Find all School-related info fast with the new School-Specific MBA Forum

It is currently 23 Oct 2014, 02:26

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Events & Promotions

Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of

  Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:
2 KUDOS received
Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 11 Jul 2012
Posts: 54
Followers: 7

Kudos [?]: 142 [2] , given: 0

Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of [#permalink] New post 27 Jul 2012, 09:51
2
This post received
KUDOS
3
This post was
BOOKMARKED
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  35% (medium)

Question Stats:

64% (02:14) correct 36% (01:26) wrong based on 906 sessions
Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of
northeast Africa, the Middle East, and northwest
India, the combination of a reliable supply of water
and good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endure in
at least
6,000 years.

(A) good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endure in

(B) good growing conditions encouraged farming
traditions that have, in places, endured for

(C) of good growing conditions have encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endured for

(D) of good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that have, in places, endured

(E) of good growing conditions encouraged farming
traditions that have, in places, been enduring
for
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
7 KUDOS received
Intern
Intern
avatar
Status: To retake , or not to retake;That is the question
Joined: 12 Mar 2012
Posts: 27
Location: India
Concentration: Strategy, General Management
GMAT 1: 710 Q49 V37
GPA: 3.8
WE: Information Technology (Computer Software)
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 30 [7] , given: 8

Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of [#permalink] New post 27 Jul 2012, 10:08
7
This post received
KUDOS
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
correct to phrase to use is "combination of X and Y" not combination of X and of Y". This leaves us with choice (A) and (B)
(A)"Both" is redundant here we have the word combination to do that.
"endure" has tense problem it should be endured.
endure in is not correct idiom

(B)correct takes care all the points mentioned above
_________________

I too need Kudos sometimes !!!!!!!!!!!

Expert Post
13 KUDOS received
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
User avatar
Joined: 28 Nov 2011
Posts: 305
Followers: 308

Kudos [?]: 487 [13] , given: 2

CAT Tests
Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of [#permalink] New post 27 Jul 2012, 16:56
13
This post received
KUDOS
Expert's post
2
This post was
BOOKMARKED
You have a combination of X and Y, not of X and of Y, so you can get rid of (C), (D), and (E). A 'combination of' implies two things. Therefore, 'both' is redundant. And just like that answer (B). Also of note, we want the present perfect construction, 'have endured at least 6,000 years' because the action is still ongoing.

(A) good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endure in

(B) good growing conditions encouraged farming
traditions that have, in places, endured for

(C) of good growing conditions have encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endured for

(D) of good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that have, in places, endured

(E) of good growing conditions encouraged farming
traditions that have, in places, been enduring
for
_________________

Christopher Lele
Magoosh Test Prep


Image

Image

Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 04 Oct 2013
Posts: 79
Location: Brazil
Schools: CBS '16
GMAT 1: 660 Q45 V35
GMAT 2: 710 Q49 V38
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 15 [0], given: 33

Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of [#permalink] New post 31 Oct 2013, 08:07
In this sentence, the repetition of the preposition "of" would not reinforce parallelism (and be optional, in this case)?
1 KUDOS received
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
avatar
Status: Student
Joined: 26 Aug 2013
Posts: 265
Location: France
Concentration: Finance, General Management
GMAT 1: 650 Q47 V32
GPA: 3.44
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 34 [1] , given: 401

Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of [#permalink] New post 01 Nov 2013, 07:15
1
This post received
KUDOS
betterscore wrote:
Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of
northeast Africa, the Middle East, and northwest
India, the combination of a reliable supply of water
and good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endure in
at least
6,000 years.

(A) good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endure in

(B) good growing conditions encouraged farming
traditions that have, in places, endured for

(C) of good growing conditions have encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endured for

(D) of good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that have, in places, endured

(E) of good growing conditions encouraged farming
traditions that have, in places, been enduring
for


Answer B!

I think the main explanations are given in the first posts.

The trick here is to see that you need: "the combination of X and Y". if you cannot find out this type of idiom look closer at the meaning of the sentence.

Here, there is a combination of two things, so you need a reliable supply of water and something parallel with it (Ex: I need a combination of vodka and of red bull to enjoy my stay => does not make sense. You need to have a combination of vodka and redbull to enjoy your stay!) . The only answer right is B!

