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# Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in

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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in [#permalink]
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Coldfire wrote:
For me this is analogous to saying that : a person is a criminal beacuse he uses guns to kill innocent people.
A.C ''D'' Says
its like saying that : ''A person is a criminal because he uses guns'' A/C D is just incomplete, it's not sufficient to employ scientific methods, but you have to employ them to examine the questions raised.. just like it is not sufficient to be a criminal if you use guns, but you have to use them to kill innocent people..
I feel like A/C ''D'' omits a mandatory condition for a field of study to be a geniune scientific entreprise.
Can you help me find the breach in this reasoning ?
thank you­

­Hi Coldfire,

You're right about the fact that option D does not include a mandatory condition for a field of study to be a genuine scientific enterprise. It is, however, sufficient.

To understand this in your example, we can go with something like this:
P1: X uses guns to kill innocent people.
SA: {Anyone who uses guns to kill innocent people is a criminal}
C: Therefore, X is a criminal.

Here's an explanation of this question. If you want to work on the concepts needed to solve assumption questions in general, you could go through the session on assumption questions in my cr respawn course:

­­­­­
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Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in [#permalink]
Conc: Parapsychology is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise.

(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science - Though, this would be pretty high on the list of characteristics of "main-stream science", this is not the reasoning used in the passage, i.e., examine the questions raised using scientific method. This option doesn't impact the passage. Drop

(B) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results. This seems to be a parallel conclusion to the current one provided by the passage. Drop

(C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science. This seems like an oversimplification, i.e., using controlled experiments and statistical tests are all that's required to define genuine science. There should and can be more scientific methods besides the two mentioned in the passage which can be used to examine questions raised as part of a genuine scientific venture. When we negate the main verb, i.e., is not => is, we get - "Any (some) enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is (can be) genuine science." (The language might need to be a little more probabilitistic for correct gramatical sense) This possiblity defintely exists based on our reasoning above. Beware, this is a pretty solid trap, if you negate the first "not", it does look like the negation weakens the conclusion. Drop

(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise - This pretty much paraphrases the passage. Negating this option, does break the the conclusion, i.e., No field of study that employs scientific method is a genuine scientific enterprise. Keep

(E) Since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments.­ - Answers the question - Can the questions raised by parapsychology be tested? Whatever the answer to this question - This doesn't answer the intended question by the passage, i.e., Is parapsychology a genuine science? Drop­
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in [#permalink]
KarishmaB wrote:
warrior1991 wrote:

I am using negation technique on option C.

Quote:
(C) Any enterprise that DOES not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.

If I strike out NOT , the conclusion falls apart. Then why is C incorrect when using negation technique.

Besides, there is an error in your negation.
When we have quantifiers, we negate those.

'Any' is the same as 'All' here.

Any that does not do X is not genuine.
=
All that do not do X are not genuine.

Negation of "all" is "not all".

Not all that do not do X are not genuine.
=
Some that do not do X are genuine.

Negation of (C)
(C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
Negated (C) Some enterprises that do not use controlled experiments and statistical tests are genuine sciences.

­
Hi KarishmaB

Based on this negation, can we say that Option C is not correct?
Negated C = "Some enterprises that do not use controlled experiments and statistical tests are genuine sciences."
Let's say there are 100 experiments in total, based on negated C, 75 perform controlled experiments and 25 don't. The conclusion is not destroyed due to 25 experiments, hence, Option C is wrong.
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in [#permalink]
agrasan wrote:
Hi KarishmaB

Based on this negation, can we say that Option C is not correct?
Negated C = "Some enterprises that do not use controlled experiments and statistical tests are genuine sciences."
Let's say there are 100 experiments in total, based on negated C, 75 perform controlled experiments and 25 don't. The conclusion is not destroyed due to 25 experiments, hence, Option C is wrong.

­You cannot get the answer using negation here because this is not a necessary assumption question. It is a sufficient assumption question (the one that leads to the conclusion). ­
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in [#permalink]
KarishmaB wrote:
agrasan wrote:
Hi KarishmaB

Based on this negation, can we say that Option C is not correct?
Negated C = "Some enterprises that do not use controlled experiments and statistical tests are genuine sciences."
Let's say there are 100 experiments in total, based on negated C, 75 perform controlled experiments and 25 don't. The conclusion is not destroyed due to 25 experiments, hence, Option C is wrong.

­You cannot get the answer using negation here because this is not a necessary assumption question. It is a sufficient assumption question (the one that leads to the conclusion). ­

­Thanks KarishmaB
I have a follow-up question, how can we recognize that it is not a necessary assumption question?

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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in [#permalink]
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agrasan wrote:
KarishmaB wrote:
agrasan wrote:
Hi KarishmaB

Based on this negation, can we say that Option C is not correct?
Negated C = "Some enterprises that do not use controlled experiments and statistical tests are genuine sciences."
Let's say there are 100 experiments in total, based on negated C, 75 perform controlled experiments and 25 don't. The conclusion is not destroyed due to 25 experiments, hence, Option C is wrong.

­You cannot get the answer using negation here because this is not a necessary assumption question. It is a sufficient assumption question (the one that leads to the conclusion). ­

­Thanks KarishmaB
I have a follow-up question, how can we recognize that it is not a necessary assumption question?

­
Notice the question stem:

"The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?"

You want the conclusion to be properly drawn i.e. the argument to become valid. You should be able to deduce the conclusion which means that the correct option should be sufficient to deduce the assumption then.

Read about deductive -inductive logic and necessary-sufficient assumptions in my content for free this Sunday by registering at anaprep.com and enrolling in 'Super Sundays' (it will become visible at 10:00 AM IST on Sunday)
Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in [#permalink]
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