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The industrial laws for environment protection enforced by

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The industrial laws for environment protection enforced by [#permalink] New post 26 May 2005, 13:10
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A
B
C
D
E

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The industrial laws for environment protection enforced by the Government of India on industries have exerted more pressure on the larger industrial units than on the smaller ones. The large industries have a much more massive scale of operations, so in order to adhere to the new laws, they have to change more complex operations and spend much more money.

Which of the following, if true, most weakens the argument above?
(A) Environmental regulations are applicable in the same way to all segments of industry, irrespective of the size of operations.
(B) Many large industries depend on the smaller industries for their intermediaries.
(C) Small industries are less likely to have at their disposal the capital reserves to improve their existing operations.
(D) Large industries are always in a better position to diversify their operations than are smaller industries.
(E) Many a times, the technology requirements of large and small industries are similar.
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 [#permalink] New post 26 May 2005, 15:12
D
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 [#permalink] New post 26 May 2005, 17:46
D.
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 [#permalink] New post 26 May 2005, 19:54
C.
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 [#permalink] New post 27 May 2005, 05:13
I would go with A. This directly negates the premise about the massive scale of operations.
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 [#permalink] New post 27 May 2005, 05:48
D it is.

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 [#permalink] New post 27 May 2005, 08:12
C. What's the OA?
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 [#permalink] New post 27 May 2005, 10:14
Can you all explain how you use the logic to come to the conclusion please?

I'm picking C because it demonstrated the difficulty that the small operations are facing, which "neutralized" the argument in the stem that the large operations have tougher time adhering to the law.
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 [#permalink] New post 27 May 2005, 10:40
I'll pick D.

It says larger companies have to change more complex operations and spend much more money and so more pressure on the larger industrial units.

D says, Large industries are always in a better position to diversify their operations than are smaller industries

Thus, the pressure would not be more on larger industries compared to the smaller ones.

C tells that small industries have less money at there disposal, but there is no comparison with large industies. Also, they will be spending less money than large industries and are thus expected to have less money.
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 [#permalink] New post 27 May 2005, 13:07
IMO D should be the answer but C also comes close but D directly negates the Conclusion.

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Re: CR - Industrial Law [#permalink] New post 27 May 2005, 16:51
Conclusion: Environmental requirement exerts more pressure on larger industries, because they have bigger operations and need more money to change more complex operations.

Ask for weakening.

(A) Environmental regulations are applicable in the same way to all segments of industry, irrespective of the size of operations.
Yes regulations are equally applicable but still it's likely that bigger operations need to spend more money. Not weakening.

(B) Many large industries depend on the smaller industries for their intermediaries.
It has nothing to do with the impact of environmental regulations, out of scope.

(C) Small industries are less likely to have at their disposal the capital reserves to improve their existing operations.
This one seems good, since it talks about why small industries may have greater burdons to improve the existing operation so that it becomes more environmental friendly.

(D) Large industries are always in a better position to diversify their operations than are smaller industries.
Environmental regulations require industries to make their process more environmental friendly, not require them to diversify their operations. Irrelavent.

(E) Many a times, the technology requirements of large and small industries are similar.
If it is talking about the tech requirement for environmental regulation then I would have chosen this one. But on second read it is talking about tech requirement for the industries themselves. Again kind of irrelavent to environment regulation requirements.

So I would choose C.
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 [#permalink] New post 28 May 2005, 02:00
A) will explain if correct...
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 [#permalink] New post 28 May 2005, 02:39
christoph wrote:
A) will explain if correct...


I vote for C.

BTW, what has diversification of operations got to do with compliance to enviromental regulations.I'm sure no industry would give up their core business just to get past the burden of env. regulations.

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Re: CR - Industrial Law [#permalink] New post 28 May 2005, 03:46
HongHu wrote:
Conclusion: Environmental requirement exerts more pressure on larger industries, because they have bigger operations and need more money to change more complex operations.

Ask for weakening.

(A) Environmental regulations are applicable in the same way to all segments of industry, irrespective of the size of operations.
Yes regulations are equally applicable but still it's likely that bigger operations need to spend more money. Not weakening.

(B) Many large industries depend on the smaller industries for their intermediaries.
It has nothing to do with the impact of environmental regulations, out of scope.

(C) Small industries are less likely to have at their disposal the capital reserves to improve their existing operations.
This one seems good, since it talks about why small industries may have greater burdons to improve the existing operation so that it becomes more environmental friendly.

(D) Large industries are always in a better position to diversify their operations than are smaller industries.
Environmental regulations require industries to make their process more environmental friendly, not require them to diversify their operations. Irrelavent.

(E) Many a times, the technology requirements of large and small industries are similar.
If it is talking about the tech requirement for environmental regulation then I would have chosen this one. But on second read it is talking about tech requirement for the industries themselves. Again kind of irrelavent to environment regulation requirements.

So I would choose C.


I have a question about the choice C.

Improving the existing operations need not necessarily be an environment friendly initiative. So wouldnt you think it is too broad in its scope?
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 [#permalink] New post 28 May 2005, 05:26
The author is trying to say the bigger industries are under greater pressure than the smaller industries are.

To weaken this conclusion we can show that the smaller industries are under much greate pressure. I believe (C) does it the best.

Even if we assume that the bigger industries have complex operations. then these industries can adhere to the regulations provided they have enough capital to change the manufacturing process.
It does not matter the what size or the complexity of the manufacturing process is. Does a particular indutsry have enough capital to chnage the process.
(C) clearly says that small industries dont have money. Hence it must be true that most of these will have to closedown if they cannot adhere to the regulations.

My answer would be (C)
  [#permalink] 28 May 2005, 05:26
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