.

The intended meaning is that Yellow jackets are wasps that live in................... The second part "wasps that live...." modifies the subject - Yellow jackets. Hence, we cannot put a dot between two parts.

Hope it helps.
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Re: Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's socia  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Nov 2005, 03:09
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I would have chosen B here because E seemed weird but to be honest I have no idea about this construction :

Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's social wasps

where is the verb ? I mean I dont understand at all this structure ? Can someone explain a little more... :oops:
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Re: Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's socia  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Sep 2007, 18:17
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Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world’s social wasps, wasps living in a highly cooperative and organized society where they consist almost entirely of females—the queen and her sterile female workers.

A. wasps living in a highly cooperative and organized society where they consist almost entirely of
B. wasps that live in a highly cooperative and organized society consisting almost entirely of
C. which means they live in a highly cooperative and organized society, almost all
D. which means that their society is highly cooperative, organized, and it is almost entirely

E. living in a society that is highly cooperative, organized, and it consists of almost all


9 out of 10 times, "which means" is not correct because it's meant to modify a phrase in front of it; whereas, "which" should be used to modify a noun/ pronoun. --> C and D out

We need "and" in between "cooperative" and "organized" . "it" has no specific antecedent --> E is out

"consist almost entirely of" is of "society" rather than of "wasps" --> A is out

I'm in for B.
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Re: Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's socia  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2010, 09:22
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muhemmedhammad wrote:
Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's social wasps, wasps living in a highly cooperative and organized society where they consist almost entirely of females-the queen and her sterile female workers.

(A) wasps living in a highly cooperative and organized society where they consist almost entirely of
(B) wasps that live in a highly cooperative and organized society consisting almost entirely of
(C) which means they live in a highly cooperative and organized society, almost all
(D) which means that their society is highly cooperative, organized, and it is almost entirely
(E) living in a society that is highly cooperative, organized, and it consists of almost all

I need the right answer and a good explanation


answer B

not c or d because the antecedent of "which" is social wasps. It's like saying -- social wasps means that they live. Doesn't really make sense.
e is no parallel
in a the use of "they consist" is not correct because it refers to wasps when it should refer to society because society consists of something not wasps consist of something
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Re: Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's socia  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2010, 21:28
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When gmat gives you a hint then take it. Resumative modifiers are preferred.

A : "where" needs geographical location.
C,D : which does not have antecedent
E : "and it" violates the parallelism of the modifiers - highly cooperative, organized and consist

Lets look at B
B) wasps that live in a highly cooperative and organized society consisting almost entirely of
"wasps" is a resumative modifier which avoids confusion as "what" is being modified.

B it is.

Parallel SC.

Since the 1930's aircraft manufacturers have tried to
build airplanes with frictionless wings, shaped so
smoothly and perfectly
that the air passing over
them would not become turbulent.

(A) wings, shaped so smoothly and perfectly
(B) wings, wings so smooth and so perfectly shaped
(C) wings that are shaped so smooth and perfect
(D) wings, shaped in such a smooth and perfect manner
(E) wings, wings having been shaped smoothly and
perfectly so

Answer is B.
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Re: Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's socia  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2013, 10:51
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Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's social wasps, wasps living in a highly cooperative and organized society where they consist almost entirely of females—the queen and her sterile female workers.

A. wasps living in a highly cooperative and organized society where they consist almost entirely of
"Where" modifies actual place and not the metaphorical place such as Society.
B. wasps that live in a highly cooperative and organized society consisting almost entirely of
"that" correctly modifies wasps, consisting correctly modifies society. Hence correct !
C. which means they live in a highly cooperative and organized society, almost all
Which means => what means????? Which cannot refer to idea stated in preceding clause for that purpose we have an absolute phrase
D. which means that their society is highly cooperative, organized, and it is almost entirely
Same as (C).
E. living in a society that is highly cooperative, organized, and it consists of almost all
Makes error in ||ism
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Re: Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's socia  [#permalink]

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New post 30 May 2017, 09:43
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hazelnut wrote:

GMATNinja It sounds odd to say social wasps, wasps that live. Could you clarify the modifier in this problem?


Hi hazelnut , "wasps that live in a highly cooperative and organized society consisting almost entirely of" is called an absolute phrase modifier. It is modifying the "social wasps".

Here "wasps" is a noun and "that live .... " is modifier that modifies the noun "wasps".
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Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's socia  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Mar 2019, 10:58
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Hello Everyone!

