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A recent study has cited overcomplexity, increasing worker

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A recent study has cited overcomplexity, increasing worker [#permalink] New post 18 Oct 2011, 23:23
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  45% (medium)

Question Stats:

65% (02:38) correct 35% (01:43) wrong based on 132 sessions
A recent study has cited overcomplexity, increasing worker mobility between companies, and poor financial planning in estimating that fewer than half of eligible American workers had contributed the maximum amount to their employer-offered retirement plans.

A) A recent study has cited overcomplexity, increasing worker mobility between companies, and poor financial planning in estimating that fewer than half of eligible American workers had contributed the maximum amount to their employer-offered retirement plans.
B) Overcomplexity, increasing worker mobility between companies, and poor financial planning have been cited by a recent study that estimated that over half of eligible American workers do not contribute the maximum amount to their employer-offered retirement plans.
C) Citing overcomplexity, increasing mobility of workers between companies, and poor financial planning, less than half of eligible American workers had contributed the maximum amount to their employer-offered retirement plans, a recent study estimates.
D) A recent study of American workers, citing overcomplexity, increasing mobility of workers between companies, and poor financial planning, has estimated that fewer than half of eligible American workers had contributed the maximum amount to their employer-offered retirement plans.
E) Citing overcomplexity, increasing mobility of workers between companies, and poor financial planning, a recent study has estimated that fewer than half of eligible American workers contribute the maximum amount to their employer-offered retirement plans.

Please explain your answer. Also mentioned time. I am not sure such lengthy sentence can be solved in 1 min
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Worker Contributions Manhattan GMAT 600-700 [#permalink] New post 24 Oct 2011, 03:06
+ 1 for E, for using active construction and present tense 'Contribute'.

But no way under 1 min, took more than a min to get some sense from the question.
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Re: Worker Contributions Manhattan GMAT 600-700 [#permalink] New post 24 Oct 2011, 05:58
Agree with E,
Here first we need to make sure that "citing, increasing and planning" are parallel.
And Fewer should be used instead of less and that leaves us with option E :)
Hope i am clear.
Yes fully underlined statements are difficult to do within a min, but again if we follow MGMAT SC's strategy it will be doable.
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Re: Worker Contributions Manhattan GMAT 600-700 [#permalink] New post 24 Oct 2011, 12:29
arjunbt wrote:
Agree with E,
Here first we need to make sure that "citing, increasing and planning" are parallel.
And Fewer should be used instead of less and that leaves us with option E :)
Hope i am clear.
Yes fully underlined statements are difficult to do within a min, but again if we follow MGMAT SC's strategy it will be doable.


Citing, increasing, and planning happen to look parallel, but they do not have to be. Citing is a verb, increasing is an adjective (describing the mobility) and planning is a noun. If all three were being used as verbs, they would have to be parallel. However, "Citing overcomplexity, increased mobility of workers between companies, and poor financial plans" would work as well.

The parallelism here is the nouns being listed: overcomplexity, mobility, financial planning.
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Re: A recent study has cited overcomplexity, increasing worker [#permalink] New post 25 Oct 2011, 21:34
I picked E....tempted by D but it is incorrect because "studies can't estimate"...It took me 2:12 minutes
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Re: A recent study has cited overcomplexity, increasing worker [#permalink] New post 20 Apr 2012, 23:27
Whether following versions would be correct:
had contributed replaced with contributed in option A & D
estimated replaced with has estimated in option B

In option E, both contribute and contributed would be correct grammatically
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Re: A recent study has cited overcomplexity, increasing worker [#permalink] New post 09 Jun 2012, 12:01
nishtil wrote:
A recent study has cited overcomplexity, increasing worker mobility between companies, and poor financial planning in estimating that fewer than half of eligible American workers had contributed the maximum amount to their employer-offered retirement plans.

A) A recent study has cited overcomplexity, increasing worker mobility between companies, and poor financial planning in estimating that fewer than half of eligible American workers had contributed the maximum amount to their employer-offered retirement plans.
B) Overcomplexity, increasing worker mobility between companies, and poor financial planning have been cited by a recent study that estimated that over half of eligible American workers do not contribute the maximum amount to their employer-offered retirement plans.
C) Citing overcomplexity, increasing mobility of workers between companies, and poor financial planning, less than half of eligible American workers had contributed the maximum amount to their employer-offered retirement plans, a recent study estimates.
D) A recent study of American workers, citing overcomplexity, increasing mobility of workers between companies, and poor financial planning, has estimated that fewer than half of eligible American workers had contributed the maximum amount to their employer-offered retirement plans.
E) Citing overcomplexity, increasing mobility of workers between companies, and poor financial planning, a recent study has estimated that fewer than half of eligible American workers contribute the maximum amount to their employer-offered retirement plans.

