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# Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa

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Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa  [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2012, 09:51
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71% (01:33) correct 29% (01:50) wrong based on 5898 sessions

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Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa, the Middle East, and northwest India, the combination of a reliable supply of water and good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endure in at least 6,000 years.

(A) good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endure in

(B) good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured for

(C) of good growing conditions have encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endured for

(D) of good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured

(E) of good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, been enduring for

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Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa  [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2012, 16:56
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You have a combination of X and Y, not of X and of Y, so you can get rid of (C), (D), and (E). A 'combination of' implies two things. Therefore, 'both' is redundant. And just like that answer (B). Also of note, we want the present perfect construction, 'have endured at least 6,000 years' because the action is still ongoing.

(A) good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endure in

(B) good growing conditions encouraged farming
traditions that have, in places, endured for

(C) of good growing conditions have encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endured for

(D) of good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that have, in places, endured

(E) of good growing conditions encouraged farming
traditions that have, in places, been enduring
for
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Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa  [#permalink]

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27 Jul 2012, 10:08
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correct to phrase to use is "combination of X and Y" not combination of X and of Y". This leaves us with choice (A) and (B)
(A)"Both" is redundant here we have the word combination to do that.
"endure" has tense problem it should be endured.
endure in is not correct idiom

(B)correct takes care all the points mentioned above
##### General Discussion
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Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa  [#permalink]

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01 Nov 2013, 07:15
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betterscore wrote:
Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of
northeast Africa, the Middle East, and northwest
India, the combination of a reliable supply of water
and good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endure in
at least
6,000 years.

(A) good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endure in

(B) good growing conditions encouraged farming
traditions that have, in places, endured for

(C) of good growing conditions have encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endured for

(D) of good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that have, in places, endured

(E) of good growing conditions encouraged farming
traditions that have, in places, been enduring
for

I think the main explanations are given in the first posts.

The trick here is to see that you need: "the combination of X and Y". if you cannot find out this type of idiom look closer at the meaning of the sentence.

Here, there is a combination of two things, so you need a reliable supply of water and something parallel with it (Ex: I need a combination of vodka and of red bull to enjoy my stay => does not make sense. You need to have a combination of vodka and redbull to enjoy your stay!) . The only answer right is B!

Hope it helps!
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Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa  [#permalink]

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10 Feb 2014, 04:53
I don't have any problem of choosing the correct answer. What confuses me is the that following traditions. It seems that the sentence perfectly works without a that. So why you put a that here in every selections?
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Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa  [#permalink]

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10 Feb 2014, 05:08
7
1
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ydanyang wrote:
I don't have any problem of choosing the correct answer. What confuses me is the that following traditions. It seems that the sentence perfectly works without a that. So why you put a that here in every selections?

For convenience, I am striking out the modifiers and prep. phrases.

Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa, the Middle East, and northwest India, the combination of a reliable supply of water and good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured for at least 6,000 years.

The subject and verb are as indicated above.

Suppose you remove that, you have a run-on sentence as follows.

The combination of X and Y encouraged farming traditions thathave endured for at least 6000 years.

Subject - verb - object - verb again

Clearly, the above construction is wrong. To correct the same, we either split the sentence using a conjunction or a relative pronoun (which becomes the subject for the relative pronoun clause) and thus avoiding run-on.
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Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa  [#permalink]

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10 Feb 2014, 05:14
3
2
ydanyang wrote:
I don't have any problem of choosing the correct answer. What confuses me is the that following traditions. It seems that the sentence perfectly works without a that. So why you put a that here in every selections?

... the combination of (a reliable supply of water) and (good growing conditions) encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured for at least 6,000 years.

we can split this sentence into two parts:
If we remove that, we get-

the combination of X and Y encouraged farming traditions have endured for at least...

the combination- encouraged- traditions- have endured

Subject- verb- object/ subject- verb

Combination- subject case (subject of the verb encouraged)
however
farming tradition (FT) is in subject and object case both
object of the verb - encouraged
subject of the verb- have endured

Combination encouraged FT have endured ... This construction is flawed.

Hence "that" is required.

Combination encouraged FT that have endured...

Combination encouraged FT
(FT) that have endured... "that" is the subject of the verb "have endured"

we can also split the sentence and see this-

1) the combination of X and Y encouraged farming traditions.
2) these traditions have endured for at least 6000 years

"That" is used to connect these two sentences. We can not do without a connector here.

Let's take another example:

I have bought a new phone. Phonehas awesome features.
I have bought a new phonethat has awesome features.

