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The states three problem areas have seen a gradual decrease

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The states three problem areas have seen a gradual decrease [#permalink] New post 18 Jan 2011, 10:14
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The state’s three problem areas have seen a gradual decrease in severity, one curtailed by an expanded police budget, increasing wages in rural towns, and improved monitoring by federal workers.

(A) one curtailed by an expanded police budget, increasing wages in rural towns, and improved monitoring by federal workers.
(B) one curtailed by an expanded police budget, wages that have increased in rural towns, and federal workers improving their monitoring.
(C) one curtailed by an expanded police budget, rural towns that have increased their wages, and monitoring improvements by federal workers.
(D) curtailed by an expanded police budget, wages increasing in rural towns, and federal workers improving their monitoring.
(E) curtailed by an expanded police budget, increasing wages in rural towns, and federal workers improving their monitoring.


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Re: three problem areas [#permalink] New post 18 Jan 2011, 22:49
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This is a test of participial usage. ‘Increasing wages’ is present participle, while ‘expanded police budget ’ is past participle. As per the tenets of llism, it is acceptable to use present and past participles in the same sentence

E.g. This year we are witnessing ‘unexpected surge’ in IT projects especially from Europe and increasing recruitments both on campus and off campus
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Re: The states three problem areas have seen a gradual decrease [#permalink] New post 12 Apr 2012, 09:56
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To kind of clarify the questions on why "one" is needed.

The state’s three problem areas have seen a gradual decrease in severity, one curtailed by an expanded police budget, increasing wages in rural towns, and improved monitoring by federal workers.

My interpretation is that the "one" refers to the "gradual decrease." The decrease is caused by expanded police budget, increasing wages, and improved federal workers.

Without the one, the meaning of the sentences changes. If you left out the one, you would be saying that the problem areas occurred because of the police budget, wages, etc.
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Re: The states three problem areas have seen a gradual decrease [#permalink] New post 09 Sep 2013, 14:19
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jaituteja wrote:
Hi pqhai,

Can you help me with the usage of "one" in the below question.

"One" appears very tempting.

the-states-three-problem-areas-have-seen-a-gradual-decrease-107968.html

Thanks,
Jai


Hi Jai. Please see my response.

The state’s three problem areas have seen a gradual decrease in severity, one curtailed by an expanded police budget, increasing wages in rural towns, and improved monitoring by federal workers.

(A) one curtailed by an expanded police budget, increasing wages in rural towns, and improved monitoring by federal workers.
CORRECT.
Parallelism: Three areas have seen a gradual decrease in severity.............., increasing wages......, and improved monitoring..... <== Blue parts are parallel. The three parts are all NOUN phrases ==> keep Parallel.

Modifier: "one curtailed by an expanded police budget" <-- is appositive modifier. "One" refers to "severity" clearly. Remember: Verb+ed modifier always modifies preceding noun. However, the sentence uses appositive modifier to eliminate ambiguity. If you remove "one" --> Readers will be confused. "curtailed" modifies "a gradual decrease" or "severity"?

(B) one curtailed by an expanded police budget, wages that have increased in rural towns, and federal workers improving their monitoring.
Wrong. Parallelism problem. Three areas have seen a gradual decrease in severity.............., wages that have increased......, and federal workers monitoring.....<== NOT parallel, noun phrase vs clause vs noun phrase.

(C) one curtailed by an expanded police budget, rural towns that have increased their wages, and monitoring improvements by federal workers.
Wrong. Same as B. Not parallel. We need three NOUN Phrases. However, in C, the structure is: Noun phrase vs Clause vs Noun phrase --> Not parallel.

(D) curtailed by an expanded police budget, wages increasing in rural towns, and federal workers improving their monitoring.
Wrong. Modifier problem. If you remove "one" --> Ambiguous (see explanation in A above).

(E) curtailed by an expanded police budget, increasing wages in rural towns, and federal workers improving their monitoring.
Wrong. Modifier problem. If you remove "one" --> Ambiguous (see explanation in A above).

