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Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, remo

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Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, remo [#permalink]

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Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

(A) scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly

(B) scientists had learned about making a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly

(C) scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed

(D) learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly

(E) learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed by scientists
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by hazelnut on 31 Aug 2017, 09:10, edited 1 time in total.
Reformatted the question.

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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, remo [#permalink]

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New post 18 Sep 2009, 08:50
Will go for C.

A) scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly
B) scientists had learned about making a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly. ( Both the Phrases in Past perfect tense looks no good )
C) scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed ( Will go for this)
Talking about two action in the past. So i took it.
D) learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
E) learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed by scientists ( passive voice)

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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, remo [#permalink]

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New post 18 Sep 2009, 09:41
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Will go with C ..
Two actions in past .. 1st one is referred by had the other one should be in simple past ..

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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, remo [#permalink]

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A) scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly - Wrong way to phrase the sentence.
B) scientists had learned about making a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly - Use of "had" 2 times is wrong.
C) scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed - part marked in RED changes the meaning of the sentence. Scientists did not learn to synthesize the hramone itself, they just learned how to make the synthetic harmone.
D) learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly - correct and only remaining answer.
E) learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed by scientists - Same as C.

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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, remo [#permalink]

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hgp2k wrote:
A) scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly - Wrong way to phrase the sentence.
B) scientists had learned about making a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly - Use of "had" 2 times is wrong.
C) scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed - part marked in RED changes the meaning of the sentence. Scientists did not learn to synthesize the hramone itself, they just learned how to make the synthetic harmone.
D) learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly - correct and only remaining answer.
E) learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed by scientists - Same as C.


Right catch :)

C and D gramatically both correct, but C changes the intent.

'to make synthetic X' and 'to synthesize X' are different.
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, remo [#permalink]

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New post 18 Sep 2009, 11:13
C and D are close.

Both C and D clarify the sequence of events.

I would go with C.

I think focus in the second part of the sentence is on how something was done instead of who did it. So we can use passive voice.

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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, remo [#permalink]

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New post 18 Sep 2009, 22:48
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OA is C

as everybody has said, C and D are really close. That's why the question,IMO, is hard.

D) Before learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

The main problem with D is that "it" refers to "synthetic growth hormone" and not only to synthetic growth hormone. Pronouns refer to the adjectives-noun. In addition, the scientist did not remove the growth hormone, so option C correctly uses the passive voice.

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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, remo [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jan 2010, 10:03
I pick C. For D, the sentence implies that scientists extracted synthetic growth hormone, not naturally occurring growth hormone, from human bodies. This, I think, changes the meaning.

The only thing strange about C is the word "the" preceding "growth hormone." I suppose that if the sentence is referring to a specific growth hormone, then it's okay.

But isn't "scientists" plural in C? Maybe it was edited later. :)
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, remo [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jan 2010, 14:38
you are correct , synthetic can not be used as something synthetic can not be extracted from humans

also , after reading question , i understand that E is wrong because E uses have instead of had

OA:C
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, remo [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jan 2010, 10:23
bmillan01 wrote:
I pick C. For D, the sentence implies that scientists extracted synthetic growth hormone, not naturally occurring growth hormone, from human bodies. This, I think, changes the meaning.

The only thing strange about C is the word "the" preceding "growth hormone." I suppose that if the sentence is referring to a specific growth hormone, then it's okay.

But isn't "scientists" plural in C? Maybe it was edited later. :)



Yep, looks like it was edited. Now C makes sense.

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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, remo [#permalink]

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C.

A. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly
Sentence fragment. Referent of 'it' is synthetic growth hormone, when 'it' should be referring to growth hormone.

B. scientists had learned about making a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly
Referent of 'it' is synthetic growth hormone, when 'it' should be referring to growth hormone.


C. scientist learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed
Pronoun 'it' is sensible as it refers to the growth hormone.


D. learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
Referent of 'it' is synthetic growth hormone, when 'it' should be referring to growth hormone.

E. Learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it have to be painstakingly removed by scientists
subject-verb agreement: it have (x)

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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, remo [#permalink]

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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, remo [#permalink]

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mikeCoolBoy wrote:
Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

A) scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly
B) scientists had learned about making a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly.
C) scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed
D) learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
E) learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed by scientists

OA will follow


This is really a typical sc which test profound meaning. C and D are both correct in grammar but have different meanings.
D is illogical jerk because it means that: before scientists learn how to synthesize a hormone, they had to remove it (hormone) from nature (which is one of a step in the hormone synthetic process) --> so if hormone is already there, scientists dont have to synthesize it.
C is rational because it means: before scientists learn to synthesize a hormone, hormone had to be removed from nature (because people have not synthesise it yet so they have to use hormone from nature resource). --> that's the meaning of C.
this idea has come up with me when i've browsed this link, found it is very useful to read Ron's explanation.
http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/bef ... -t637.html
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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, remo [#permalink]

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New post 08 Oct 2011, 03:22
IMO :C, Earlier I picked B but after understanding the mearning of synthetic and synthesize, I picked C

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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, remo [#permalink]

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New post 11 Oct 2011, 08:37
IMO C

A,B,D can be ruled out because it uses the term "A synthetic growth hormone " and uses "it " later on , implying that the synthetic growth hormone had to be extracted , which makes no sense .

E - The tense is wrong .

Only C brings out the meaning clearly

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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, remo [#permalink]

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New post 29 Oct 2011, 02:33
ichha148 wrote:
11. Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

A. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly
B. scientists had learned about making a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly
C. scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed
D. learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
E. Learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it have to be painstakingly removed by scientists

Between C and E - which one is correct , please provide proper explanation


IMO D. Present participle modifier issue here. D correctly addresses is it by placing "scientists" at the beginning of 2nd clause.

C- no clear referent for pronoun "it"
B- learned about making is awkward.
A- no clear referent for pronoun "it"

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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, remo [#permalink]

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New post 29 Oct 2011, 02:35
immaculatesahai wrote:
ichha148 wrote:
11. Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

A. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly
B. scientists had learned about making a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly
C. scientists learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed
D. learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
E. Learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it have to be painstakingly removed by scientists

Between C and E - which one is correct , please provide proper explanation


IMO D. Present participle modifier issue here. D correctly addresses is it by placing "scientists" at the beginning of 2nd clause.

C- no clear referent for pronoun "it"
B- learned about making is awkward.
A- no clear referent for pronoun "it"



I went through the answers and realized my above post is wrong. D is obviously incorrect because of meanining issues. C wins.

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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, remo [#permalink]

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New post 29 Oct 2011, 22:14
PTK wrote:
Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

A. scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly
B. scientists had learned about making a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly
C. scientist learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed
D. learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
E. Learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it have to be painstakingly removed by scientists

I will proide OA later after 8-10 posts.


A very nice question on pronouns. C wins. All other options have synthetic hormone as the referent for "it". Synthetic hormones cannot be removed from human cadavers.

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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, remo [#permalink]

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Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers.

(A) scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly
(B) scientists had learned about making a synthetic growth hormone, they had to remove it painstakingly
(C) scientist learned how to synthesize the growth hormone, it had to be painstakingly removed
(D) learning how to make a synthetic growth hormone, scientists had to remove it painstakingly
(E) learning how to synthesize the growth hormone, it have to be painstakingly removed by scientists

Last edited by hazelnut on 31 Aug 2017, 09:07, edited 2 times in total.
Reformatted the question.

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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, remo [#permalink]

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New post 05 Nov 2011, 22:42
ksp wrote:
It comes under conciseness. to make a synthetic... can be expressed more stlyistically by making it synthesize


but, there is a word meaning difference betwen synthetic (which means artificial, or not natural) and synthesize (which means to form a whole). just this difference mademe choose B. else C obviously is more concise.
i dont think we can subordinate meaning to concision.

Any thoughts?

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Re: Before scientists learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, remo   [#permalink] 05 Nov 2011, 22:42

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