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For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has

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For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink] New post 22 Oct 2012, 07:05
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For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.


A. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
B. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere decimated
C. devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.
D. devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.
E. the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

MODERATORS: Please note that since the question was originally posted in 2004, no correct answer has been provided yet. This post is just to ensure that I, in addition to all other members of the club, get the correct answer.
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Re: For many revisionist historians [#permalink] New post 22 Oct 2012, 07:24
Marcab wrote:
For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.


A. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
B. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere decimated
C. devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.
D. devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.
E. the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

MODERATORS: Please note that since the question was originally posted in 2004, no correct answer has been provided yet. This post is just to ensure that I, in addition to all other members of the club, get the correct answer.


Excellent question.

The choice is between A and E. Here I take the compound to be devastation and enslavement in the name of progress ie just one noun which says that both devastation and enslavement were in the name of progress. This false progress has decimated native peoples.

I'd go with A

A - seems the best (not perfect perhaps) though the sentence could use some punctuation.
B - wrong active voice - native peoples...decimated
C - unwieldy and superfluous repetition of name of progress + uses present are decimated as if this is a general incontestable fact which repeats
D - which can only refer back to Western Hemisphere not to people (who can refer can back to people) + again are decimated as above in C
E - Very interesting choice. Here devastation is distinct from enslavement in the name of progress. In my opinion, were there a comma between progress and that have decimated, this option would have been correct as the two distinct nouns, devastation and enslavement in the name of progress, would have been linked with the plural tense have decimated. Also wonder what that first article the is doing at the beginning. If the two nouns really are distinct then we will need two articles here - the devastation and the enslavement in the name of progress.

Though I could be wrong here. Looking forward to the other replies.
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Re: For many revisionist historians [#permalink] New post 22 Oct 2012, 07:56
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Hi,

For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

Image

It is very important to understand the intended meaning of the sentence here to get to the correct answer. The sentence says that for many historians, Columbus personifies devastation and enslavement in the name of progress because devastation and enslavement have destroyed native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

Image

Per the meaning, we know that “devastation and enslavement in the name of progress” have led to destruction of native peoples. However, “that” in this sentence refers to the immediate preceding noun “progress” because it is followed by singular verb. This modification now says that “progress” has destroyed native peoples. This certainly is not the logical meaning. Hence, we need plural verb “have” that will agree in number with “devastation and enslavement in the name of progress” and thus will convey the logical intended meaning.

POE:

A) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere: Incorrect for the reason stated above.

B) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere decimated: Incorrect.
1. This option now says that native peoples used devastation and enslavement to destroy. This is certainly not the intended meaning.
2. Also this choice is awkwardly written.

C) devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere that have been decimated: Incorrect.
1. Use of “devastating” and “enslaving” is not appropriate. When a sentence requires the usage of a noun form, then we must use the real noun form of that word and not the verb-ing gerund form. Here “devastation and enslavement” are any day better than “devastating and enslaving”.
2. Since “that” is referring to people, it should be “who”.

D) devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated: Incorrect.
1. Same noun expression error as in choice C.
2. “which” cannot refer to “people”.
3. The choice says that native peoples of the Western Hemisphere are still decimated. This is not the intended meaning. This choice has verb-tense error.

E) the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere: Correct. Singular “has” has been converted to plural “have” to rectify the error of the original sentence. Also notice that “the” is understood before “enslavement”. We have ellipsis at paly here.

PS: Choice C has been wrongly worded in the original post.

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Last edited by egmat on 22 Oct 2012, 07:58, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: For many revisionist historians [#permalink] New post 22 Oct 2012, 07:57
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Harkabir....to what do you think "that" refers to? Is it the "name of progress" or the "devastation and enslavement"?
What I feel is that in E, "the devastation and enslavement" is singular because of the use of "the" and hence incompatible with "have".
Moreover, going in terms of meaning, in A, how can a progress decimate people?
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Re: For many revisionist historians [#permalink] New post 22 Oct 2012, 08:01
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But Shraddha, don't you feel that "the devastation and enslavement" is singular?
Example- Mahendra Singh Dhoni, the captain and wicketkeeper of the Indian cricket team, is a joker.:P
This sentence is absolutely correct and doesn't requires a plural verb.
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Re: For many revisionist historians [#permalink] New post 22 Oct 2012, 08:24
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Hi @Marcab

Mahendra Singh Dhoni, the captain and wicketkeeper of the Indian cricket team, is a joker.

In this sentence Mahendra Singh Dhoni is the subject. Hence we have singular verb “is” here. This verb has nothing to do with the modifiers that have been added in the sentence.

In the SC problem you have posted, “that” is the subject that refers to two individual entities – devastation and enslavement in the name of progress. These entities in general are not used as one subject. They are two different entities. Generally, those two entities are treated as singular that are generally used together. For example:

Bread and butter is my favorite breakfast.
Bat and ball is needed to play cricket.

In both the sentences above, “bread and butter” and “bat and ball” cannot be used independently for breakfast and cricket respectively. Hence these items make a pair. However, this is not the case with “devastation and enslavement in the name of progress”. That is why they are two separate entitiues and need plural verb.

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
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Re: For many revisionist historians [#permalink] New post 22 Oct 2012, 08:28
Marcab wrote:
But Shraddha, don't you feel that "the devastation and enslavement" is singular?
Example- Mahendra Singh Dhoni, the captain and wicketkeeper of the Indian cricket team, is a joker.:P
This sentence is absolutely correct and doesn't requires a plural verb.




Hi Marcab,

I think it would be correct to assume that "devastation and enslavement" as a compounded subject is a playing a role of a plural subject

For example,

BMW has come to personify style and performance in the name of being the best car that have changed perception of the people buying it.