Hope it helps.
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Re: three problem areas [#permalink] New post 18 Jan 2011, 21:04
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(A) one curtailed by an expanded police budget, ‘increasing wages in rural towns, and ‘improved monitoring’ by federal workers……… In terms of pure llism, Only A can befit as the right answer, all three factors represented by participial adjectives. Correct llism



(B) one curtailed by ‘an expanded’ police budget,wages that have increased’ ]in rural towns, and ‘federal workers improving’ .-- unparallel


(C) one curtailed by ‘an expanded['police budget, ‘rural towns that have increased their wages, and ‘monitoring improvements’ by federal workers.--------- unparallel


(D) curtailed by ‘an expanded’ police budget, wages increasing. in rural towns, and federal workers improvig’ their monitoring. ----- unparallel


(E) curtailed by ‘an expanded’ police budget, ‘increasing wages’ in rural towns, and federal workers improving’ their monitoring.---- last one unparallel.

One doubt in A persists. What is the resumptive pronoun one trying to refer to? Three problems areas is plural and can ‘one’ represent a plural noun? I would prefer a choice without the ‘one’, but choices D and E are grammatically wrong
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Last edited by daagh on 26 Jan 2011, 05:51, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: three problem areas [#permalink] New post 18 Jan 2011, 22:00
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i am lost here.i somehow feel A should have "increasED wages" instead of "increasING wages" to complete the parallelism.

daagh a little help here please!!. how do you say "increasING wages" is parallel to "an expandED police budget" and "improvED monitoring.
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Re: three problem areas [#permalink] New post 18 Jan 2011, 23:18
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Thanks daagh for the explanation.
a kudos is in order.
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Re: three problem areas [#permalink] New post 25 Jan 2011, 08:50
feruz77 wrote:
The state’s three problem areas have seen a gradual decrease in severity, one curtailed by an expanded police budget, increasing wages in rural towns, and improved monitoring by federal workers.

(A) one curtailed by an expanded police budget, increasing wages in rural towns, and improved monitoring by federal workers.
(B) one curtailed by an expanded police budget, wages that have increased in rural towns, and federal workers improving their monitoring.
(C) one curtailed by an expanded police budget, rural towns that have increased their wages, and monitoring improvements by federal workers.
(D) curtailed by an expanded police budget, wages increasing in rural towns, and federal workers improving their monitoring.
(E) curtailed by an expanded police budget, increasing wages in rural towns, and federal workers improving their monitoring.


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This is a tough one.
D and E are out because they lack "one".
A is so right because it conforms parallelism.
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Re: three problem areas [#permalink] New post 04 Feb 2011, 01:59
A, pure shot of parallelism :)

Well, what does 'one' indicate?
If I don't provide 'one', answer still looks good to me.

Any specific reason for the usage of 'one'?
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Re: three problem areas [#permalink] New post 22 Mar 2011, 07:36
+1 A

Parallelism. Also it keeps "one" to not change the meaning of the sentence.
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Re: three problem areas [#permalink] New post 22 Mar 2011, 17:16
I had a same question, Why One is required? Also, regarding parallelism I was also having the same question of increasing versus increased. Kudos to daagh.
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Re: The states three problem areas have seen a gradual decrease [#permalink] New post 12 Apr 2012, 06:43
Parallelism for A makes sense,

But I will repeat the same question - why 'one' is required?
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Re: The states three problem areas have seen a gradual decrease [#permalink] New post 12 Apr 2012, 13:54
makes sense.. man this is tough !

Thanks !!
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Re: The states three problem areas have seen a gradual decrease [#permalink] New post 15 Apr 2012, 22:23
Good One ...
Thanks Dagh For the explanation...

