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Grammar Basics (Notes )

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Grammar Basics (Notes ) [#permalink] New post 17 Jul 2008, 11:23
The Parts of the Speech
----------------------

http://eslus.com/LESSONS/GRAMMAR/POS/pos.htm

Articles:
An article is a kind of adjective which is always used with and gives some information about a noun.

a,an -- indefinite articles

The meaning of the article "a" is similar to the number one, but one is stronger and gives more emphasis. It is possible to say I have a book or I have one book, but the second sententence emphasizes that I do not have two or three or some other number of books.

Nouns: (name of anything)
person, thing, place, boy, army, abstract idea
Pronouns: (replaces any noun)
he, she, it, they, them
Verbs:
(a word which shows action or state of being) The verb is the heart of a sentence
The dog bit the man (bit -- action verb)
She is a smart girl( No action - but state of being expressed by the verb is)
Adjectives:
word which describes or gives more information about a noun or pronoun
great, small, heavy, smart, lazy, old, young..

Most adjectivesdo not change form whether the noun it describes is singular or plural. For example we say big tree and big trees, old house and old houses, good time and good times. There are, however, some adjectives that do have different singular and plural forms. The common words this and that have the plural forms these and those. These words are called demonstrative adjectives because demonstrate or point out what is being referred to.

Adverbs:
a word that gives more information about a verb, an adjective or another adverb.
e.g. nicely, quickly, completely, sincerely,very

adverbs of frequency tell how often something happens
prepositions:
A preposition is a word which shows relationships among other words in the sentence.
The relationships include direction, place, time, cause, manner and amount
e.g
She went to the store -- "to" is proposition which shows direction
He came by bus -- "by" is propstion which shows manner
They will be here at three o'clock --"at" shows time
It is under the table -- "under" shows the places


A preposition always goes with a noun or pronoun which is called the object of the preposition. The preposition is almost always before the noun or pronoun and that is why it is called a preposition.The preposition and the "object of the preposition" together are called a prepositional phrase.

Prepositional phrases are like idioms and are best learned through listening to and reading as much as possible. Below are some common prepositions of time and place and examples of their use.

Prepositions of time:
--------------------
at two o'clock
on Wednesday
in an hour, in January; in 1992
for a day

Prepositions of place:
---------------------
at my house
in New York, in my hand
on the table
near the library
across the street
under the bed
between the books


conjuctions:
A conjunction is a word that connects other words or groups of words.

e.g.
Bob and Dan are friends -- "and" connects two nouns.
He will drive or fly -- "or" connects two verbs
It is early but we can go --"but" connects two group of words.

Coordinating conjunctions are conjunctions: which connect two equal parts of a sentence. The most common ones are and, or, but, and so which are used in the following ways:

They ate and drank. --> "and" is used to join or add words together
He will be here on Monday or Tuesday. -> "or" shows choice or possibility
She is small but strong --> "but" shows opposite or conflicting ideas
I was tired so I went to sleep -->"so" is used to show result

Subordinating conjunctions: connect two parts of a sentence that are not equal
after
before
unless
although
if
until
as
since
when
because
than
while
Correlative conjunctions: are pairs of conjunctions that work together
both . . .and
either . . . or
neither . . . nor
not only . . . but also


interjections

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http://www.arts.uottawa.ca/writcent/hyp ... jpred.html

Subject and Predicate:
------------------------
Every complete setence contains two parts : subject and predicate
Subject is what (or whom) about the sentence is about, while the predicate tells something about predicate.

Judy {runs}
Judy and her dog { run on the beach every morning}

To determine the subject of a sentence, first isolate the verb and then make a question by placing "who?" or "what?" before it -- the answer is the subject.


The audience littered the theatre floor with torn wrappings and spilled popcorn.
The verb in the above sentence is "littered." Who or what littered? The audience did. "The audience" is the subject of the sentence. The predicate (which always includes the verb) goes on to relate something about the subject: what about the audience? It "littered the theatre floor with torn wrappings and spilled popcorn."


Every subject is built around one noun or pronoun (or more) that, when stripped of all the words that modify it, is known as the simple subject. Consider the following example:

A piece of pepperoni pizza would satisfy his hunger.
Simple Subject and Simple Predicate
Every subject is built around one noun or pronoun (or more) that, when stripped of all the words that modify it, is known as the simple subject. Consider the following example:

A piece of pepperoni pizza would satisfy his hunger.
The subject is built around the noun "piece," with the other words of the subject -- "a" and "of pepperoni pizza" -- modifying the noun. "Piece" is the simple subject.

Likewise, a predicate has at its centre a simple predicate, which is always the verb or verbs that link up with the subject. In the example we just considered, the simple predicate is "would satisfy" -- in other words, the verb of the sentence.

A sentence may have a compound subject -- a simple subject consisting of more than one noun or pronoun -- as in these examples:

Team pennants, rock posters and family photographs covered the boy's bedroom walls.
Her uncle and she walked slowly through the Inuit art gallery and admired the powerful sculptures exhibited there.
The second sentence above features a compound predicate, a predicate that includes more than one verb pertaining to the same subject (in this case, "walked" and "admired").




§ 1. absolute constructions
----------------------------
Absolute constructions consist of a noun and some kind of modifier, the most common being a participle. Because they often come at the beginning of a sentence, they are easily confused with dangling participles. But an absolute construction modifies the rest of the sentence, not the subject of the sentence (as a participial phrase does). You can use absolute constructions to compress two sentences into one and to vary sentence structure as a means of holding a reader’s interest. Here are some examples:
No other business arising, the meeting was adjourned.
The paint now dry, we brought the furniture out on the deck.
The truck finally loaded, they said goodbye to their neighbors and drove off.
The horse loped across the yard, her foal trailing behind her.
1
Constructions like these are used more often in writing than in speaking, where it is more common to use a full clause: When the paint was dry, we brought the furniture out on the deck. There are, however, many fixed absolute constructions that occur frequently in speech:
The picnic is scheduled for Saturday, weather permitting.
Barring bad weather, we plan to go to the beach tomorrow.
All things considered, it’s not a bad idea.
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Grammar Basics (Notes )   [#permalink] 17 Jul 2008, 11:23
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