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c) is of the form - if not x then not y
d) is of the form - if x then y.
The conclusion is of the form if x then y

Hence D is clearly the right answer.

Try looking at the CR sections of Princeton Review. It really helped me understand a tactical approach for CR question. Alternatively you can look at Kaplan (However I found PR better for CR concepts).

Originally posted by atish on 22 Dec 2009, 14:35.
Last edited by atish on 22 Dec 2009, 15:12, edited 1 time in total.
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Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.

(8) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.

(e) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.

(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.

(E) Since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments

og 12

I am confused between C and D because PowerScore CR says, for Assumption+causality questions,

If Cause occurs, then Effect occurs is a valid answer choice. [Similar to Option D]
Secondly, If Cause doesn't occur, the effect doesn't occur is a valid answer type [Similar to Option C]

Can anyone please help me ?

Thanks
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ratinarace wrote:
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.
(B) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
(C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.
(E) Since parapsychology.
 


The stimulus says - parapsychology is a scientific enterprise because it uses scientific methods.

Conclusion: Parapsychology is a genuine scientific enterprise

We are asked to find the assumption that the author is making. For assumption questions the correct option should present an information that must be true in order for conclusion to be valid.

Lets consider (C) first; it says Scientific enterprise that "does not" use scientific methods is not a genuine science.
But can we say that one that uses scientific method is a genuine science? no;

So, based on (C), if a field does not use scientific methods then we can say for sure that it is not a genuine science. But, if a field uses scientific method we can't say for sure that it is a genuine science. It may be or it may not be; our conclusion may not necessarily be true.

Now lets consider (D) - a field that uses scientific methods is a genuine science. The field of study in the stimulus - "parapsychology" does in fact use scientific methods. So, if (D) is true then the we can say for sure that "parapsychology" is a genuine science, thus, validating our conclusion.

While deciding between two assumption choices you have to determine a choice which "must be true" for the conclusion to be true.

Hope that helps,

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Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.

Conclusion: parapsychology is a genuine science
Premise : parapsychology uses scientific methods

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.
This options is out of scope as the premise doesn't say about conclusively answering the question.

(B) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
This options is out of scope as the premise doesn't say about credible results answering the question.

(C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
The option is incorrect as "statistical tests" and "Controlled Experiments" are just two methods of scientific methods. There might be other methods that might be employed to prove the hypothesis using scientific methods

(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.
This is the assumption as it connects the scientific methods to a genuine scientific enterprise.

(E) Since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments.
This option takes the argument one step further and is not an assumption.
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Hi Experts,
Can you please elaborate POE (C vs D) based on necessary vs sufficient condition.
I read through trailing answers and am convinced with usage of 'because' in case
of 'for it uses' in original sentence but does not conditional statement needs to be if ..
then ..construction and not causal reasoning format?
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adkikani wrote:
Hi Experts,
Can you please elaborate POE (C vs D) based on necessary vs sufficient condition.
I read through trailing answers and am convinced with usage of 'because' in case
of 'for it uses' in original sentence but does not conditional statement needs to be if ..
then ..construction and not causal reasoning format?

The conditional aspect of the author's argument is not given in the passage but, rather, is implied by the correct answer choice (D): If a field of study employs scientific methods, then it is a genuine scientific enterprise. If we assume that conditional statement to be true, then we can properly reason that parapsychology is a genuine scientific enterprise because it uses scientific methods.

Employing scientific methods is sufficient but not necessary for being a genuine scientific enterprise. Consider the following example: Jon is an athlete because he is a basketball player. Being a basketball player is sufficient but not necessary for being an athlete. Just because someone is NOT a basketball player does not mean he or she is NOT an athlete. Similarly, employing scientific methods does not have to be the ONLY requirement sufficient for being a genuine scientific enterprise. Thus, choice (C) is not a required assumption and can be eliminated.
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in [#permalink]
VeritasKarishma GMATNinja nightblade354 GMATNinjatwo daagh egmat generis

I am using negation technique on option C.

Quote:
(C) Any enterprise that DOES not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.

If I strike out NOT , the conclusion falls apart. Then why is C incorrect when using negation technique.
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warrior1991 wrote:
VeritasKarishma GMATNinja nightblade354 GMATNinjatwo daagh egmat generis

I am using negation technique on option C.

Quote:
(C) Any enterprise that DOES not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.

If I strike out NOT , the conclusion falls apart. Then why is C incorrect when using negation technique.

Even before I get into negation, let me tell you - Negation will not work on this type of questions.

This is an LSAT question - assumption needed to properly draw conclusion. Not a necessary assumption but a sufficient one. GMAT does not have such type of questions (but GMAT Focus could).

