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Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience,

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Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink] New post 02 May 2005, 14:18
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Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.
(B) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
(C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.
(E) Since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments.

Last edited by doe007 on 17 Apr 2013, 21:26, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Find the assumption..Need serious help...... [#permalink] New post 25 Apr 2011, 05:36
voodoochild wrote:
sudhir18n wrote:
voodoochild wrote:
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.

(8) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.

(e) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.

(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.

(E) Since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments

og 12

I am confused between C and D because PowerScore CR says, for Assumption+causality questions,

If Cause occurs, then Effect occurs is a valid answer choice. [Similar to Option D]
Secondly, If Cause doesn't occur, the effect doesn't occur is a valid answer type [Similar to Option C]

Can anyone please help me ?

Thanks
Voodoo


As you said for most its a choice between C and D. I for one dont think it's a CE problem.
C limits the scope of assumption by using only controlled experiments and statistical tests to prove genuine science.These are just 2 of the many examples of scientific methods. In Powerscore(PS) language , its a Shell game answer.

D. Simple -- use negation test- PS Lang: A field of study that employs scientific methods is not a genuine scientific enterprise.. This weakens the conclusion and hence correct.


Question - how do you know that this is not a CE ? The PS says that when the sentence starts with For, because, caused by etc. it's CE. for it uses scientific


Even I don't think it is a Cause and Effect problem.
I don't find any cause and effect statement.

I hope ur not thinking scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests as cause and parapsychology is a genuine scientific enterprise as effect
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Re: CR:parapsychology [#permalink] New post 11 Jun 2011, 22:24
Can you please explain POE to solve this?Why iS D correct. on of the forums posts(http://www.aristotleprep.com/forum-topi ... ning/cr-44 Option E ) i read that X -> Y then if Y -> X it is incorrect since D states that... In the stimulus it is says " it is geniuine science (X) if its uses scienticic methods (Y) ....but the ans choice D says Any field of study that employs scientific
methods(Y) is a genuine scientific enterprise(X).

C should be the correct choice here not Y -> not X...i dont understand why it isnt?
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Re: CR:parapsychology [#permalink] New post 13 Jun 2011, 02:53
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siddhans wrote:
Can you please explain POE to solve this?Why iS D correct. on of the forums posts(http://www.aristotleprep.com/forum-topi ... ning/cr-44 Option E ) i read that X -> Y then if Y -> X it is incorrect since D states that... In the stimulus it is says " it is geniuine science (X) if its uses scienticic methods (Y) ....but the ans choice D says Any field of study that employs scientific
methods(Y) is a genuine scientific enterprise(X).

C should be the correct choice here not Y -> not X...i dont understand why it isnt?


To be honest even I for a minute thought its C. but I think its D.
the reason .. yout theory of X and Y is perfect but I guess the application is wrong..

This is what the stem says...
"Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods "

I can re write it as
Parapsychology ( any field of study), is a genuine scientific enterprise, for (parapsychology- any field of science) uses scientific methods

This what option D says...
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Re: CR:parapsychology [#permalink] New post 13 Jun 2011, 20:32
clean D here,with negation demolishing the conclusion.
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97)Although parapsychology is often considered a [#permalink] New post 18 Aug 2011, 09:54
97)Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience,it is in fact a genuine scentific enterprise,for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the question it raises.
the conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?
a)If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises,then it is a genuine science
b)Since parapsychology uses scientific method ,it will produce creible results
c)Any enterpirse that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science
d)Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise
e)Since parasychology raises clearly statable questions,they can be tested in controlled experiments
[Reveal] Spoiler:
d


what is wrong with C.If we remove the double negate the choice c is same as
Any enterpirse that uses controlled experiments and statistical tests is genuine science

When we use the negation techniques for CR then it comes down to "Any enterpirse that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is genuine science".This weakens the conclusion.
the OG explanation states that "the argument does not concern what is not genuine science,so there is no need for this assumption"
any thoughts on this...
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Re: assumption CR from OG-11 no-97 [#permalink] New post 18 Aug 2011, 10:10
Uses scientific methods is merely one aspect of being a science, there may be other ways in which being a science can be attained. If you look at the passage it says what do we have to assume for the conclusion to be true - we have to explain why parapsychology is a science not why other fields aren't a science.

