Sure thing good sir,
First of all, let me say that overall things look quite good. Very good GPA, superb GMAT, and a quite unique career all together adds up to a nice package. Whether or not it will add up to Harvard is a bit hard to say since you left your work experience and volunteer/extra a bit thin, and I can only conjecture. But you have a very solid basis.
I think you could take the CFA. I don't know that it would help you all that much in terms of applications (although if you want to take it anyhow, it certainly can't hurt). But the CFA in of itself won't provide you a massive advantage, so I'll leave that up to you.
School selection: Stanford makes more sense than HBS given your profile and your goals. 1. Stanford really likes "thinkers" 2. Stanford is a good place for energy. For Booth NW or Columbia, I don't have much to add. I'd say go with your preference in terms of fit. Georgetown and Fuqua can either be good choices, you might also want to think of McCombs. I don't know what criteria you are selecting your schools on, or how you are choosing to limit the number of schools you are applying to, so other than schools that are strong in energy or government I don't know what else I can advise (although you can I think make time to apply to both HBS and Stanford).
Finally, before you apply you will have to settle on one of your two goals, and get a bit more specific. From what you have written here, it seems like choice one makes more sense given your experience.
If you have any other questions, or would like to clarify anything you wrote, be happy to hear from you again,
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