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# Zelda: Dr. Ladlow, a research psychologist, has convincingly

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07 Feb 2009, 18:26
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Zelda: Dr. Ladlow, a research psychologist, has convincingly demonstrated that his theory about the determinants of rat behavior generates consistently accurate predictions about how rats will perform in a maze. On the basis of this evidence, Dr. Ladlow has claimed that his theory is irrefutably correct.

Anson: Then Dr. Ladlow is not responsible psychologist. Dr. Ladlow’s evidence does not conclusively prove that his theory is correct. Responsible psychologists always accept the possibility that new evidence will show that their theories are incorrect.

17. Which one of the following can be properly inferred from Anson’s argument?
(A) Dr. Ladlow’s evidence that his theory generates consistently accurate predictions about how rates will perform in a maze is inaccurate.
(B) Psychologists who can derive consistently accurate predictions about how rats will perform in a maze from their theories cannot responsibly conclude that those theories cannot be disproved.
(C) No matter how responsible psychologists are, they can never develop correct theoretical explanations.
(D) Responsible psychologists do not make predictions about how rats will perform in a maze.
(E) Psychologists who accept the possibility that new evidence will show that their theories are incorrect are responsible psychologists.
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09 Feb 2009, 07:35
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It certainly LOOKS like an LSAT question. Even if it isn't, LSAT techniques are very useful in answering it.

The most useful thing to do is to recognize that Anson's third sentence is actually an if-then statement. It means: "If X is a responsible psychologist, then X accepts the possibility that new evidence will show that his/her theory is incorrect."

Since Zelda tells us and Anson that Dr. Ladlow considers his theory to be irrefutable -- in other words, he does not think it is possible for new evidence to show that it is incorrect -- Anson's conclusion (that Dr. Ladlow is not a responsible psychologist) is logically sound. (As always, "logically sound" means that if the evidence is true, the conclusion MUST be true as well.) Now we are looking for the answer choice which ALSO is a logically sound conclusion, if Anson's statements are true.

(C) does not logically follow from this evidence. Anson's statement says that responsible psychologists must accept the POSSIBILITY of their theories being found to be wrong, but this clearly does NOT mean that the theories ARE or MUST BE wrong.

(E) does not follow from the evidence. As was already stated, it "reverses" the stimulus. As shown above, Anson's third statement means: "If X is a responsible psychologist, then X accepts the possibility that new evidence will show that his/her theory is incorrect." Choice (E) says: "If X accepts the possibility that new evidence will show that his/her theory is incorrect, then X is a responsible psychologist." The stimulus says "If A, then B", and choice (E) says "If B, then A". You can NEVER deduce "If B, then A" from "If A, then B".

(B) is correct. It is another concealed "if-then" statement. It means: "If a psychologist making a specific kind of prediction reasons responsibly, he/she cannot conclude that his/her theory is irrefutable." This can be accurately restated as: "If a psychologist making a certain kind of prediction reasons responsibly, he or she must accept the possibility that his/her theory could be refuted." Anson's third statement says exactly this about ALL psychologists. Since the psychologists who make predictions about rats in mazes are a subset of all psychologists, (B) is necessarily true if Anson's third statement is true.
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07 Feb 2009, 20:14
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kman wrote:
Zelda: Dr. Ladlow, a research psychologist, has convincingly demonstrated that his theory about the determinants of rat behavior generates consistently accurate predictions about how rats will perform in a maze. On the basis of this evidence, Dr. Ladlow has claimed that his theory is irrefutably correct.

Anson: Then Dr. Ladlow is not responsible psychologist. Dr. Ladlow’s evidence does not conclusively prove that his theory is correct. Responsible psychologists always accept the possibility that new evidence will show that their theories are incorrect.

17. Which one of the following can be properly inferred from Anson’s argument?
(A) Dr. Ladlow’s evidence that his theory generates consistently accurate predictions about how rates will perform in a maze is inaccurate.
(B) Psychologists who can derive consistently accurate predictions about how rats will perform in a maze from their theories cannot responsibly conclude that those theories cannot be disproved.
(C) No matter how responsible psychologists are, they can never develop correct theoretical explanations.
(D) Responsible psychologists do not make predictions about how rats will perform in a maze.
(E) Psychologists who accept the possibility that new evidence will show that their theories are incorrect are responsible psychologists.