Hope this helps
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Re: assumption CR from OG-11 no-97 [#permalink] New post 18 Aug 2011, 10:36
but the correct choice D also uses "any field of study..." not only particular parapsychology"
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Re: assumption CR from OG-11 no-97 [#permalink] New post 18 Aug 2011, 11:47
Any field of study which employs scientific methods is a science
D talks about controlled experiments and statistical tests, these are two aspects of scientific methods, not all types of scientific methods, a field of study may employ a different type of scientific method.
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Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink] New post 25 Oct 2012, 10:40
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.
The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?
a. if a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is genuine science.
b. since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
c. any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
d. any field of study that employs scientific methods is genuine scientific enterprise.
e. since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments.

so now i quickly elimnated a,b,e - not related to anything.

im now facing either C or D.
i wanted to check those using the negation technique from PowerScore CR Bible.

how should i negate C?
any enterprise that DOES USES controlled experiments and statistical tests IS genuine science.
or maybe
any enterprise that DOES USES controlled experiments and statistical tests IS NOT genuine science.
where should I add my own NOT?

D is easier:
any field of study that employs scientific methods is NOT genuine scientific enterprise.

the OA is D but i wasnt sure.
can anyone share light on this issue?

thanks,
Roy
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Last edited by roygush on 25 Oct 2012, 11:32, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Need help with CR question, assumption + negation technique [#permalink] New post 25 Oct 2012, 11:03
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A couple of things:

First of all is a good manner to tag the topic with the first sentence of question, in this way who want search the question have a easier job; moreover, put a tag whith the level of question and the category (in this case is an assumption question) [see forum rules]

Secondly: is important to specify the source of the question and provide the OA through the spoiler [see forum rules]

Yup, indeed the answer is D

Thirdly: reward with a Kudos who helps you in a solid manner.

See this link article-what-and-how-to-negate-4-exercise-questions-138510.html#p1119593
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Re: Need help with CR question, assumption + negation technique [#permalink] New post 25 Oct 2012, 11:35
carcass wrote:
A couple of things:

First of all is a good manner to tag the topic with the first sentence of question, in this way who want search the question have a easier job; moreover, put a tag whith the level of question and the category (in this case is an assumption question) [see forum rules]

Secondly: is important to specify the source of the question and provide the OA through the spoiler [see forum rules]

Yup, indeed the answer is D

Thirdly: reward with a Kudos who helps you in a solid manner.

See this link article-what-and-how-to-negate-4-exercise-questions-138510.html#p1119593


thank you for your help.
how do I tag my post?
thanks
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink] New post 25 Oct 2012, 11:41
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink] New post 25 Oct 2012, 12:06
carcass wrote:
When you post a reply under the writing box you can see the tags. check them accordingly with your question.

For the rest see this new-to-the-gmat-club-start-here-130870.html


i read the article about negation and still couldnt figure out how to properly negate the above...
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink] New post 25 Oct 2012, 13:16
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Hi Roy,

Below is my analysis :-

Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.
The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

a. if a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is genuine science.
>> This cannot be the assumption on which the argument is based. If you negate this statement there will no impact on the argument.

b. since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
>> This is out of scope. Nothing is mentioned about the results or outcome. We are interested in whether any field of study will qualify for a genuine scientific enterprise category

c. any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
>> This is also out of scope.The argument is not concerned about enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests

d. any field of study that employs scientific methods is genuine scientific enterprise.
>> This indeed is the correct answer. If you negate this assumption then the argument will immediately break down

if any of study that employs scientific methods is NOT a genuine scientific enterprise then as per the argument the definition of "genuine scientific enterprise" itself is flawed and argument breaks. This has to be the assumption on which the argument stands.

e. since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments.
>> We are not concerned with the test of controlled experiments.


Its better to narrow down your choices and the apply the negation test on the stated assumption ,to check whether the argument will break of will have no impact
Hope this helps.
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink] New post 25 Oct 2012, 13:18
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Hi Roy,

Below is my analysis :-

Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.
The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

a. if a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is genuine science.
>> This cannot be the assumption on which the argument is based. If you negate this statement there will no impact on the argument.

b. since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
>> This is out of scope. Nothing is mentioned about the results or outcome. We are interested in whether any field of study will qualify for a genuine scientific enterprise category

c. any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
>> This is also out of scope.The argument is not concerned about enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests

d. any field of study that employs scientific methods is genuine scientific enterprise.
>> This indeed is the correct answer. If you negate this assumption then the argument will immediately break down

if any of study that employs scientific methods is NOT a genuine scientific enterprise then as per the argument the definition of "genuine scientific enterprise" itself is flawed and argument breaks. This has to be the assumption on which the argument stands.

e. since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments.
>> We are not concerned with the test of controlled experiments.


Its better to narrow down your choices and the apply the negation test on the stated assumption ,to check whether the argument will break of will have no impact
Hope this helps.


thank you, but im more interested in understanding how to negate the above.
please see my first post
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink] New post 27 Oct 2012, 05:17
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Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.
The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?
a. if a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is genuine science.
b. since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
c. any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
d. any field of study that employs scientific methods is genuine scientific enterprise.
e. since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments.

so now i quickly elimnated a,b,e - not related to anything.

im now facing either C or D.
i wanted to check those using the negation technique from PowerScore CR Bible.

how should i negate C?
any enterprise that DOES USES controlled experiments and statistical tests IS genuine science.
or maybe
any enterprise that DOES USES controlled experiments and statistical tests IS NOT genuine science.
where should I add my own NOT?

