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# Zelda: Dr. Ladlow, a research psychologist, has convincingly

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31 Jul 2011, 18:30
B is correct. E is a simple restatement of stimulus. the other choices are incorrect
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17 Apr 2013, 06:14
grumpyoldman wrote:
It certainly LOOKS like an LSAT question. Even if it isn't, LSAT techniques are very useful in answering it.

The most useful thing to do is to recognize that Anson's third sentence is actually an if-then statement. It means: "If X is a responsible psychologist, then X accepts the possibility that new evidence will show that his/her theory is incorrect."

Since Zelda tells us and Anson that Dr. Ladlow considers his theory to be irrefutable -- in other words, he does not think it is possible for new evidence to show that it is incorrect -- Anson's conclusion (that Dr. Ladlow is not a responsible psychologist) is logically sound. (As always, "logically sound" means that if the evidence is true, the conclusion MUST be true as well.) Now we are looking for the answer choice which ALSO is a logically sound conclusion, if Anson's statements are true.

(C) does not logically follow from this evidence. Anson's statement says that responsible psychologists must accept the POSSIBILITY of their theories being found to be wrong, but this clearly does NOT mean that the theories ARE or MUST BE wrong.

(E) does not follow from the evidence. As was already stated, it "reverses" the stimulus. As shown above, Anson's third statement means: "If X is a responsible psychologist, then X accepts the possibility that new evidence will show that his/her theory is incorrect." Choice (E) says: "If X accepts the possibility that new evidence will show that his/her theory is incorrect, then X is a responsible psychologist." The stimulus says "If A, then B", and choice (E) says "If B, then A". You can NEVER deduce "If B, then A" from "If A, then B".

(B) is correct. It is another concealed "if-then" statement. It means: "If a psychologist making a specific kind of prediction reasons responsibly, he/she cannot conclude that his/her theory is irrefutable." This can be accurately restated as: "If a psychologist making a certain kind of prediction reasons responsibly, he or she must accept the possibility that his/her theory could be refuted." Anson's third statement says exactly this about ALL psychologists. Since the psychologists who make predictions about rats in mazes are a subset of all psychologists, (B) is necessarily true if Anson's third statement is true.

^ this explains the reasoning behind the correct answer the best.
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17 Apr 2013, 14:36
kman wrote:
Zelda: Dr. Ladlow, a research psychologist, has convincingly demonstrated that his theory about the determinants of rat behavior generates consistently accurate predictions about how rats will perform in a maze. On the basis of this evidence, Dr. Ladlow has claimed that his theory is irrefutably correct.

Anson: Then Dr. Ladlow is not responsible psychologist. Dr. Ladlow’s evidence does not conclusively prove that his theory is correct. Responsible psychologists always accept the possibility that new evidence will show that their theories are incorrect.

17. Which one of the following can be properly inferred from Anson’s argument?
(A) Dr. Ladlow’s evidence that his theory generates consistently accurate predictions about how rates will perform in a maze is inaccurate.
(B) Psychologists who can derive consistently accurate predictions about how rats will perform in a maze from their theories cannot responsibly conclude that those theories cannot be disproved.
(C) No matter how responsible psychologists are, they can never develop correct theoretical explanations.
(D) Responsible psychologists do not make predictions about how rats will perform in a maze.
(E) Psychologists who accept the possibility that new evidence will show that their theories are incorrect are responsible psychologists.

I see a big debate between B and E. But E is wrong. it's a reverse answer. Let examine E.
Psychologists who accept the possibility that new evidence will show that their theories are incorrect are responsible psychologists.
You can see, E says Psychologist will show that their theories are incorrect. It's totally wrong.

B is correct.
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10 Jun 2013, 06:56
can some one please explain why any statement that restates the inference is not right ans for inference question.
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10 Jun 2013, 07:15
mbmanoj wrote:
can some one please explain why any statement that restates the inference is not right ans for inference question.

Inference, as dictionary defines, is the act or process of deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true.

So inference is all about finding something new from the existing. If you restate the premise, then what do you derive ?
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10 Jun 2013, 07:36
ConnectTheDots wrote:
mbmanoj wrote:
can some one please explain why any statement that restates the inference is not right ans for inference question.

Inference, as dictionary defines, is the act or process of deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true.

So inference is all about finding something new from the existing. If you restate the premise, then what do you derive ?

Thank you, ddo you find such ans choices in OG or GMAT?
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10 Jun 2013, 08:27
mbmanoj wrote:
Thank you, ddo you find such ans choices in OG or GMAT?

I am no expert. As per the available materials -

Powerscore CR Bible brings Inference, Conclusion, Argument Completion under one umbrella - the "Must be true" questions and says the correct answers are paraphrase of the stimulus in different terms. If the answer choice mirrors the stimulus, its the correct answer. Combination answers result from two or more statements in the stimulus.

However, there is always something in the question stem that lets us know whether the question is asking for paraphrase or seeking a deduction. Inference necessarily says to derive something new. And in this particular question there is not a single answer choice that mimics the stimulus, everyone, apart from B, is a distortion.

You can practice must be true type questions from OG 13: 26, 54, 60, 66, 74, 103, 104, 105
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15 Jun 2013, 14:50
I think it is more of "necessary" and "sufficient" type of question.

The last line of the argument talks about the "responsible psychologists" who are ready to get flak for their theories.

E seems to fit this line. B seems to be more specific to the maze experiment.
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15 Jun 2013, 14:53
Did not read the option E correctly. B it is ...
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06 Oct 2013, 10:38
B is what the argument infers, can absolutely be prove to be 100% correct by the passage

E is what the passage suggest, can be provide to be correct by the passage 99% of the time i.e not absolutely
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31 Oct 2013, 02:06
Answer is B. E is a classic inference question trap.
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09 Nov 2014, 00:29
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27 Jun 2015, 04:50
Good Question. I didn't pick E, but knew , while solving the problem, that E is certainly not the correct answer. After re-reading choices, B is clearly the correct answer.
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02 Aug 2016, 09:57
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: Zelda: Dr. Ladlow, a research psychologist, has convincingly   [#permalink] 02 Aug 2016, 09:57

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