B is the best

1. Anson does not comment that the evidence of Dr. Ladlow is INaccurate, but "Dr. Ladlow’s evidence does not conclusively prove that his theory is correct". A cannot be a reference

2. Anson DOES defines who are RESPONSIBLE psychologists by saying that "Responsible psychologists always accept the possibility ". So, "never develop correct theoretical explanations" cannot be a reference. C out

3. Anso does not say that "Responsible psychologists do not make predictions about ....", D out

4. Anson says "Responsible Psychologsts always accept the possibility..." rather than any "Psychologists who accept the possibility...are resopnsible"
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08 Feb 2009, 12:05
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Answer is B. E reverses what the stimulus says and is therefore incorrect.
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07 Feb 2009, 20:39
kman wrote:
Zelda: Dr. Ladlow, a research psychologist, has convincingly demonstrated that his theory about the determinants of rat behavior generates consistently accurate predictions about how rats will perform in a maze. On the basis of this evidence, Dr. Ladlow has claimed that his theory is irrefutably correct.

Anson: Then Dr. Ladlow is not responsible psychologist. Dr. Ladlow’s evidence does not conclusively prove that his theory is correct. Responsible psychologists always accept the possibility that new evidence will show that their theories are incorrect.

17. Which one of the following can be properly inferred from Anson’s argument?
(A) Dr. Ladlow’s evidence that his theory generates consistently accurate predictions about how rates will perform in a maze is inaccurate.
(B) Psychologists who can derive consistently accurate predictions about how rats will perform in a maze from their theories cannot responsibly conclude that those theories cannot be disproved.
(C) No matter how responsible psychologists are, they can never develop correct theoretical explanations.
(D) Responsible psychologists do not make predictions about how rats will perform in a maze.
(E) Psychologists who accept the possibility that new evidence will show that their theories are incorrect are responsible psychologists.

Question Stem:
Zelda - based on some evidence Dr. has demonstrated, Dr. Ladlow has claimed that his theory is irrefutably correct.
Anson - is giving importance to "responsible" Psychologists by saying "Responsible psychologists always accept the possibility that new evidence will show that their theories are incorrect."

So one can infer either E or B since both were very close.
E - makes gives more clear idea abt responsible psychologists
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07 Feb 2009, 23:36
Agree with E

B takes a very narrow view

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08 Feb 2009, 00:54
Yeah B and E are strong contenders. I will go with E because B narrowed down premises to "Rat psychologist" whereas Anson's argument reflect general view of "responsible psychologist". Another thing is B states "responsibly conclude" - here stem says about "responsible psychologist" not how they "conclude"!!

IMO E
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08 Feb 2009, 05:37
Hi mates

IMO E

Whats Anson's argument? that responsible psychologists always accept the possiblity that new evidence will show that the theiries are incorrect.

Just E can be derived from this

OA and Source?

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08 Feb 2009, 10:53
kman wrote:
Zelda: Dr. Ladlow, a research psychologist, has convincingly demonstrated that his theory about the determinants of rat behavior generates consistently accurate predictions about how rats will perform in a maze. On the basis of this evidence, Dr. Ladlow has claimed that his theory is irrefutably correct.

Anson: Then Dr. Ladlow is not responsible psychologist. Dr. Ladlow’s evidence does not conclusively prove that his theory is correct. Responsible psychologists always accept the possibility that new evidence will show that their theories are incorrect.

17. Which one of the following can be properly inferred from Anson’s argument?
(A) Dr. Ladlow’s evidence that his theory generates consistently accurate predictions about how rates will perform in a maze is inaccurate.
(B) Psychologists who can derive consistently accurate predictions about how rats will perform in a maze from their theories cannot responsibly conclude that those theories cannot be disproved.
(C) No matter how responsible psychologists are, they can never develop correct theoretical explanations.
(D) Responsible psychologists do not make predictions about how rats will perform in a maze.
(E) Psychologists who accept the possibility that new evidence will show that their theories are incorrect are responsible psychologists.

