Medical researcher: As expected, records covering the last four years of ten major hospitals indicate that babies born prematurely were more likely to have low birth weights and to suffer from health problems than were babies not born prematurely. These records also indicate that mothers who had received adequate prenatal care were less likely to have
low birth weight babies than were mothers who had received inadequate prenatal care. Adequate prenatal care, therefore, significantly decreases the risk of low birth weight babies.
Which one of the following, if true, most weakens the medical researcher’s argument?
(A) The hospital records indicate that many babies that are born with normal birth weights are born to mothers who had inadequate prenatal care.
(B) Mothers giving birth prematurely are routinely classified by hospitals as having received inadequate prenatal care when the record of that care is not available.
(C) The hospital records indicate that low birth weight babies were routinely classified as having been born prematurely.
(D) Some babies not born prematurely, whose mothers received adequate prenatal care, have low birth weights.
(E) Women who receive adequate prenatal care are less likely to give birth prematurely than are women who do not receive adequate prenatal care.
Pre Mature Baby -> Low Birth Weight
Adequate Pre Natal Care -> less low birth weight babies
Conclusion : adequate pre natal care -> less likely of low weight babies
Missed : What about babies which received pre natal care but still born prematurely, hence leading to low weight babies
A. Talks about many babies. But the argument says "pre natal care significantly decreases the risk of low birth weight babies". Consider 100 babies were born. Previously 10 were low birth weight babies and 90 (the "many babies" part) babies are healthy. And by providing adequate pre natal care, 10 is reduced to 2. Definitely a significant decrease. -> Incorrect
B. If no record is available, hospitals are by default putting mothers with pre-mature babies (hence low weight) as mothers without pre-natal care. By doing so, hospitals are false putting in record that low weight babies (because of pre-mature delivery) are from mothers without pre-natal care.This directly accuses the record keeping method. -> Correct
C. This is in accordance with the premise ["ten major hospitals indicate that babies born prematurely were more likely to have low birth weights"] -> Incorrect
D. Not a generic observation because of the qualifier "Some" -> Incorrect
E. This supports the authors logic. Adequate pre-natal care -> Healthy babies -> less low weight babies -> Incorrect
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