Hope this helps!
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Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa  [#permalink]

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18 Sep 2014, 09:13
ChrisLele wrote:
You have a combination of X and Y, not of X and of Y, so you can get rid of (C), (D), and (E). A 'combination of' implies two things. Therefore, 'both' is redundant. And just like that answer (B). Also of note, we want the present perfect construction, 'have endured at least 6,000 years' because the action is still ongoing.

(C) of good growing conditions have encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endured for

Is it correct to assume that the "farming traditions" are still ongoing - to justify usage of "have".

My questions is - can we justify the usage of "have" by this rule - "When we are talking now in the present – about something in the past - we use Present Perfect. "
e.g. They seem to have developed this habit before their extinction 600 years ago.
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Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa  [#permalink]

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19 Sep 2014, 01:36
1
1
sa2222 wrote:
Is it correct to assume that the "farming traditions" are still ongoing - to justify usage of "have".

Yes, from the context, it should be quite evident that farming traditions are still ongoing.

sa2222 wrote:
My questions is - can we justify the usage of "have" by this rule - "When we are talking now in the present – about something in the past - we use Present Perfect. "
e.g. They seem to have developed this habit before their extinction 600 years ago.

What you are talking about is a specific usage of present perfect. For example:

My friends have watched the movie.

This clearly means that the act of watching the movie is finished at some unspecified time in the past.

However, there is another usage of present perfect. That usage depicts that something started in the past, and has continued up to the present time. For example:

My parents have owned a car for more than ten years now.

Here, there is no reason to believe that my parents don't own the car now. The sentence under consideration, falls in this category.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses present perfect tense, its application and examples in significant detail. If you can PM you email-id, I can send you the corresponding section.
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Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa  [#permalink]

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20 Sep 2014, 00:20
betterscore wrote:
Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of
northeast Africa, the Middle East, and northwest
India, the combination of a reliable supply of water
and good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endure in
at least
6,000 years.

(A) good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endure in

(B) good growing conditions encouraged farming
traditions that have, in places, endured for

(C) of good growing conditions have encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endured for

(D) of good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that have, in places, endured

(E) of good growing conditions encouraged farming
traditions that have, in places, been enduring
for

Hello experts,

If the choices were as below :

(A) good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endure in

(B) good growing conditions encouraged farming
traditions that have, in places, endured for

(C) good growing conditions have encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endured for

(D) good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that have, in places, endured

(E) good growing conditions encouraged farming
traditions that have, in places, been enduring
for

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Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 23 Sep 2014, 03:39
1
anujag24 wrote:
If the choices were as below :

(A) good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endure in

(B) good growing conditions encouraged farming
traditions that have, in places, endured for

(C) good growing conditions have encouraged
farming traditions that, in places, endured for

(D) good growing conditions both encouraged
farming traditions that have, in places, endured

(E) good growing conditions encouraged farming
traditions that have, in places, been enduring
for

Hi! both are incorrect.

C: Clearly good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions in the past (from the context of the sentence, this happened 6000 years ago). So, simple past encouraged should be used, not present perfect have encouraged.

D: At the very least, both is redundant, since we already have combination.
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Originally posted by EducationAisle on 20 Sep 2014, 06:28.
Last edited by EducationAisle on 23 Sep 2014, 03:39, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa  [#permalink]

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31 Jan 2016, 10:36
1
betterscore wrote:
Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa, the Middle East, and northwest India, the combination of a reliable supply of water and good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endure in at least 6,000 years.

(A) good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endure in
(B) good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured for
(C) of good growing conditions have encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endured for
(D) of good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured
(E) of good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, been enduring for

This question is fairly simple if you think clearly. (There is a distraction i.e use of 'For' which I am not sure if they can be the basis of eliminating answer - Maybe mikemcgarry or VeritasPrepKarishma can help us??)

My reasons to narrow down the answer are the following-
(A) good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endure in - Both and combination is redundant
(B) good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured for
(C) of good growing conditions have encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endured for The 'combination' and 'have' - Subject verb disagreement
(D) of good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured Combination of X and of Y seems incorrect
(E) of good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, been enduring for Combination of X and of Y seems incorrect
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Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa  [#permalink]

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31 Jan 2016, 11:10
2
1
rachitshah wrote:
betterscore wrote:
Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa, the Middle East, and northwest India, the combination of a reliable supply of water and good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endure in at least 6,000 years.

(A) good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endure in
(B) good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured for
(C) of good growing conditions have encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endured for
(D) of good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured
(E) of good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, been enduring for

This question is fairly simple if you think clearly. (There is a distraction i.e use of 'For' which I am not sure if they can be the basis of eliminating answer - Maybe mikemcgarry or VeritasPrepKarishma can help us??)