Hope it helps!
_________________

Think outside the box

Manager
Manager
User avatar
Joined: 12 Jan 2013
Posts: 249
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 23 [0], given: 47

GMAT ToolKit User
Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of [#permalink] New post 09 Jan 2014, 01:37
ChrisLele wrote:
You have a combination of X and Y, not of X and of Y, so you can get rid of (C), (D), and (E). A 'combination of' implies two things. Therefore, 'both' is redundant. And just like that answer (B). Also of note, we want the present perfect construction, 'have endured at least 6,000 years' because the action is still ongoing.

(A) good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endure in

(B) good growing conditions encouraged farming
traditions that have, in places, endured for

(C) of good growing conditions have encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endured for

(D) of good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that have, in places, endured

(E) of good growing conditions encouraged farming
traditions that have, in places, been enduring
for


Why is "have... been enduring" in E not correct? I understand that "combination of X and of Y" is incorrect, but I mean specifically the "have been enduring" part. Does "have been enduring" not imply that something in the past still is relevant today?
Intern
Intern
avatar
Status: Student
Joined: 06 Feb 2014
Posts: 1
Location: China
Concentration: Accounting, Finance
GPA: 3.58
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 5 [0], given: 2

Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of [#permalink] New post 10 Feb 2014, 04:53
I don't have any problem of choosing the correct answer. What confuses me is the that following traditions. It seems that the sentence perfectly works without a that. So why you put a that here in every selections?
3 KUDOS received
Manager
Manager
User avatar
Joined: 16 Jan 2013
Posts: 182
Followers: 3

Kudos [?]: 87 [3] , given: 56

Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of [#permalink] New post 10 Feb 2014, 05:08
3
This post received
KUDOS
ydanyang wrote:
I don't have any problem of choosing the correct answer. What confuses me is the that following traditions. It seems that the sentence perfectly works without a that. So why you put a that here in every selections?


For convenience, I am striking out the modifiers and prep. phrases.

Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa, the Middle East, and northwest India, the combination of a reliable supply of water and good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured for at least 6,000 years.

The subject and verb are as indicated above.

Suppose you remove that, you have a run-on sentence as follows.

The combination of X and Y encouraged farming traditions thathave endured for at least 6000 years.

Subject - verb - object - verb again

Clearly, the above construction is wrong. To correct the same, we either split the sentence using a conjunction or a relative pronoun (which becomes the subject for the relative pronoun clause) and thus avoiding run-on.
_________________

Read my posts...
What are modifiers ??

2 KUDOS received
Manager
Manager
User avatar
Affiliations: CrackVerbal
Joined: 03 Oct 2013
Posts: 175
Location: India
GMAT 1: 780 Q51 V46
Followers: 21

Kudos [?]: 86 [2] , given: 2

Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of [#permalink] New post 10 Feb 2014, 05:14
2
This post received
KUDOS
ydanyang wrote:
I don't have any problem of choosing the correct answer. What confuses me is the that following traditions. It seems that the sentence perfectly works without a that. So why you put a that here in every selections?


... the combination of (a reliable supply of water) and (good growing conditions) encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured for at least 6,000 years.

we can split this sentence into two parts:
If we remove that, we get-

the combination of X and Y encouraged farming traditions have endured for at least...

the combination- encouraged- traditions- have endured

Subject- verb- object/ subject- verb

Combination- subject case (subject of the verb encouraged)
however
farming tradition (FT) is in subject and object case both
object of the verb - encouraged
subject of the verb- have endured

Combination encouraged FT have endured ... This construction is flawed.

Hence "that" is required.

Combination encouraged FT that have endured...

Combination encouraged FT
(FT) that have endured... "that" is the subject of the verb "have endured"

we can also split the sentence and see this-

1) the combination of X and Y encouraged farming traditions.
2) these traditions have endured for at least 6000 years

"That" is used to connect these two sentences. We can not do without a connector here.

Let's take another example:

I have bought a new phone. Phonehas awesome features.
I have bought a new phonethat has awesome features.

Hope this helps!
Dolly Sharma
Verbal Trainer
CrackVerbal
_________________

If you find our response valuable, please encourage us with Kudos!

