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One feature of the global food economy is the simultaneous

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One feature of the global food economy is the simultaneous [#permalink] New post 02 Mar 2013, 00:59
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

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Question Stats:

66% (02:11) correct 33% (01:28) wrong based on 166 sessions
One feature of the global food economy is the simultaneous import and export of the same items, a phenomenon
known as “redundant trade.” In California, for example, domestic cherries are exported to Canada and Japan,
while a nearly equivalent number of cherries are imported from Chile, Italy, and Germany. California also exports
and imports nearly identical amounts of lettuce and almonds. Although shipping fresh fruits and vegetables is an
expensive undertaking, there is a justifiable economic rationale for redundant trade.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the conclusion above?

• Establishing international ties through trade facilitates access to other desired goods that are more efficiently produced abroad.
• Undertaking free trade with one’s political allies helps to maintain international goodwill.
• In recent years, consumers in California boycotted domestic cherries, demanding better working conditions for agricultural laborers in the state.
• Local growers could sell their products at a premium in domestic markets.
• The economic globalization of redundant trade allows for the sharing of cultural norms and values.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: Strengthen question (not too easy!!) [#permalink] New post 02 Mar 2013, 01:06
Experts, can you please tell me why option 'C' is incorrect.

The conclusion states that Although shipping fresh fruits and vegetables is an expensive undertaking, there is a justifiable economic rationale for redundant trade.

C: In recent years, consumers in California boycotted domestic cherries, demanding better working conditions for agricultural laborers in the state.
If this is the case then, it means that there is no market for these cherries in California and hence the producers are exporting them to other countries. This way they can at least make some money instead of letting all the produce go unsold in California. In my opinion, This justifies the economic rationale and hence should support the argument.

I have a good reason why the OA could be incorrect. But I'd like to hear an expert's opinion first before posting further comments.

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Re: Strengthen question (not too easy!!) [#permalink] New post 02 Mar 2013, 03:58
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One feature of the global food economy is the simultaneous import and export of the same items, a phenomenon
known as “redundant trade.”

Ok a fact. Information

In California, for example, domestic cherries are exported to Canada and Japan,
while a nearly equivalent number of cherries are imported from Chile, Italy, and Germany. California also exports
and imports nearly identical amounts of lettuce and almonds.

An example HOW redundant trade works

Although shipping fresh fruits and vegetables is an
expensive undertaking, there is a justifiable economic rationale for redundant trade.

The conclusion states: though RT is expensive a positive side take place

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the conclusion above?

• Establishing international ties through trade facilitates access to other desired goods that are more efficiently produced abroad.

Correct. redundant trade could open other trade channels to access to other goods. In other words: RT helps to strengthen the linkages between firms, traders and so on to establish OTHER ctrade channels for other GOODS. Obtaining something else (is a strategy) toward RT

• Undertaking free trade with one’s political allies helps to maintain international goodwill.

International goodwill is out of scope. Here we are talking about strategy

• In recent years, consumers in California boycotted domestic cherries, demanding better working conditions for agricultural laborers in the state.

This is a good argument: better work conditions for worker. Unfortunately this is not related at all with the strategy to add new commercial channels to buy OTHER goods from other countries, more cheap

• Local growers could sell their products at a premium in domestic markets.

What is done into domestic market (local market, inside the nation) is out of scope

• The economic globalization of redundant trade allows for the sharing of cultural norms and values.

Culturals norms and so on......is not the point.

Hope this helps
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Re: Strengthen question (not too easy!!) [#permalink] New post 02 Mar 2013, 04:12
In recent years, consumers in California boycotted domestic cherries, demanding better working conditions for agricultural laborers in the state.

This is a good argument: better work conditions for worker. Unfortunately this is not related at all with the strategy to add new commercial channels to buy OTHER goods from other countries, more cheap

MY RESPONSE
Question: Why should it be? As long as i see that there is an economic rationale, I shouldn't be worried about how that economic advantage is being achieved.

Another point about the OA (Yes, The OA is A): The OA merely states that "Establishing international ties through trade facilitates access to other desired goods that are more efficiently produced abroad."

facilitates access to goods that are more efficiently produced abroad. Now just because they are produced efficiently, there is no guarantee that importing them will be cheaper. What if the transportation costs are prohibitive? What if the import duty is obscene?

See, These are just possibilities which could be true. I am NOT saying they are true. I am merely pointing out the inherent weaknesses of this answer choice?