Here we need the option that when taken along with premises makes the conclusion valid. Include option (D) with premises.

Parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience.
Parapsychology uses scientific methods.
Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.

Conclusion: Parapsychology is a genuine scientific enterprise

Perfect! Our conclusion follows. Answer is (D)­

Originally posted by KarishmaB on 27 Apr 2020, 03:01.
Last edited by KarishmaB on 01 May 2024, 21:53, edited 1 time in total.
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warrior1991 wrote:
VeritasKarishma GMATNinja nightblade354 GMATNinjatwo daagh egmat generis

I am using negation technique on option C.

Quote:
(C) Any enterprise that DOES not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.

If I strike out NOT , the conclusion falls apart. Then why is C incorrect when using negation technique.



Besides, there is an error in your negation.
When we have quantifiers, we negate those.

'Any' is the same as 'All' here.

Any that does not do X is not genuine.
=
All that do not do X are not genuine.

Negation of "all" is "not all".

Not all that do not do X are not genuine.
=
Some that do not do X are genuine.

Negation of (C)
(C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
Negated (C) Some enterprises that do not use controlled experiments and statistical tests are genuine sciences.
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WinWinMBA wrote:
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?


(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.

(B) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.

(C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.

(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.

(E) Since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments.
 


Hi everyone

This is a challenging Critical Reasoning question that is focused at determining assumption.

Understanding the passage:
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.
>>>author considers parapsychology to be a genuine scientific enterprise
>>> this is because it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine questions

Question stem: The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?
In what scenario the conclusion that parapsychology is a genuine scientific enterprise won't hold given that:
>>>scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions

Scenario: If scientific methods usage is not enough to qualify for being a genuine scientific enterprise. In this case the cause and effect relationship will cease to exist and the conclusion will no longer hold true.

Answer Choice Analysis:
(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.

Out of context
The argument does not correlate ability of a field of study to conclusively answer the questions it raises with being a genuine science.

(B) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.

Out of context
The argument does not specify if use of scientific methods guarantee credible results. Also, this statement is not an absolute necessity for conclusion to hold true.

(C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.

Out of scope
We have to find the assumption required for the conclusion to hold true. This option is not related to the context.

(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.

This is in line with our pre-thinking. Our conclusion that parapsychology is a genuine science will hold true if any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.

(E) Since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments.

Out of context .
Information given in the option is not related with establishing or negating the conclusion.


Answer is (D)

I hope I was elaborate enough. What say guys? Is there anything else you would like me to specify??

I want to share here that CR is not an easy section to handle. I myself struggled a lot back in time.
Things changed when I joined e-GMAT's verbal course. I was able to better apply techniques for elimination of incorrect choices. Scholaranium was icing on the cake.
This played a huge part in my journey from V27 to V41.

I encourage you to see my journey in CR through the following link
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gH5XdVgO3bc&t=40s

Pls share your thoughts guys. Thanks.

STAY HUNGRY, STAY FOOLISH!!! ­
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in [#permalink]
What is the negation of "Any"? GMATNinja CrackverbalGMAT @empowergmat GMATBusters
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Elite097 wrote:
What is the negation of "Any"? GMATNinja CrackverbalGMAT @empowergmat GMATBusters

That's an interesting question about the negation of "any!"

The "negation technique" is often used when a question asks for a necessary assumption. That is, when an assumption is necessary for the argument to hold up. Without a necessary assumption, in other words, an argument falls apart.

Notice that this question is not asking for a necessary assumption, however, but a sufficient assumption. That is, it's asking for an assumption that is sufficient on its own to allow the conclusion to be drawn. But that doesn't mean it's a necessary assumption, and for that reason the "negation technique" won't point you in the right direction.

As a side note: as you suggest, it's not entirely clear how to negate the word "any." Should we should change "any fields of study" to "no fields of study?" Or should we change it to "some fields of study?" Because it's often unclear how to negate a sentence, the "negation technique" can be pretty unreliable. Instead, for questions that ask for a necessary assumption, try simply asking yourself whether that assumption really is required for the argument to hold.

For more on necessary vs. sufficient assumptions, check out this post, or for a full breakdown of the question, check out this post. And let us know if those posts don't clear things up for you.

I hope that helps!
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The Story


Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, – The sentence starts with the contrast word ‘although’. So, next I expect to learn something which contrasts with the idea that parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience. The phrase “often considered” indicates that the author does not subscribe to this idea.

it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, – Yup. The author does believe that parapsychology is actually a genuine scientific enterprise. (So, the author doesn’t believe that parapsychology is a pseudoscience).

for it uses scientific methods such as controlled experiments and statistical tests of clearly stated hypotheses to examine the questions it raises.