Live online classes by 99th percentile instructors!
http://gmat.crackverbal.com/gmat-courses/online/gmat-live-course/

Get a FREE profile evaluation from CrackVerbal experts!
http://applications.crackverbal.com/free-resources/profile-evaluation/

Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 05 Jun 2012
Posts: 114
Schools: IIMA
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 1 [0], given: 63

Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of [#permalink] New post 12 Jul 2014, 05:42
Easiest way to strike at it :

idiom combination of X and Y

and Sentence is talking about period so for would be used here , lets scan for these world in our choices

Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of
northeast Africa, the Middle East, and northwest
India, the combination of a reliable supply of water
and good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endure in at least
6,000 years.

(A) good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endure in

(B) good growing conditions encouraged farming
traditions that have, in places, endured for (B is having combination of x and Y , for both ---Condition match so correct)

(C) of good growing conditions have encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endured for

(D) of good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that have, in places, endured

(E) of good growing conditions encouraged farming
traditions that have, in places, been enduring
for
_________________

If you are not over prepared then you are under prepared !!!

Manager
Manager
User avatar
Joined: 24 Mar 2010
Posts: 122
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 45 [0], given: 104

GMAT ToolKit User
Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of [#permalink] New post 28 Aug 2014, 01:22
betterscore wrote:
Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of
northeast Africa, the Middle East, and northwest
India, the combination of a reliable supply of water
and good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endure in
at least
6,000 years.

(A) good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endure in

(B) good growing conditions encouraged farming
traditions that have, in places, endured for

(C) of good growing conditions have encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endured for

(D) of good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that have, in places, endured

(E) of good growing conditions encouraged farming
traditions that have, in places, been enduring
for


May anyone help to choose the correct answer from the view point of the verb tense?
_________________

Start to fall in love with GMAT <3

Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 17 Mar 2014
Posts: 122
Location: United States
Concentration: Entrepreneurship
GPA: 3.97
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 13 [0], given: 61

CAT Tests
Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of [#permalink] New post 18 Sep 2014, 09:13
ChrisLele wrote:
You have a combination of X and Y, not of X and of Y, so you can get rid of (C), (D), and (E). A 'combination of' implies two things. Therefore, 'both' is redundant. And just like that answer (B). Also of note, we want the present perfect construction, 'have endured at least 6,000 years' because the action is still ongoing.

(C) of good growing conditions have encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endured for




Is it correct to assume that the "farming traditions" are still ongoing - to justify usage of "have".

My questions is - can we justify the usage of "have" by this rule - "When we are talking now in the present – about something in the past - we use Present Perfect. "
e.g. They seem to have developed this habit before their extinction 600 years ago.
Expert Post
Verbal Forum Moderator
Verbal Forum Moderator
User avatar
Status: GMAT_Hound
Joined: 04 Jun 2013
Posts: 339
Location: India
Concentration: Statistics, International Business
Schools: Fuqua, ISB '15
GMAT Date: 12-02-2013
GPA: 3.32
WE: Information Technology (Computer Software)
Followers: 46

Kudos [?]: 168 [0], given: 39

GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member Reviews Badge CAT Tests
Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of [#permalink] New post 19 Sep 2014, 01:08
Expert's post
@sa222 i suppose you got the meaning of the sentence wrong. "have endured" , implies that it is still process.
_________________

Regards,

S

Consider +1 KUDOS if you find this post useful

Manager
Manager
User avatar
Joined: 27 Mar 2010
Posts: 240
Location: Bangalore, India
Followers: 8

Kudos [?]: 47 [0], given: 2

Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of [#permalink] New post 19 Sep 2014, 01:36
sa2222 wrote:
Is it correct to assume that the "farming traditions" are still ongoing - to justify usage of "have".

Yes, from the context, it should be quite evident that farming traditions are still ongoing.

sa2222 wrote:
My questions is - can we justify the usage of "have" by this rule - "When we are talking now in the present – about something in the past - we use Present Perfect. "
e.g. They seem to have developed this habit before their extinction 600 years ago.

What you are talking about is a specific usage of present perfect. For example:

My friends have watched the movie.

This clearly means that the act of watching the movie is finished at some unspecified time in the past.

However, there is another usage of present perfect. That usage depicts that something started in the past, and has continued up to the present time. For example:

My parents have owned a car for more than ten years now.