Am I clear?

Cheers
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Re: Strengthen question (not too easy!!) [#permalink] New post 02 Mar 2013, 07:05
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When you try to strengthen or weaken an argument you do not do this only attacking the conclusion but the overall argument NEVER do only one thing. You have to understand what's going on, to understand the whole situation.

Infact: One feature of the global food economy is the simultaneous import and export of the same items, a phenomenon
known as “redundant trade.”

Although shipping fresh fruits and vegetables is an expensive undertaking, there is a justifiable economic rationale for redundant trade.

A talks about economy, trade, exchange of goods, market......

In recent years, consumers in California boycotted domestic cherries, demanding better working conditions for agricultural laborers in the state.


Is not related, if not far far far away from the real point.

This is how you have to attack CR. This exam work in that away. What you and I think is irrelevant if not for the argument at stake.

regards
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Re: Strengthen question (not too easy!!) [#permalink] New post 02 Mar 2013, 08:41
I am sorry, I am unable to follow what you are saying !
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Re: Strengthen question (not too easy!!) [#permalink] New post 02 Mar 2013, 10:06
Well carcass, I disagree with your logic that an answer choice should be rejected (in strengthen & weaken questions) if it 'seems' unrelated, in favor of a choice that is related.

More importantly. All weaken / Strengthen questions have a 'Fact - Conclusion' or a 'Fact-Reason' (a causes b type) relationship. One can never meddle with the facts i.e. one cannot strengthen or weaken a fact. One always needs to attack the conclusion.

And secondly, The questions I posted previously still remain unanswered ;)

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Re: Strengthen question (not too easy!!) [#permalink] New post 02 Mar 2013, 10:21
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Its A.

Analysis :- (Premise) redundant trade is one feature of global food economy. Its example is california imported x numbers of cherries from chile, italy, and germany while at the same time it exported nearly equal numbers of cherries - produced by it own - to canada and japan. The same thing happen with lettuce and almonds as well. (Counter Premise) exporting food products is an expensive undertaking, However (Conclusion) there is a justifiable rational for redundant trade.

Clearly we need to find that rational which encourages redundant trade. Any choice that focuses on other aspects of this practice such as price difference, quality difference in imported/exported products, consumers choices, social factors, political/diplomatic requirement would support the conclusion.

A) Correct. This choice states that such trade helps the government to establish international ties and with that it can have access to the commodities that are more efficiently produced in other countries. So this trade can be a political/diplomatic requirement.

B) we are discussing redundant trade and not free trade.

C) This is a shell game answer. The consumers' boycott may be the reason for importing cherries, but what about lettuce and almonds? We want to know the rational behind redundant trade taking place everywhere. Consumers' boycott may only be the reason for such trade taking in california but it cant for trade taking place at other places/countries (NOTE that the stimulus is discussing global food economy, not that of california alone)

D) This choice weakens the argument

E) I am confused with this choice. Although I don’t find any strong reason to eliminate this, I will not go with it as long as Choice A is there. Because choice A provides the Monetary reason while this choice provides cultural reason.

Regards,

Abhijit.
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Re: Strengthen question (not too easy!!) [#permalink] New post 02 Mar 2013, 10:27
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StrivingTurtle wrote:
One feature of the global food economy is the simultaneous import and export of the same items, a phenomenon
known as “redundant trade.” In California, for example, domestic cherries are exported to Canada and Japan,
while a nearly equivalent number of cherries are imported from Chile, Italy, and Germany. California also exports
and imports nearly identical amounts of lettuce and almonds. Although shipping fresh fruits and vegetables is an
expensive undertaking, there is a justifiable economic rationale for redundant trade.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the conclusion above?

• Establishing international ties through trade facilitates access to other desired goods that are more efficiently produced abroad.
• Undertaking free trade with one’s political allies helps to maintain international goodwill.
• In recent years, consumers in California boycotted domestic cherries, demanding better working conditions for agricultural laborers in the state.
• Local growers could sell their products at a premium in domestic markets.
• The economic globalization of redundant trade allows for the sharing of cultural norms and values.


Hi Turtle,

The conclusion asks for a justifiable economic rationale behind "redundant trade". So, you can easily eliminate the answer choices that present a non-economic rationale. (B), (C) and (E) present a non-economic rationale for conducting "redundant trade"

(B) Undertaking free trade with one’s political allies helps to maintain international goodwill.