The use of "for" or "since" can definitely be used as a basis for eliminating answers, when a time context is referred.

Use of for: to indicate a period of time. I have been working for this company for the last 10 years. .
Use of since: to indicate a point in time. I have been working for the company since 2006.
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Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa  [#permalink]

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28 Jun 2017, 06:04
Hello GMATNinja, Mikemcgarry, and other experts

The sentence just says that 'at least 6,000 years'. How do we know just from this phrase that it still continues?

If the sentence was:
..............and good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endured for 6,000 years.

Will the use of simple past be correct here?

Thanks
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Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa  [#permalink]

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28 Jun 2017, 18:04
1
Shiv2016 wrote:
Hello GMATNinja, Mikemcgarry, and other experts

The sentence just says that 'at least 6,000 years'. How do we know just from this phrase that it still continues?

If the sentence was:
..............and good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endured for 6,000 years.

Will the use of simple past be correct here?

Thanks

Yeah, I think that there's a grey area here when it comes to the verb tense. I'm not sure that it would be wrong, exactly, to use simple past tense. But if you do, it would imply that the farming traditions no longer endure. That could be true, I guess, but it seems reasonable to think that the conditions that led to those farming traditions -- a reliable supply of water and good growing conditions -- haven't changed. At the very least, nothing in the sentence suggests that they've changed.

So present perfect ("have endured") seems a little bit more reasonable -- but to be fair, the question leaves room for debate on this.

But even if you ignore the verb tense issue, there are good reasons to eliminate all four wrong answers. Check out ChrisLele's explanation above for more.

I hope this helps!
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Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa  [#permalink]

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28 Jun 2017, 18:48
Shiv2016 wrote:
Hello GMATNinja, Mikemcgarry, and other experts

The sentence just says that 'at least 6,000 years'. How do we know just from this phrase that it still continues?

If the sentence was:
..............and good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endured for 6,000 years.

Will the use of simple past be correct here?

Thanks

Hi Shiv2016, as GMATNinja has pointed out, there is theoretically some room to interpret that the farming traditions have discontinued; however, there is nothing in the sentence to suggest so.

Also, notice that the articulation of the original sentence matters; while the original sentence is not absolutely correct, it uses the present tense (endure), thereby suggesting that that farming traditions are not a thing of the past.
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Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa  [#permalink]

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11 Sep 2017, 11:04
Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa, the Middle East, and northwest India, the combination of a reliable supply of water and good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endure in at least 6,000 years.

(A) good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endure in
(B) good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured for
(C) of good growing conditions have encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endured for
(D) of good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured
(E) of good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, been enduring for
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Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa  [#permalink]

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12 Sep 2018, 10:38
2
Top Contributor
betterscore wrote:
Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa, the Middle East, and northwest India, the combination of a reliable supply of water and good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endure in at least 6,000 years.

(A) good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endure in

(B) good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured for

(C) of good growing conditions have encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endured for

(D) of good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured

(E) of good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, been enduring for

Attachment:
01.jpg

Attachment:
02.jpg

Attachment:
03.jpg

Attachment:
04.jpg

(A) good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endure in
The word COMBINATION implies that the two conditions combine to have an effect. So, the word BOTH is redundant. ELIMINATE A

(B) good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured for
Looks good.
Also, the present perfect tense have endured suggests that the "enduring" may continue into the future.

(C) of good growing conditions have encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endured for
The idiom is "a combination OF X AND Y", not "a combination OF X AND OF Y"
ELIMINATE

(D) of good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured
ELIMINATE

(E) of good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, been enduring for
ELIMINATE

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Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa  [#permalink]

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06 Oct 2018, 00:56
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Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa  [#permalink]

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06 Oct 2018, 02:58
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(A) good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endure in

(B) good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured for

(C) of good growing conditions have encouraged farming traditions that, in places, endured for

(D) of good growing conditions both encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, endured

(E) of good growing conditions encouraged farming traditions that have, in places, been enduring for

Just a small hop step and jump here. The correct parallel idiom is the combination of X and Y, where X and Y are required to be parallel. We need a structure such as -- a combination of (X) a reliable supply of water and (Y) good growing conditions. The intrusion 'of' before good working conditions spoils the parallelism. Therefore, C, D, and E are in one sweep.

Between A and B, it would not take much to see in A that 'both' has no relevance in the context as it is not referring any two events after that.

B is the best to arrive at the shortest

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Re: Along the major rivers that traverse the deserts of northeast Africa   [#permalink] 06 Oct 2018, 02:58

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