Here, there is no reason to believe that my parents don't own the car now. The sentence under consideration, falls in this category.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses present perfect tense, its application and examples in significant detail. If you can PM you email-id, I can send you the corresponding section.
_________________

Thanks,
Ashish
GMAT - 99th Pecentile, MBA-ISB, Faculty @ http://www.EducationAisle.com

Our book Sentence Correction Nirvana available at

Amazon: Sentence Correction Nirvana
Flipkart: Sentence Correction Nirvana

Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 17 Mar 2014
Posts: 122
Location: United States
Concentration: Entrepreneurship
GPA: 3.97
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 13 [0], given: 61

CAT Tests
Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of [#permalink] New post 19 Sep 2014, 07:16
Hello Education aisle and WaterFlowsUp.. thanks for your replies.

Please find the two links below - which discusses other usages of have been as well - other than the regular usage of "something that started in the past but continues to the present".. or "its effect continues to the present. These are OG problems and even OG explanations conform to these usages.

http://www.beatthegmat.com/og-12-q-73-t38806.html

Another, to have been usage

http://www.beatthegmat.com/a-proposal-h ... 02-15.html
Manager
Manager
User avatar
Joined: 27 Mar 2010
Posts: 240
Location: Bangalore, India
Followers: 8

Kudos [?]: 47 [0], given: 2

Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of [#permalink] New post 19 Sep 2014, 08:03
sa2222 wrote:
Please find the two links below - which discusses other usages of have been as well - other than the regular usage of "something that started in the past but continues to the present".. or "its effect continues to the present. These are OG problems and even OG explanations conform to these usages.

http://www.beatthegmat.com/og-12-q-73-t38806.html

Not sure what exactly to read in these links you have provided.

So, let me repeat what I mentioned in my last post. There are two primary usages of present perfect:

i) An event that has happened at some point before current time: Example - My friends have watched the movie.

ii) An event started in the past and is still continuing: Example - My parents have owned a car for more than ten years now.

The sentence under consideration falls under ii): Farming traditions started in the past (6000 years back) and are still continuing.

sa2222 wrote:

This is a completely different usage and does not come under the category of present perfect; to have been is grammatically called perfect infinitive and should not be confused with present perfect.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses perfect infinitives, their application and examples in significant detail. If you can PM you email-id, I can send you the corresponding section.
_________________

Thanks,
Ashish
GMAT - 99th Pecentile, MBA-ISB, Faculty @ http://www.EducationAisle.com

Our book Sentence Correction Nirvana available at

Amazon: Sentence Correction Nirvana
Flipkart: Sentence Correction Nirvana

Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 18 Oct 2013
Posts: 51
Concentration: Entrepreneurship, Strategy
GMAT 1: 660 Q49 V31
WE: Consulting (Computer Software)
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 3 [0], given: 9

GMAT ToolKit User CAT Tests
Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of [#permalink] New post 20 Sep 2014, 00:20
betterscore wrote:
Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of
northeast Africa, the Middle East, and northwest
India, the combination of a reliable supply of water
and good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endure in
at least
6,000 years.

(A) good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endure in

(B) good growing conditions encouraged farming
traditions that have, in places, endured for

(C) of good growing conditions have encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endured for

(D) of good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that have, in places, endured

(E) of good growing conditions encouraged farming
traditions that have, in places, been enduring
for



Hello experts,

If the choices were as below :

(A) good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endure in

(B) good growing conditions encouraged farming
traditions that have, in places, endured for

(C) good growing conditions have encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endured for

(D) good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that have, in places, endured

(E) good growing conditions encouraged farming
traditions that have, in places, been enduring
for

How to eliminate C and D now? Please help!
_________________

Preparing for the next shot!!!

Manager
Manager
User avatar
Joined: 27 Mar 2010
Posts: 240
Location: Bangalore, India
Followers: 8

Kudos [?]: 47 [0], given: 2

Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of [#permalink] New post 20 Sep 2014, 06:28
anujag24 wrote:
If the choices were as below :

(A) good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endure in

(B) good growing conditions encouraged farming
traditions that have, in places, endured for

(C) good growing conditions have encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endured for

(D) good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that have, in places, endured

(E) good growing conditions encouraged farming
traditions that have, in places, been enduring
for

How to eliminate C and D now? Please help!