Please explain your answer. Also mentioned time. I am not sure such lengthy sentence can be solved in 1 min

It is the study that is estimating so they need to be close to each other. A and D are out. 'B' has a tense issue with "have been". 'C' has structure issues with "a recent study estimates" at the end. 'E' is clear and concise.
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Re: A recent study has cited overcomplexity, increasing worker [#permalink] New post 25 Sep 2012, 23:45
The original sentence incorrectly utilizes the past perfect tense in its use of “had contributed.” The past perfect tense demands that the simple past tense also be used in the sentence to refer to another action that occurred in the past but after the action referred to by the past perfect tense. Here, the sentence uses the present perfect tense “has cited” and the present participle “estimating,” but does not use the simple past tense to refer to another action in the later past.

(A) This choice is incorrect as it repeats the original sentence.

(B) This choice is awkward in its use of the structure “Overcomplexity, increasing mobility . . . , and poor financial planning . . .have been cited” as this structure leads to the use of the passive voice, which is less preferable than the active voice. It is also problematic in its use of both the past tense “estimated” and the present perfect tense “have been cited” to refer to the recent study; the verb tenses should be consistent in their treatment of the study.

(C) This choice incorrectly places the modifying phrase “Citing overcomplexity, increasing mobility . . . and poor financial planning” adjacent to “less than half of American workers,” incorrectly suggesting that it is less than half of American workers, and not a recent study, that cites these factors as causes for a lack of contribution to retirement plans. This choice also repeats the original verb tense error with "had contributed."

(D) This choice repeats the original verb tense error with "had contributed."

(E) CORRECT. This choice correctly uses both the present participle (“Citing . . .”) and the present perfect (“has estimated”) to refer to the recent study, as well as the present tense “contribute” in reference to the study findings. The phrase “Citing overcomplexity, increasing mobility . . . , and poor financial planning,” is correctly used here as a modifier for “a recent study.”

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Re: A recent study has cited overcomplexity, increasing worker [#permalink] New post 07 Oct 2014, 07:36
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A recent study has cited overcomplexity, increasing worker mobility between companies, and poor financial planning in estimating that fewer than half of eligible American workers had contributed the maximum amount to their employer-offered retirement plans.

Lets break the sentence:
Clause 1: A recent study has cited overcomplexity, increasing worker mobility between companies, and poor financial planning in estimating
: A recent study is the subject and has cited is the verb. All 3 phrases are parallel.
Clause 2: that fewer than half of eligible American workers had contributed the maximum amount to their employer-offered retirement plans : that is the subject and had contributed is the verb: Had contributed is wrong here, we do not need to show any time line. This clears out A, C and D.

B changes the meaning of the sentence, Hence E is the correct choice.

A) A recent study has cited overcomplexity, increasing worker mobility between companies, and poor financial planning in estimating that fewer than half of eligible American workers had contributed the maximum amount to their employer-offered retirement plans.

B) Overcomplexity, increasing worker mobility between companies, and poor financial planning have been cited by a recent study that estimated that over half of eligible American workers do not contribute the maximum amount to their employer-offered retirement plans. : Changes the meaning. Uses over half of eligible, while main sentence says fewer than half of eligible. Moreover when we need to use the comparison then MORE/LESS THAN is more preferable.

Additionally, sentence says two things- X,Y and Z have been cited by the study and Study estimated something , while original meaning is that study gave 3 reasons depending of those it estimated something


C) Citing overcomplexity, increasing mobility of workers between companies, and poor financial planning, less than half of eligible American workers had contributed the maximum amount to their employer-offered retirement plans, a recent study estimates.

D) A recent study of American workers, citing overcomplexity, increasing mobility of workers between companies, and poor financial planning, has estimated that fewer than half of eligible American workers had contributed the maximum amount to their employer-offered retirement plans.

E) Citing overcomplexity, increasing mobility of workers between companies, and poor financial planning, a recent study has estimated that fewer than half of eligible American workers contribute the maximum amount to their employer-offered retirement plans.

E has the structure, Citing X, Y, and Z, Study has estimated....., which is correct construction
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Re: A recent study has cited overcomplexity, increasing worker   [#permalink] 07 Oct 2014, 07:36
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