D is easier:
any field of study that employs scientific methods is NOT genuine scientific enterprise.

the OA is D but i wasnt sure.
can anyone share light on this issue?

thanks,
Roy


I’m not 100% sure about this since I didn’t always use the negation technique but your negation of answer choice D is a polar opposite (any field of study…is → your negation: any field of study…is NOT). However, you should create the logical opposite; to do this, I would focus on “any” in C and D because in this context it works similar to “all”.
So, my suggestions would look something like this:

C: Not all enterprises that do not use controlled experiments and statistical tests are not genuine science.
This means at least one enterprise that does not use controlled experiments IS genuine science. This does not cause the argument to fall apart.

D. Not all fields of study that employ scientific methods are genuine scientific enterprises.
This means that there is at least one field of study that employs scientific methods and is nevertheless NOT a genuine scientific enterprise. So we cannot conclude that parapsychology is a genuine scientific enterprise just because it uses scientific methods. (= argument falls apart, D is the correct answer)
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink] New post 27 Oct 2012, 06:13
alex01 wrote:
roygush wrote:
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.
The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?
a. if a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is genuine science.
b. since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
c. any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
d. any field of study that employs scientific methods is genuine scientific enterprise.
e. since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments.

so now i quickly elimnated a,b,e - not related to anything.

im now facing either C or D.
i wanted to check those using the negation technique from PowerScore CR Bible.

how should i negate C?
any enterprise that DOES USES controlled experiments and statistical tests IS genuine science.
or maybe
any enterprise that DOES USES controlled experiments and statistical tests IS NOT genuine science.
where should I add my own NOT?

D is easier:
any field of study that employs scientific methods is NOT genuine scientific enterprise.

the OA is D but i wasnt sure.
can anyone share light on this issue?

thanks,
Roy


I’m not 100% sure about this since I didn’t always use the negation technique but your negation of answer choice D is a polar opposite (any field of study…is → your negation: any field of study…is NOT). However, you should create the logical opposite; to do this, I would focus on “any” in C and D because in this context it works similar to “all”.
So, my suggestions would look something like this:

C: Not all enterprises that do not use controlled experiments and statistical tests are not genuine science.
This means at least one enterprise that does not use controlled experiments IS genuine science. This does not cause the argument to fall apart.

D. Not all fields of study that employ scientific methods are genuine scientific enterprises.
This means that there is at least one field of study that employs scientific methods and is nevertheless NOT a genuine scientific enterprise. So we cannot conclude that parapsychology is a genuine scientific enterprise just because it uses scientific methods. (= argument falls apart, D is the correct answer)


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but how can you tell that ANY ---> NOT ALL?
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink] New post 27 Oct 2012, 13:40
roygush wrote:

Kudos!
but how can you tell that ANY ---> NOT ALL?
thanks


Well, I'm not a native speaker but in the answer choices C & D "any" means "every":

C. Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science. = Every single enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science = All enterprises that do not use...are not genuine science -> Negation: Not all
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Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, [#permalink] New post 15 Feb 2013, 03:46
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.
The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?
(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.
(B) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
(C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.
(E) Since parapsychology.


How should one weigh for C and D??
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience [#permalink] New post 15 Feb 2013, 05:18
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ratinarace wrote:
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.
The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?
(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.
(B) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
(C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.
(E) Since parapsychology.

How should one weigh for C and D??


Hi ratinarace,

The stimulus says - parapsychology is a scientific enterprise because it uses scientific methods.

Conclusion: Parapsychology is a genuine scientific enterprise

We are asked to find the assumption that the author is making. For assumption questions the correct option should present an information that must be true in order for conclusion to be valid.

Lets consider (C) first; it says Scientific enterprise that "does not" use scientific methods is not a genuine science.
But can we say that one that uses scientific method is a genuine science? no;

So, based on (C), if a field does not use scientific methods then we can say for sure that it is not a genuine science. But, if a field uses scientific method we can't say for sure that it is a genuine science. It may be or it may not be; our conclusion may not necessarily be true.

Now lets consider (D) - a field that uses scientific methods is a genuine science. The field of study in the stimulus - "parapsychology" does in fact use scientific methods. So, if (D) is true then the we can say for sure that "parapsychology" is a genuine science, thus, validating our conclusion.

While deciding between two assumption choices you have to determine a choice which "must be true" for the conclusion to be true.

Hope that helps,

Vercules
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience   [#permalink] 15 Feb 2013, 05:18
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