Hi! both are incorrect.

C: Clearly good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions in the past (from the context of the sentence, this happened 6000 years ago). So, simple past encouraged should be used, not present perfect have encouraged.

D: At the very least, both is redundant, since we already have combination.
_________________

Thanks,
Ashish
GMAT - 99th Pecentile, MBA-ISB, Faculty @ http://www.EducationAisle.com

Our book Sentence Correction Nirvana available at

Amazon: Sentence Correction Nirvana
Flipkart: Sentence Correction Nirvana


Last edited by EducationAisle on 23 Sep 2014, 03:39, edited 1 time in total.
Manager
Manager
avatar
Joined: 17 Mar 2014
Posts: 122
Location: United States
Concentration: Entrepreneurship
GPA: 3.97
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 13 [0], given: 61

CAT Tests
Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of [#permalink] New post 21 Sep 2014, 00:47
EducationAisle wrote:
sa2222 wrote:
Please find the two links below - which discusses other usages of have been as well - other than the regular usage of "something that started in the past but continues to the present".. or "its effect continues to the present. These are OG problems and even OG explanations conform to these usages.

http://www.beatthegmat.com/og-12-q-73-t38806.html

Not sure what exactly to read in these links you have provided.

So, let me repeat what I mentioned in my last post. There are two primary usages of present perfect:

i) An event that has happened at some point before current time: Example - My friends have watched the movie.

ii) An event started in the past and is still continuing: Example - My parents have owned a car for more than ten years now.

The sentence under consideration falls under ii): Farming traditions started in the past (6000 years back) and are still continuing.

sa2222 wrote:

This is a completely different usage and does not come under the category of present perfect; to have been is grammatically called perfect infinitive and should not be confused with present perfect.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses perfect infinitives, their application and examples in significant detail. If you can PM you email-id, I can send you the corresponding section.


Hello EducationAisle,

Thanks for pointing out my mistake. So, the second one is Perfect Infinitive usage - which can be used when we are talking about to two future events and when occurrence of one future event is dependent on completion of another. Not sure - what the first usage is called. "They seem to have developed this habit before the Norweigan extinction 6000 years ago." Could you please point out/ PM me or share a link about other usages of Perfect Infinitives and shed some more light on this usage "The appear to have - a past event."

Thanks for your help!!
Manager
Manager
User avatar
Joined: 20 Jan 2014
Posts: 143
Location: India
GMAT Date: 10-13-2014
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 17 [0], given: 119

GMAT ToolKit User CAT Tests
Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of [#permalink] New post 26 Sep 2014, 23:27
Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa, the Middle East, and northwest India, the combination of a reliable supply of water
and good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endure in at least 6,000 years.

(A) good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endure in - Correct idiom is - Combination of X and Y. Use of both is incorrect. endure must be have endured to represent 6000 years. for should be used in place of in.

(B) good growing conditions encouraged farming
traditions that have, in places, endured for
- Correct Answer

(C) of good growing conditions have encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endured for - have should be used with endured here instead of encouraged

(D) of good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that have, in places, endured - for is not present, incorrect idiom

(E) of good growing conditions encouraged farming
traditions that have, in places, been enduring for - Wrong Idiom
_________________

Consider +1 Kudos Please :)

Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of   [#permalink] 26 Sep 2014, 23:27
    Similar topics Author Replies Last post
Similar
Topics:
1 In the arid land along the Colorado River, use of the yyc881123 9 14 Aug 2009, 16:50
7 Experts publish their posts in the topic The population of desert tortoises in Targland's Red Desert alimad 13 14 Jun 2008, 16:10
4 Triathlete Dan runs along a 2-mile stretch of river and then swims bac dynamo 6 24 Dec 2007, 03:10
The population of desert tortoises in Targland s Red Desert KC 13 31 Oct 2006, 08:18
The Namib Desert along the southwest coast of Southern MA 3 26 Apr 2005, 21:46
Display posts from previous: Sort by

Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of

  Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  


GMAT Club MBA Forum Home| About| Privacy Policy| Terms and Conditions| GMAT Club Rules| Contact| Sitemap

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group and phpBB SEO

Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.