If E is indeed the correct answer, it just proves that I haven learned my lesson ever.

I initially chose E but look at the last sentence "Responsible psychologists always accept the possibility that new evidence will show that their theories are incorrect."

Now E

Psychologists who accept the possibility that new evidence will show that their theories are incorrect are responsible psychologists.

Isn't E merely a restatement of what is said? While we definitely want to pick the most obvious and least contentious, this choice is clearly a mere restatement? just moved few words around.
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08 Feb 2009, 11:42
icandy I totally agree with you.

There is a very thin line between "must be true" and "inference" questions.

We can many a times fall trap.

Both B and E restate something stated in the premises. They qualify for a must be true answer choice.

I would rather choose
(C) No matter how responsible psychologists are, they can never develop correct theoretical explanations.

For inference , its an external information to be drawn in to make the conclusion / premise valid.

I get the INFERENCE Qs wrong so many times .... specially these LSAT types.
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08 Feb 2009, 12:02
gmatavenue wrote:
icandy I totally agree with you.

There is a very thin line between "must be true" and "inference" questions.

We can many a times fall trap.

Both B and E restate something stated in the premises. They qualify for a must be true answer choice.

I would rather choose
(C) No matter how responsible psychologists are, they can never develop correct theoretical explanations.

For inference , its an external information to be drawn in to make the conclusion / premise valid.

I get the INFERENCE Qs wrong so many times .... specially these LSAT types.

Isnt the word never making C a non contender. Too strong IMO

B is actually combing "Then Dr. Ladlow is not responsible psychologist" & "Responsible psychologists always accept the possibility that new evidence will show that their theories are incorrect"

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08 Feb 2009, 12:19
chicagocubsrule wrote:
Answer is B. E reverses what the stimulus says and is therefore incorrect.

Is B the OA?
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08 Feb 2009, 13:14
icandy wrote:
B is actually combing "Then Dr. Ladlow is not responsible psychologist" & "Responsible psychologists always accept the possibility that new evidence will show that their theories are incorrect"

Thats the reason I took this as "must be true" option. It restates actually the premise again.

And in the premise "Then Dr. Ladlow is not responsible psychologist" , not is also very strong !

Lets wait for OA ....
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09 Feb 2009, 01:42
both B & E are very close.......but i would definitely go with E.........
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09 Feb 2009, 02:00
B

E is a mistaken reversal. Just because the psychologists excepts that his theory can be disproved does not mean that he is responsible

this is an LSAT Q isnt it?
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09 Feb 2009, 09:52
B is the OA. There is no OE in Cr1000.
And yes, this is an LSAT question. I chose E first and could not, for the life of me, figure our why the answer was B. Thanks for the explanation guys...
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11 Feb 2009, 12:42
kman wrote:
B is the OA. There is no OE in Cr1000.
And yes, this is an LSAT question. I chose E first and could not, for the life of me, figure our why the answer was B. Thanks for the explanation guys...

is not there a specific forum for LSAT questions?
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07 May 2011, 13:49
hmmm if B is in fact the right answer than i need to mark this question for future reference .
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07 May 2011, 13:59
E does the classic act of reversal the premise.

B fits.
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31 Jul 2011, 02:55
Initially i chose E. But re-reading the question B seems correct.

"Responsible psychologists always accept the possibility that new evidence will show that their theories are incorrect."
Rephrasing: Responsible psychologists always accept X.
This means that "to accept X" is one of the trait/character of responsible psychologists and not criteria to be responsible psychologists.

(E) Psychologists who accept the possibility that new evidence will show that their theories are incorrect are responsible psychologists.
Rephrasing: Psychologists who accept X is responsible psychologist.
This defines criteria for being responsible psychologist. This is why E is wrong.

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# Zelda: Dr. Ladlow, a research psychologist, has convincingly

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