In this case here that would refer back to style and performance which is the compound subject , have would act as verb and perception of the people buying it. as the object of the sentence.

In your example

Mahendra Singh Dhoni, the captain and wicketkeeper of the Indian cricket team, is a joker

since Mahendra Singh Dhoni is a singular subject and hence does not warrants the use of plural verb.

the captain and wicketkeeper of the Indian cricket team is acting as a modifier modifying Dhoni :)

P.S: Not to offend, Dhoni is a class ;)

Pls let me know if i'm missing a pt here .

Thanks
Jatin
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Re: For many revisionist historians [#permalink] New post 22 Oct 2012, 08:42
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egmat wrote:
Hi @Marcab

Mahendra Singh Dhoni, the captain and wicketkeeper of the Indian cricket team, is a joker.

In this sentence Mahendra Singh Dhoni is the subject. Hence we have singular verb “is” here. This verb has nothing to do with the modifiers that have been added in the sentence.

In the SC problem you have posted, “that” is the subject that refers to two individual entities – devastation and enslavement in the name of progress. These entities in general are not used as one subject. They are two different entities. Generally, those two entities are treated as singular that are generally used together. For example:

Bread and butter is my favorite breakfast.
Bat and ball is needed to play cricket.

In both the sentences above, “bread and butter” and “bat and ball” cannot be used independently for breakfast and cricket respectively. Hence these items make a pair. However, this is not the case with “devastation and enslavement in the name of progress”. That is why they are two separate entitiues and need plural verb.

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha


Thanks for the reply shraddha.
So the "the" has no significance? Would it have been the same effect, if it were without "the"?
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Re: For many revisionist historians [#permalink] New post 22 Oct 2012, 08:49
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jsahni123 wrote:
Marcab wrote:
But Shraddha, don't you feel that "the devastation and enslavement" is singular?
Example- Mahendra Singh Dhoni, the captain and wicketkeeper of the Indian cricket team, is a joker.:P
This sentence is absolutely correct and doesn't requires a plural verb.




Hi Marcab,

I think it would be correct to assume that "devastation and enslavement" as a compounded subject is a playing a role of a plural subject

For example,

BMW has come to personify style and performance in the name of being the best car that have changed perception of the people buying it.

In this case here that would refer back to style and performance which is the compound subject , have would act as verb and perception of the people buying it. as the object of the sentence.

In your example

Mahendra Singh Dhoni, the captain and wicketkeeper of the Indian cricket team, is a joker

since Mahendra Singh Dhoni is a singular subject and hence does not warrants the use of plural verb.

the captain and wicketkeeper of the Indian cricket team is acting as a modifier modifying Dhoni :)

P.S: Not to offend, Dhoni is a class ;)

Pls let me know if i'm missing a pt here .

Thanks
Jatin


my real concern is the use of "the".
There is a huge difference between " devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that..." and " the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that...".

More clarifications are needed.
P.S. Dhoni is a joker because of the decision he took in the match against Australia by giving preference to Rohit Sharma over Ashwin and in the match against Pakistan. If they had beaten Pakistan a ball before, things could have been all different.
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Re: For many revisionist historians [#permalink] New post 22 Oct 2012, 08:58
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Marcab wrote:

Thanks for the reply shraddha.
So the "the" has no significance? Would it have been the same effect, if it were without "the"?


Hi there,

Well, the usage of "the" has not been tested exclusively on GMAT. Also, in my first post, I did mention that "the" is ellipsed or understood before "enslavement" because the already appears before "devastation", the first entity in the parallel list. Hence, it is not needed to repeat it before "enslavement". If we remove "the" before "devastation" in choice E, then also it would stand correct because of the SV agreement, which is a deterministic issue in selecting the correct answer.

Hope this helps.
Shraddha
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Re: For many revisionist historians [#permalink] New post 22 Oct 2012, 10:34
egmat wrote:
Hi,

For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

Image

It is very important to understand the intended meaning of the sentence here to get to the correct answer. The sentence says that for many historians, Columbus personifies devastation and enslavement in the name of progress because devastation and enslavement have destroyed native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

Image

Per the meaning, we know that “devastation and enslavement in the name of progress” have led to destruction of native peoples. However, “that” in this sentence refers to the immediate preceding noun “progress” because it is followed by singular verb. This modification now says that “progress” has destroyed native peoples. This certainly is not the logical meaning. Hence, we need plural verb “have” that will agree in number with “devastation and enslavement in the name of progress” and thus will convey the logical intended meaning.

POE:

A) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere: Incorrect for the reason stated above.

B) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere decimated: Incorrect.
1. This option now says that native peoples used devastation and enslavement to destroy. This is certainly not the intended meaning.
2. Also this choice is awkwardly written.

C) devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere that have been decimated: Incorrect.
1. Use of “devastating” and “enslaving” is not appropriate. When a sentence requires the usage of a noun form, then we must use the real noun form of that word and not the verb-ing gerund form. Here “devastation and enslavement” are any day better than “devastating and enslaving”.
2. Since “that” is referring to people, it should be “who”.

D) devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated: Incorrect.
1. Same noun expression error as in choice C.
2. “which” cannot refer to “people”.
3. The choice says that native peoples of the Western Hemisphere are still decimated. This is not the intended meaning. This choice has verb-tense error.

E) the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere: Correct. Singular “has” has been converted to plural “have” to rectify the error of the original sentence. Also notice that “the” is understood before “enslavement”. We have ellipsis at paly here.

PS: Choice C has been wrongly worded in the original post.

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha


hmmm helps me articulate exactly why I felt hesitate about the that in choice A. In E the subject changes from progress to the devastation and enslavement . Also good point about ellipsis. Thanks and kudos :)
Re: For many revisionist historians   [#permalink] 22 Oct 2012, 10:34
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