Why is parapsychology a genuine scientific enterprise?
Because it uses scientific methods to examine the questions it raises. (The word ‘for’ is used to mean ‘because’ here.)
(We’re also given a couple of examples of scientific methods in the statement.)

Gist:

Parapsychology is a genuine scientific enterprise (main point), because it uses scientific methods to examine the questions it raises (basis).

Gap(s) in logic

Is examining the questions raised by a field using scientific methods enough to decide that the field is science? Are all fields that use scientific methods to examine the questions they raise genuine scientific enterprises? Can’t there be other things needed also for a field to be deemed genuine science?

There could be other gaps too. This is the one that jumps out at me from the argument.


Question Stem



The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

A quite unique question stem.

Be careful! It is very easy to interpret the question as a regular assumption question. It actually is not.

The conclusion above is properly drawn if which of the following is assumed?

I.e. If the correct answer choice is assumed, the conclusion will be properly drawn (will follow for sure).

For each answer choice, we need to check whether the argument becomes completely valid upon adding the answer choice as a part of the argument.

We are looking for something that is sufficient to make the argument completely logical.

We are not looking for something that is necessary for the argument.

Negation technique will not work here since we’re not looking for an assumption on which the argument depends.

Framework: Based on the correct answer choice + the information given in the argument, we should be able to infer that parapsychology is a genuine scientific enterprise.


Answer Choice Analysis



(A) If a field of study can conclusively answer the questions it raises, then it is a genuine science.
Incorrect. For this answer choice to be sufficient (i.e. correct), we would need a direct relation between:

X: ‘using scientific methods to examine the raised questions’ – what we’re told about parapsychology in the passage

and

Y: ‘conclusively answering the raised questions’ – what this answer choice introduces

i.e., if every field that does X also does Y, then parapsychology would be genuine science.

Basically,

    1. Parapsychology does X. (passage)
    2. If a field does X, then it does Y. (missing link – not actually given)
    3. If a field does Y, then it is genuine science. (Option A)
    4. Parapsychology is a genuine science (what we need to infer).

If we had all this information, including the second point, then we could say with certainty that parapsychology is a genuine science. However, we actually don’t have that link from the second point.

It is entirely possible that:

    1. a field does X but doesn’t do Y (i.e. a field uses scientific methods to examine the questions it raises but doesn’t conclusively answer the questions)
    2. a field does Y without doing X (i.e. a field conclusively answers the questions it raises without using scientific methods to examine them)
So, we don’t have a link between “using scientific methods to examine the raised questions” (which is our concern) and “conclusively answering the raised questions” (which is what the option talks about). So, the option has no impact on the argument, and is irrelevant.


(B) Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results.
Incorrect.
Let’s add this statement to the argument.

    1. Parapsychology uses scientific methods to examine the questions it raises (basis).
    2. Since parapsychology uses scientific methods, it will produce credible results (Option B).
    3. Therefore parapsychology is a genuine science (main point).

Based on statements 1 and 2, can we infer statement 3?

This answer choice tells us about a result of parapsychology using scientific methods – credible results. We’re not concerned with whether parapsychology produces credible results. We can’t say that anything that produces credible results is a genuine scientific enterprise.

Irrelevant.

(C) Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science.
Incorrect. Let me first take an example to try to explain why this answer choice is incorrect.

Argument: John is taller than 6’. Therefore, John plays basketball.

Statement: Anyone who is shorter than 6’ does not play basketball.

Question: Can the conclusion above be properly drawn if this statement is assumed?

It can’t.

People shorter than 6’ not playing basketball does not prove for sure that those who are taller than 6’ play basketball.

So, no, even if this statement is assumed, the conclusion that John plays basketball still can’t be properly drawn.

Similarly, even in the given context, if we add answer choice C to the argument:

1. Parapsychology uses scientific methods to examine the questions it raises (basis).
2. Any enterprise that does not use controlled experiments and statistical tests is not genuine science. (Option C).
3. Therefore parapsychology is a genuine science (main point).

The conclusion still does not follow with certainty. Even if all the enterprises that don’t use controlled experiments and statistical tests are not genuine science, I can’t be certain that those that do use these methods are genuine science.

(Say, people who don’t study don’t get good marks.

Does that mean that everyone who studies gets good marks?

Not necessarily, right?)

Moreover, the two methods: controlled experiments and statistical tests are merely examples of scientific methods. Fields could use scientific methods other than these two as well.

(D) Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise.
Correct. Let’s add this statement to the argument:

    1. Parapsychology uses scientific methods to examine the questions it raises (basis).
    2. Any field of study that employs scientific methods is a genuine scientific enterprise (Option D).
    3. Therefore parapsychology is a genuine science (main point).

