Gerunds : Please Explain !!! : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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# Gerunds : Please Explain !!!

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Intern
Joined: 22 Jan 2010
Posts: 19
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26 Sep 2011, 06:49
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Hi

I have doubts in gerunds ...
Everytime I mark wrong answer...these are some questions in which I faced difficulty ...
In all these questions I chose 'infinitives' as I thought infinitive is preferred over gerunds on GMAT :/ ...

Q : Last spring a Colorado health department survey of 72 playgrounds in private child-care centers found unsafe conditions in 95 percent of them and they ranged from splinters to equipment near collapse.

(A) unsafe conditions in 95 percent of them and they ranged (my choice)
(B) conditions in 95 percent were unsafe and ranging
(C) the ranging of unsafe conditions in 95 percent of them to be
(D) that 95 percent had unsafe conditions ranging (Correct Choice)
(E) that 95 percent of them had conditions that were unsafe; the range was

DOUBT : why ranging is correct here

Q : The expected rise in the price of oil could be a serious impact to industrialized nations and severely diminish the possibility to have an economy free of inflation.
(A) be a serious impact to industrialized nations and severely diminish the possibility to have
(B) seriously impact on industrialized nations and severely impede the possibility to have
(C) seriously impact on industrialized nations and severely impede the possibility of having
(D) have a serious impact on industrialized nations and severely impede the possibility to have (my choice)
(E) have a serious impact on industrialized nations and severely diminish the possibility of having(correct choice)

DOUBT : why having in correct in (E)

Q : Studies of the human "sleep-wake cycle" have practical relevance for matters ranging from duty assignments in nuclear submarines and air-traffic control towers to the staff of shifts in 24-hour factories.

(A) to the staff of
(B) to those who staff (my choice)
(C) to the staffing of (correct option)
(D) and staffing
(E) and the staff of

Q : Most nations regard their airspace as extending upward as high as an aircraft can fly; no specific altitude, however, has been officially recognized as a boundary.

(A) as extending(correct choice)

(B) as the extent

(C) to be an extent

(D) to be an extension

(E) to extend (my choice)

Q .To help preserve ancient Egyptian monuments threatened by high water tables, a Swedish engineering firm has proposed installing pumps, perhaps solar powered, to lower the underground water level and dig trenches around the bases of the stone walls.
(A) to lower the underground water level and dig trenches

(B) to lower the underground water level and to dig trenches (my choice ): here also I preferred infinitive over gerund

(C) to lower the underground water level and digging trenches (correct answer)

(D) that lower the underground water level and that trenches be dug

(E) that lower the underground water level and trench digging

Q. In the past several years, astronomers have detected more than 80 massive planets, most of them as large or larger than Jupiter, which circle other stars.

most of them as large or larger than Jupiter, which circle

most of them as large or larger than Jupiter and circling (correct option)

most of them at least as large as Jupiter, circling

mostly at least as large as Jupiter, which circle

mostly as large or larger than Jupiter, circling

Q. Now that so much data travels via light—i.e., is carried in glass fibers rather than by electrical current—one goal of semiconductor research is to develop a silicon chip that can transmit and receive light signals directly, a development that mav one dav lead to smaller, faster semiconductors.
A. to develop a silicon chip that can transmit and receive light signals directly, a development that may one day lead (correct option)
B. to develop a silicon chip with the capability of transmitting and receiving light signals directly, which may one day lead
C. the development of a silicon chip that has the capability of transmitting and receiving light signals directly, a development maybe one day leading
D. developing a silicon chip that can transmit and receive light signals directly, which may one day lead
E. developing a silicon chip with the ability to transmit and receive light signals directly, with this development maybe one day leading

Q. 16. One of Ronald Reagan’s first acts as President was to rescind President Carter’s directive that any chemical banned on medical grounds in the United States be prohibited from sale to other countries.(my option)
(A) that any chemical banned on medical grounds in the United States be prohibited from sale to other countries
(B) that any chemical be prohibited from sale to other countries that was banned on medical grounds in the United States
(C) prohibiting the sale to other countries of any chemical banned on medical grounds in the United States(correct option)
(D) prohibiting that any chemical banned on medical grounds in the United States is sold to other countries
(E) that any chemical banned in the United States on medical grounds is prohibited from being sold to other countries

I am master of making mistakes in GERUNDS !!!
If you have any questions
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26 Sep 2011, 09:04
@asunshine

Can I give you piece of suggestion ? First thing is that you must start to mark the underlined portions compulsorily before you want to learn serious SC grammar. Without underlining it is going to be extremely difficult for people to explain the concepts. Please think of others and the efforts they put on for your sake.

2. If you expect detailed answers for each of your topics, then please post case by case.

3. Please study the differences among the three verbals, present participle (verb+ing form), gerund ( verb+ ing form ) and infinitives. Many of the present participles in your example you have misunderstood as gerunds.