I was also confused with the past and present participle thing...
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Re: The states three problem areas have seen a gradual decrease [#permalink] New post 15 Apr 2012, 23:16
good question clears concept of parallelism
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Re: The states three problem areas have seen a gradual decrease [#permalink] New post 16 Apr 2012, 18:45
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Quote:
The state’s three problem areas have seen a gradual decrease in severity, one curtailed by an expanded police budget, increasing wages in rural towns, and improved monitoring by federal workers.

My interpretation is that the "one" refers to the "gradual decrease”. The decrease is caused by expanded police budget, increasing wages, and improved federal workers.


It is really tempting to think that one refers to the decrease. But on a deeper perusal, the word '‘curtailed” is a problem.

Actually when we say that the decrease is curtailed, (two negatives canceling each other to make a positive) we in effect mean that the problem areas have increased in severity, curtailed by factors A, B and C. Isn't this antithetical?

But the appositive ’one’ can very well refer to the severity, the object of the preposition ‘in’ to mean that the severity has been curtailed. All said and done, still the indefinite pronoun 'one’ is a source of trouble.
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Re: The states three problem areas have seen a gradual decrease [#permalink] New post 21 Apr 2012, 11:10
@daagh

Doesnt 'one' refer to one of three problems????
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Re: The states three problem areas have seen a gradual decrease [#permalink] New post 21 Apr 2012, 20:13
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No. It can not refer to one of the three problems. If only one problem is curtailed, what is happening to the other two? Are they not being curtailed?
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Re: The states three problem areas have seen a gradual decrease [#permalink] New post 24 Apr 2012, 00:23
This problem is not about PARTICIPLES but about PARALLELISM. Participles are verbals that can be formed by removing the be form of the verb from sentences in active/passive voice. Curtailed itself is a participle (past-participle) used in the question. Correct answer is one that puts all the NOUN PHRASES in PARALLEL. All option have NOUN PHRASES so grammatically all are || but only A has all noun phrases that are logically ||

(A) one curtailed by an expanded police budget, increasing wages in rural towns, and improved monitoring by federal workers.
(B) one curtailed by an expanded police budget, wages that have increased in rural towns, and federal workers improving their monitoring.
(C) one curtailed by an expanded police budget, rural towns that have increased their wages, and monitoring improvements by federal workers.
(D) curtailed by an expanded police budget, wages increasing in rural towns, and federal workers improving their monitoring.
(E) curtailed by an expanded police budget, increasing wages in rural towns, and federal workers improving their monitoring.

Problem with B,C,D,E -Severity CANNOT be curtailed by wages, federal workers, rural towns
A says Severity curtailed by expanded police budget, increasing wages and improved monitoring
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Re: The states three problem areas have seen a gradual decrease [#permalink] New post 07 May 2012, 22:40
vikram4689 wrote:
This problem is not about PARTICIPLES but about PARALLELISM. Participles are verbals that can be formed by removing the be form of the verb from sentences in active/passive voice. Curtailed itself is a participle (past-participle) used in the question. Correct answer is one that puts all the NOUN PHRASES in PARALLEL. All option have NOUN PHRASES so grammatically all are || but only A has all noun phrases that are logically ||

(A) one curtailed by an expanded police budget, increasing wages in rural towns, and improved monitoring by federal workers.
(B) one curtailed by an expanded police budget, wages that have increased in rural towns, and federal workers improving their monitoring.
(C) one curtailed by an expanded police budget, rural towns that have increased their wages, and monitoring improvements by federal workers.
(D) curtailed by an expanded police budget, wages increasing in rural towns, and federal workers improving their monitoring.
(E) curtailed by an expanded police budget, increasing wages in rural towns, and federal workers improving their monitoring.

Problem with B,C,D,E -[highlight]Severity CANNOT be curtailed by wages, federal workers, rural towns
A says Severity curtailed by expanded police budget, increasing wages and improved monitoring[/highlight]


Nicely explained. Earlier i went with B, but now it is clear that A is correct.
Re: The states three problem areas have seen a gradual decrease   [#permalink] 07 May 2012, 22:40
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