This is a tricky question, so let's dive in! To start, here is the original question with any major differences between the options highlighted in orange:

Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's social wasps, wasps living in a highly cooperative and organized society where they consist almost entirely of females—the queen and her sterile female workers.

A. wasps living in a highly cooperative and organized society where they consist almost entirely of
B. wasps that live in a highly cooperative and organized society consisting almost entirely of
C. which means they live in a highly cooperative and organized society, almost all
D. which means that their society is highly cooperative, organized, and it is almost entirely
E. living in a society that is highly cooperative, organized, and it consists of almost all

After a quick glance over the options, there are a couple things we can focus on:

1. wasps living/wasps that live/which means they/which means that/living (Modifiers)
2. How each options ends (Punctuation/Pronouns/Meaning)


Let's start with #1 on our list: Modifiers. We first need to determine if the word "which" is necessary, and then check to make sure the modifiers don't screw up meaning:

A. wasps living in a highly cooperative and organized society where they consist almost entirely of --> OK (Clear the modifier is referring back to "social wasps," and giving more detail about them.)

B. wasps that live in a highly cooperative and organized society consisting almost entirely of --> OK (Also clear the modifier is referring to and giving more information on what "social wasps" are.)

C. which means they live in a highly cooperative and organized society, almost all --> WRONG (Starting the phrase with "which" means it must modify THE ENTIRE PHRASE before the comma, and that's not what it should be modifying. It should only modify "social wasps.")

D. which means that their society is highly cooperative, organized, and it is almost entirely --> WRONG (Again, starting a modifier with the word "which" means it must modify THE ENTIRE phrase before the comma, and not just "social wasps.")

E. living in a society that is highly cooperative, organized, and it consists of almost all --> WRONG (The -ing modifier must modify THE ENTIRE PHRASE before the comma, and that's not what we're trying to modify here.)

We can eliminate options C, D, & E because they use the wrong kinds of modifiers for the sentence.

Now that we have it narrowed down to only 2 options, let's tackle any issues with meaning, modifiers, and punctuation. To make problems easier to spot, I've included the non-underlined portions of the sentence:

A. Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's social wasps, wasps living in a highly cooperative and organized society where they consist almost entirely of females—the queen and her sterile female workers.

This is INCORRECT because we have a vague pronoun! It's not clear what "they" is referring to: yellow jackets, social wasps, society, species? If a pronoun isn't 100% clear, that's a big red flag on the GMAT that this is likely an incorrect choice.

B. Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's social wasps, wasps that live in a highly cooperative and organized society consisting almost entirely of females—the queen and her sterile female workers.

This is CORRECT! It uses modifiers correctly, and there are no problems with pronouns, punctuation, or meaning here!


There you go - option B is the correct choice!


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Re: Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's socia  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Mar 2013, 15:33
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Hi there,

Let's take a look here. It looks like a modifier type question with some list (parallelism) and pronoun issues mixed in. The underlined portion of the sentence needs to describe social wasps.

Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world’s social wasps, wasps living in a highly cooperative and organized society where they consist almost entirely of females—the queen and her sterile female workers.

A. wasps living in a highly cooperative and organized society where they consist almost entirely of
What does they refer to? It sounds like the wasp itself is part female and part male.

B. wasps that live in a highly cooperative and organized society consisting almost entirely of
This looks good.

C. which means they live in a highly cooperative and organized society, almost all
what does the "they" refer to? What does the "which" refer to?

D. which means that their society is highly cooperative, organized, and it is almost entirely
What does the "which" to? Incorrect parallelism "and it is almost entirely".

E. living in a society that is highly cooperative, organized, and it consists of almost all
Parallelism issue "it consists of almost all". You also should have "wasps" so that the sentence is more clear.

It is very helpful to replace all of your pronouns with the nouns that they are replacing.
Doing that will allow you see if the pronouns make sense. Also, make sure that the word(s) next to which make sense as words that which can refer to. Let me know if you need more advice on this.

Happy Studies,

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Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world’s social wasps, wasps living in a highly cooperative and organized society where they consist almost entirely of females--the queen and her sterile female workers.

A. wasps living in a highly cooperative and organized society where they consist almost entirely of
B. wasps that live in a highly cooperative and organized society consisting almost entirely of
C. which means they live in a highly cooperative and organized society, almost all
D. which means that their society is highly cooperative, organized, and it is almost entirely
E. living in a society that is highly cooperative, organized, and it consists of almost all

Quote:
I chose E, but OG says and it consists violates the parallelism of the three descriptions.how come?i know that both cooperative and organized are parallel(these adjectives modify "society"), but dosen't "comma+and" introduce a new and independent clasue? what's wrong with that?besides, "it" refers clearly to "society". please correct me if im wrong.


Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world’s social wasps,
living in a society that is
  • highly cooperative,
  • organized, and
  • it consists of almost all females--
the queen and her sterile female workers.

don't u think it is redundant. since 3rd item of the list is not parallel in terms with 1st and 2nd items of the list. even if it is removed that is consists of phrase is still incorrect.

I hope this helps :)
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Re: Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's socia  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Feb 2019, 13:04
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sahilbhatia21 wrote:
GMATNinja

The usage of relative pronoun 'which' whenever appears to modify incorrectly/ambiguously, has always been highlighted in the official guide explanations.

But while i was going through the explanation of this very question , the official guide didn't not identify the usage as incorrect. (It just didn't address 'which' for options C and D)

The little i have understood about the usage of 'which' is that it modifies preceding Noun or sometimes even far of nouns, but it does not modify the entire clause.

As per me, I would have eliminated 'which means ' on the basis of usage and abiguity.

Could you please Explain for this little finding of mine in regard to the Official Guide?

For starters, the official guide explanations were written years -- and often a couple of decades -- after the original question was created. So the OG explanations often aren't a great reflection of the question-writers' intent, and in general, it's worth taking those explanations with a grain of salt.

In this case, the test for whether "which" is correct is twofold:

    1) Is the modifier beginning with "which" reasonably close to the noun it modifies?
    2) Does the verb in the modifier agree in number with the noun it describes?

With that in mind, take another look at the relevant portion in (C): "Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world’s social wasps, which means they live in a highly cooperative and organized society." The verb "means" is singular, so we know that the phrase beginning with "which" needs to modify a singular noun. But there aren't any singular nouns that "which" could possibly modify, so (C) is incorrect. (D) has the exact same problem.

And yes, you're correct that in most cases, "which" should modify the nearest noun. That's not a strict rule, though: as long as "which" modifies a nearby noun, it can be OK -- but the modifier needs to actually make sense and adhere to basic subject-verb agreement rules. And in (C) and (D), it simply doesn't.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's socia  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jan 2008, 11:54
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Explanations plz ...

Opinions take us nowhere :)


Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world’s social wasps, wasps living ...

Is it acceptable to have two wasps one after the other ...
Also what is the second clause ... is it a modifier or a subclause ?? ...
Im totally clueless ... someone pls help

Also can someone plz elaborate on each of the options ...

Thanks in advance
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Re: Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's socia  [#permalink]

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New post 12 May 2013, 17:39
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Genopath wrote:
B: Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's social wasps, wasps that live in a highly cooperative and organized society consisting almost entirely of...

Isn't this a run-on sentence?


Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world’s social wasps, wasps that live in a highly cooperative and organized society consisting almost entirely of females — the queen and her sterile female workers.

If you remove the additional words from the full sentence of option B, you will find the simpler form of the sentence as -

Yellow jackets number among the 900 species of the social wasps, wasps that live in a cooperative society.

Here the first part is an independent clause. The second part, the part after comma, is a description of the wasps and this part is not an independent clause. Hence the sentence in not a run on one.
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Re: Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's socia  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Sep 2015, 03:02
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Hi Reto,

In C and D we have wrong usage of "which".

In E there is no parallelism.

In A.. "society" is an imaginary place and using "where" for it is wrong.

In B.. "that" refers to the "wasps" which also serves as the subject. consisting(verbing) rightly modifies the preceding noun "society". So B it is.

Can you put forth your reasoning more elaborately so all can benefit from it?

Regards,
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Re: Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's socia  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Feb 2016, 03:50
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The part of the sentence that starts with “wasps living …’ in A and ‘wasps that live…’ in B are both called resumptive modifiers, a legal way of expressing modifiers. Per se, a modifier need not be a full clause with a verb. It can be a noun + a present participle that modifies the noun that it is touching as in A or a noun + a relative clause the touches the noun wasps as in B. Both choices do not pose any grammatical problems as such. The problem lies in the pronoun ‘where’ referring to a non-physical entity such as society.

A is, therefore, suspect. C and D, of course, suffer the relative pronoun touch rule problem. E has the singular pronoun ‘it’ referring to the plural yellow jackets.
B survives the pronoun reference ordeal.
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Re: Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's socia   [#permalink] 06 Feb 2016, 03:50

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Yellow jackets number among the 900 or so species of the world's socia

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