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27 Sep 2011, 06:48
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Here is my take on these questions:

Q : Last spring a Colorado health department survey of 72 playgrounds in private child-care centers found unsafe conditions in 95 percent of them and they ranged from splinters to equipment near collapse.

(A) unsafe conditions in 95 percent of them and they ranged (my choice)
This sentence cannot correct because it implies that child-care centers are ranging from splinters to equipment. However, these are really conditions. D explains it well.

(B) conditions in 95 percent were unsafe and ranging
(C) the ranging of unsafe conditions in 95 percent of them to be
(D) that 95 percent had unsafe conditions ranging (Correct Choice)
(E) that 95 percent of them had conditions that were unsafe; the range was

DOUBT : why ranging is correct here

Q : The expected rise in the price of oil could be a serious impact to industrialized nations and severely diminish the possibility to have an economy free of inflation.
(A) be a serious impact to industrialized nations and severely diminish the possibility to have
(B) seriously impact on industrialized nations and severely impede the possibility to have
(C) seriously impact on industrialized nations and severely impede the possibility of having
(D) have a serious impact on industrialized nations and severely impede the possibility to have (my choice)
It's not really gerund issue. This is an idiom issue.
(E) have a serious impact on industrialized nations and severely diminish the possibility of having(correct choice)

DOUBT : why having in correct in (E)

Q : Studies of the human "sleep-wake cycle" have practical relevance for matters ranging from duty assignments in nuclear submarines and air-traffic control towers to the staff of shifts in 24-hour factories.

(A) to the staff of
(B) to those who staff (my choice)
This definitely cannot be correct as 'from' should be parallel to 'to'. Introduction of 'those' violates parallelism.
(C) to the staffing of (correct option)
(D) and staffing
(E) and the staff of

Q : Most nations regard their airspace as extending upward as high as an aircraft can fly; no specific altitude, however, has been officially recognized as a boundary.

(A) as extending(correct choice)

(B) as the extent

(C) to be an extent

(D) to be an extension

(E) to extend (my choice)
This can not be correct because 'regard as' is the correct idiom.

Q .To help preserve ancient Egyptian monuments threatened by high water tables, a Swedish engineering firm has proposed installing pumps, perhaps solar powered, to lower the underground water level and dig trenches around the bases of the stone walls.
(A) to lower the underground water level and dig trenches

(B) to lower the underground water level and to dig trenches (my choice ): here also I preferred infinitive over gerund
This is again parallelism. How can "Installing pumps to dig trenches around the bases of the stone walls" be correct? Firm has promoted to install pumps to lower the underground water level and dig ranches around the bases of the stone wall.

(C) to lower the underground water level and digging trenches (correct answer)

(D) that lower the underground water level and that trenches be dug

(E) that lower the underground water level and trench digging

Q. In the past several years, astronomers have detected more than 80 massive planets, most of them as large or larger than Jupiter, which circle other stars.

most of them as large or larger than Jupiter, which circle
This cannot be correct as Jupiter can not circle all other stars.

most of them as large or larger than Jupiter and circling (correct option)
This option is the best. Circling is correctly modifying planets.

most of them at least as large as Jupiter, circling
This option is just awkward as it suggests planets are circling because astronomers have detected the planets.

mostly at least as large as Jupiter, which circle
Same problem as A, "which".
mostly as large or larger than Jupiter, circling
Same problem as C, "Circling".

Q. Now that so much data travels via light—i.e., is carried in glass fibers rather than by electrical current—one goal of semiconductor research is to develop a silicon chip that can transmit and receive light signals directly, a development that mav one dav lead to smaller, faster semiconductors.
A. to develop a silicon chip that can transmit and receive light signals directly, a development that may one day lead (correct option)
B. to develop a silicon chip with the capability of transmitting and receiving light signals directly, which may one day lead
which is incorrectly modifying directly.
C. the development of a silicon chip that has the capability of transmitting and receiving light signals directly, a development maybe one day leading
"The development"; "a development maybe one day leading" is just awkward.
D. developing a silicon chip that can transmit and receive light signals directly, which may one day lead
which is incorrectly modifying directly.

E. developing a silicon chip with the ability to transmit and receive light signals directly, with this development maybe one day leading
Awkward. Developing a silicon chip is a development or developing a silicon chip with this development.

Q. 16. One of Ronald Reagan’s first acts as President was to rescind President Carter’s directive that any chemical banned on medical grounds in the United States be prohibited from sale to other countries.(my option)
(A) that any chemical banned on medical grounds in the United States be prohibited from sale to other countries
This sentence cannot be correct because sentence after "that" should clearly modify directive. But subjunctive form suggests that someone is demanding something, I guess President Reagan in this sentence.
(B) that any chemical be prohibited from sale to other countries that was banned on medical grounds in the United States
(C) prohibiting the sale to other countries of any chemical banned on medical grounds in the United States(correct option)
(D) prohibiting that any chemical banned on medical grounds in the United States is sold to other countries
(E) that any chemical banned in the United States on medical grounds is prohibited from being sold to other countries

I hope it helps.
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