Based on statements 1 and 2, can we infer statement 3?

Once we add this answer choice to the argument, the conclusion follows for sure.

Given that (1a) parapsychology uses scientific methods, and (2) that any study that uses scientific methods is genuine science, parapsychology would certainly be genuine science.

(E) Since parapsychology raises clearly statable questions, they can be tested in controlled experiments.
Incorrect. Even if we add this statement to the argument, the conclusion can still not be properly drawn.

Remember, our objective is to be able to properly conclude that parapsychology is a genuine science. Whether the questions raised by parapsychology can be tested in controlled experiments does not get me any closer to making that conclusion.

Irrelevant.


Additional Notes



1. Is option D an assumption required for the argument?

It is not.

[Caution: I hope my explanation below is clear, but it is possible that you find this point confusing. You may choose to skip this point. Or, if you have any follow-up questions, feel free to ask 🙂 ]

A necessary assumption would have been:
Any field of study that employs scientific methods to examine the questions it raises is a genuine scientific enterprise.
That is an assumption the argument is based on.

Answer choice D supports the argument. However, it is not necessary for the argument.

Let us understand this by negating the answer choice.
Negation of option D: Some fields of study that employ scientific methods are not genuine scientific enterprises.

First, I’ll divide fields of study that employ scientific methods into two categories. There could be fields of study that employ scientific methods to
    a. examine the questions they raise
    b. do something else

So, even if some fields of the superset (fields that employ scientific methods) are not genuine science, the fields in the specific subset (fields that employ scientific methods to examine the questions they raise) could all still be genuine science. The argument doesn’t break down on negating answer choice D. So, that answer choice is not an assumption on which the argument depends.

2. Many students read the word “assumed” in the question stem and assume that it is a typical assumption question. Remember, precise reading is required at every step, including while understanding the question stem.

3. If the question stem fits into a category/ concept you have learned, fine. But if it doesn’t, that’s fine too. End of the day, our objective with every CR question is to answer the question that’s been asked. To force-fit a question into a category is a mistake.

4.
    a. If there is an answer choice in such a question that is an assumption that the argument depends on, but it is not sufficient to lead to the conclusion, the answer choice would be incorrect.

    b. If there is an answer choice that is not an assumption required in the argument, but it is sufficient to lead to the conclusion, the answer choice would be correct. That’s the case with the correct answer in this question.

5. Another official question that asks us to choose a ‘sufficient statement’: https://gmatclub.com/forum/biologist-sp ... 06112.html
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Hi AnishPassi

Thanks for this wonderful explanation.

Just have one doubt, please help.

I was treating "for" as conjunction i.e. showing the start of an Independent clause hence was not able to find the premise on which the author has concluded that "parapsychology is actually a genuine scientific enterprise."

Can you please tell me: "How you have considered for== because in this case"?

Thank You­
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a123bansal wrote:
I was treating "for" as conjunction i.e. showing the start of an Independent clause hence was not able to find the premise on which the author has concluded that "parapsychology is actually a genuine scientific enterprise."

Can you please tell me: "How you have considered for== because in this case"?

When FOR is used as a conjunction (as in this question), it always means BECAUSE.

See here: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictio ... /for?q=FOR
You will need to scroll down a long way before you reach FOR as conjunction.

See this too: https://dictionary.cambridge.org/gramma ... rammar/for
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in [#permalink]
Hi avigutman - wanted to ask my question by simplying the argument a bit

Quote:
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods


Thus i think the argument is saying :

As long as you use scientific methods in your study, your study is a genuine scientific enterprise

Would you agree, all 3 of the venn diagrams are possible ?

OR should i not be thinking in venn diagrams at all ?

Red: scientific methods
Blue: scientific enterprise
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in [#permalink]
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jabhatta2 wrote:
Hi avigutman - wanted to ask my question by simplying the argument a bit

Quote:
Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in fact a genuine scientific enterprise, for it uses scientific methods


Thus i think the argument is saying :

As long as you use scientific methods in your study, your study is a genuine scientific enterprise

Would you agree, all 3 of the venn diagrams are possible ?

OR should i not be thinking in venn diagrams at all ?

Red: scientific methods
Blue: scientific enterprise

I'm not a fan of Venn diagrams for conditional logic, jabhatta2.
Here, I would say only diagram #2 is correct. Anything that uses scientific methods must be a genuine scientific enterprise - but just because an enterprise is genuine science doesn't necessarily mean that is uses scientific methods.
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Re: Although parapsychology is often considered a pseudoscience, it is in [#permalink]
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