International good will is not an economic benefit that a county can derive from "redundant trade". So, this will not strengthen our conclusion.

(C) In recent years, consumers in California boycotted domestic cherries, demanding better working conditions for agricultural laborers in the state.

This choice presents an issue of betterment of working conditions for agricultural laborers. Another non economic reason, betterment of conditions would be a more of an ethical issue than a economic issue.

(E) The economic globalization of redundant trade allows for the sharing of cultural norms and values.

This choice is a clear non-economic rationale, thus incorrect. In fact it is a cultural rationale.

(D) Local growers could sell their products at a premium in domestic markets.

This is an economic reason, so we can not reject this choice straight away. (D) is the most difficult to prove incorrect of all the incorrect answer choices. If local growers could sell their products at a higher price in domestic markets, then it means that they will get a lower price in foreign markets. Therefore "redundant trade" will not be so viable economically. In fact, (D) could easily be the answer to the question stem which asks for a "justifiable reason not to practice redundant trade"

(A) Establishing international ties through trade facilitates access to other desired goods that are more efficiently produced abroad.

Quote:
facilitates access to goods that are more efficiently produced abroad. Now just because they are produced efficiently, there is no guarantee that importing them will be cheaper. What if the transportation costs are prohibitive? What if the import duty is obscene?


When you say - "What if the transportation costs are prohibitive?" and "What if the import duty is obscene?", you are making additional assumptions. By this way we can make any choice a strengthener or a weakener

Note: While strengthening or weakening the argument you should prove that a choice is correct/ incorrect without making any additional assumptions

Using this logic, one could say that (E) is correct because, What if sharing cultural norms and values prevents war between countries, saving them lot of money, thus an economic rationale. But, this is not correct; we have made an extra assumption that "sharing cultural norms and values prevents war between countries".

Therefore, (A) is correct because it gives an economic rationale for using "redundant trade". Notice that we can prove this without making any additional assumptions.

I hope this clears your doubt,

Vercules
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Re: Strengthen question (not too easy!!) [#permalink] New post 02 Mar 2013, 10:34
Vercules, Understood now !!

Thank you.
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Re: Strengthen question (not too easy!!) [#permalink] New post 02 Mar 2013, 11:45
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StrivingTurtle wrote:
Vercules, Understood now !!

Thank you.



Well I do not see a huge different between my explanation and vercules's.

Quote:
Well carcass, I disagree with your logic that an answer choice should be rejected (in strengthen & weaken questions) if it 'seems' unrelated, in favor of a choice that is related.


In S or W questions you have to find an answer that is OR a bit more true respect the conclusion OR a bit less respect the conclusion and that S or W do not destroy the argument. So from this, a question that is not related to the conclusion OR the conclusion + the argument (i.e. the context) HOW could be the answer ?? This is still unclear for me.....


The most important thing, aside this fact, is that you understood. My personal opinion is that this test is better achiveable if we have notion of market, demand, elasticity, offer and so on.....after all is an exam for Business School. ;)

regards
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Re: One feature of the global food economy is the simultaneous [#permalink] New post 18 Oct 2013, 08:30
I would just like to put a point why 'C' must be wrong option

C -In recent years, consumers in California boycotted domestic cherries, demanding better working conditions for agricultural laborers in the state.

"In California, for example, domestic cherries are exported to Canada and Japan,
while a nearly equivalent number of cherries are imported from Chile, Italy, and Germany." This is mentioned in the Question.

If people Boycott cherries then why would they import them from other countries..?

One might say they are boycotting domestic cherries for improving Labour conditions and hence are purchasing imported cherries, but that any way doesn't solve the cause why people abandon cherries.

Coming to the point raised on the economic gain of making money from cherries rather than wasting the produce - we are not talking about a particular year's produce when people started boycotting, rather both boycotting and production continued for few years - "In recent years, consumers in California boycotted domestic cherries,"

If we talk about the gains regarding improving labour conditions - this might not be an economic gain and not a rationale definitely for economic gain as was already explained above..!

I am sure you got this by now, but just to make it clear to someone who read this discussion.
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Re: One feature of the global food economy is the simultaneous [#permalink] New post 21 Oct 2013, 08:13
It is clearly A,

Why ? Because the argument says that there is a justifiable economic rationale behind the redundant trade.

Only option A fits the requirement.
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Re: One feature of the global food economy is the simultaneous   [#permalink] 21 Oct 2013, 08:13
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