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Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth

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Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth [#permalink] New post 18 Sep 2009, 05:40
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Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

A) scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly
B) scientists had learned about making a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly.
C) scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed
D) learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
E) learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed by scientists

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Re: Before scientists learned how to make [#permalink] New post 18 Sep 2009, 07:50
Will go for C.

A) scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly
B) scientists had learned about making a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly. ( Both the Phrases in Past perfect tense looks no good )
C) scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed ( Will go for this)
Talking about two action in the past. So i took it.
D) learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
E) learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed by scientists ( passive voice)
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make [#permalink] New post 18 Sep 2009, 08:41
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Will go with C ..
Two actions in past .. 1st one is referred by had the other one should be in simple past ..
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make [#permalink] New post 18 Sep 2009, 09:28
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A) scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly - Wrong way to phrase the sentence.
B) scientists had learned about making a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly - Use of "had" 2 times is wrong.
C) scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed - part marked in RED changes the meaning of the sentence. Scientists did not learn to synthesize the hramone itself, they just learned how to make the synthetic harmone.
D) learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly - correct and only remaining answer.
E) learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed by scientists - Same as C.
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make [#permalink] New post 18 Sep 2009, 09:31
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hgp2k wrote:
A) scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly - Wrong way to phrase the sentence.
B) scientists had learned about making a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly - Use of "had" 2 times is wrong.
C) scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed - part marked in RED changes the meaning of the sentence. Scientists did not learn to synthesize the hramone itself, they just learned how to make the synthetic harmone.
D) learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly - correct and only remaining answer.
E) learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed by scientists - Same as C.


Right catch :)

C and D gramatically both correct, but C changes the intent.

'to make synthetic X' and 'to synthesize X' are different.
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make [#permalink] New post 18 Sep 2009, 10:13
C and D are close.

Both C and D clarify the sequence of events.

I would go with C.

I think focus in the second part of the sentence is on how something was done instead of who did it. So we can use passive voice.
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make [#permalink] New post 18 Sep 2009, 14:27
C and D are ver close.

What is the OA and explanations also please.
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make [#permalink] New post 18 Sep 2009, 21:48
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OA is C

as everybody has said, C and D are really close. That's why the question,IMO, is hard.

D) Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

The main problem with D is that "it" refers to "synthetic growth hormone" and not only to synthetic growth hormone. Pronouns refer to the adjectives-noun. In addition, the scientist did not remove the growth hormone, so option C correctly uses the passive voice.
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make [#permalink] New post 21 Dec 2010, 19:59
mikeCoolBoy wrote:
Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

A) scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly
B) scientists had learned about making a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly.
C) scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed
D) learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
E) learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed by scientists

OA will follow


This is really a typical sc which test profound meaning. C and D are both correct in grammar but have different meanings.
D is illogical jerk because it means that: before scientists learn how to synthesize a hormone, they had to remove it (hormone) from nature (which is one of a step in the hormone synthetic process) --> so if hormone is already there, scientists dont have to synthesize it.
C is rational because it means: before scientists learn to synthesize a hormone, hormone had to be removed from nature (because people have not synthesise it yet so they have to use hormone from nature resource). --> that's the meaning of C.
this idea has come up with me when i've browsed this link, found it is very useful to read Ron's explanation.
http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/bef ... -t637.html
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth [#permalink] New post 01 Apr 2012, 10:00
MICKEYXITIN best job done..........

now sure it is c
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth [#permalink] New post 04 Apr 2012, 09:29
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The chief problem in this topic is to succumb to the tempting assumption that scientists removed the natural hormone, before they could synthesize it. However, the text does not specify this. After all the text itself is a fragment with only an introductory subordinate clause but without a main clause

This is the reason that choices B, D and E fall flat, which categorically state that the scientists removed the hormone. In addition, in D, since the pronoun ‘it’ refers to ‘the synthetic growth hormone’ you have the logical question of how anyone could have removed a synthetic hormone, even before knowing how to make it or synthesize it.

C avoids the first pitfall by tactfully switching over to a passive voice, leaving the question of who removed the hormone wide open. In addition and aptly, the pronoun ‘it’ in C simply refers to a growth hormone and not a synthetic growth hormone.
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth [#permalink] New post 11 Jun 2012, 08:24
another awesome question. i was dazzled by the option D. but after reading the Ron's explanation it is clear to me.....hail Ron
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth [#permalink] New post 18 Jun 2012, 18:10
Something else jumped out on me on D... Is it possible that there's a misplaced modifier, i.e. "Scientists had to remove it painstakingly in small amounts" vs "Scientists had to painstakingly remove it in small amounts"?
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make [#permalink] New post 27 Jun 2012, 05:55
hgp2k wrote:
C) scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed - part marked in RED changes the meaning of the sentence. Scientists did not learn to synthesize the hramone itself, they just learned how to make the synthetic harmone.


Who is to say that the meaning of the sentence changes here? Wouldn't marking option A itself wrong somehow mean the sentence does not have a fixed meaning? It could be synthetic or synthesize.. I'd go with option C.
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth [#permalink] New post 20 Jun 2013, 05:39
Doesn't option A,B and D change the meaning of the sentence? In these options scientists make the hormone

whereas in C and E they synthesized the hormone and between C and E

E is passive so its an easy C...
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth [#permalink] New post 21 Jun 2013, 00:07
Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

A) scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly
B) scientists had learned about making a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly.
C) scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed
D) learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
E) learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed by scientists Before X, Y happened. X & Y both should be clause. but , here highlighted portion is a afragment, which is not making any sense

1. Verb Seq: Before X, Y happened. Thus , we need past perfect in Y to maintain this seq. Thus, A, B are out.
2. "painstakingly" is adverb. It should modify Verb "removed". Thus , A, D are out.


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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth [#permalink] New post 21 Jun 2013, 12:04
I dont believe a trickier SC can possibly exist :) C and D are virtually the same. I think D is better because in C , "it" after the comma should refer to scientists, not to the hormone :(
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth [#permalink] New post 21 Jun 2013, 12:05
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Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

A) scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly
B) scientists had learned about making a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly.
C) scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed
D) learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
E) learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed by scientists

The answer is C. I was tempted by D, but than on re-reading and noticing past perfect tense in the modifiers : it had to be painstakingly removed and scientists had to remove it painstakingly , simple past have to be used in the later action.
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth [#permalink] New post 21 Jun 2013, 12:06
Ivan91 wrote:
I dont believe a trickier SC can possibly exist :) C and D are virtually the same. I think D is better because in C , "it" after the comma should refer to scientists, not to the hormone :(


naa , it's not the same. progressive tense + past perfect will loose to simple past + past perfect.
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth [#permalink] New post 11 Jul 2013, 10:24
Ivan91 wrote:
I dont believe a trickier SC can possibly exist :) C and D are virtually the same. I think D is better because in C , "it" after the comma should refer to scientists, not to the hormone :(



The problem with D is that it changes the intended meaning.
D) learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly

The it in second part refers to the synthetic growth hormone in first part. Now how can anyone extract synthetic growth hormone from pituitary glands. That's not possible, all you can extract is natural growth hormone, hence C is the correct answer.
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth   [#permalink] 11 Jul 2013, 10:24
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