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# Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system

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Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system [#permalink]

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13 Sep 2003, 20:02
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Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A cuture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

Please don't be stingy with your explanations!!!
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08 Jun 2006, 05:10
selene wrote:
OA is ^ D ^

Here we should talk about the culture so we need "Japan's". Otherwise we would be trying to find a connection between Japan and the culture and that is not what we want ..

So we are left with D and E.

(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the

(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

In E we have the redundancy with the repetition of "of". It is not necessary.

But the main subject is that "which" in E has no clear referrant. As we use "which" with non restrictive clauses and "that" with restrcitive clauses, "that" is better for this question.

I don't believe this. Must be E. Here is the discussion and explanation given by SC guru Paul

http://www.gmatclub.com/phpbb/viewtopic.php?t=8422
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08 Jun 2006, 05:19
ps_dahiya wrote:
selene wrote:
OA is ^ D ^

Here we should talk about the culture so we need "Japan's". Otherwise we would be trying to find a connection between Japan and the culture and that is not what we want ..

So we are left with D and E.

(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the

(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

In E we have the redundancy with the repetition of "of". It is not necessary.

But the main subject is that "which" in E has no clear referrant. As we use "which" with non restrictive clauses and "that" with restrcitive clauses, "that" is better for this question.

I don't believe this. Must be E. Here is the discussion and explanation given by SC guru Paul

http://www.gmatclub.com/phpbb/viewtopic.php?t=8422

This question was discussed on the forum before. It is a complicated one, that's why I posted it here. The OA is D.
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08 Jun 2006, 05:28
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08 Jun 2006, 09:16
I went with A...

How come "Japan's is" grammatically correct?
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08 Jun 2006, 10:06
hm... I might agree with comparison of culture and system, but I don't quite get how a possessive "Japan's" can be a subject, or is it?

interesting... did the question come from the OG?
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08 Jun 2006, 20:19
selene wrote:
ps_dahiya wrote:
selene wrote:
OA is ^ D ^

Here we should talk about the culture so we need "Japan's". Otherwise we would be trying to find a connection between Japan and the culture and that is not what we want ..

So we are left with D and E.

(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the

(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

In E we have the redundancy with the repetition of "of". It is not necessary.

But the main subject is that "which" in E has no clear referrant. As we use "which" with non restrictive clauses and "that" with restrcitive clauses, "that" is better for this question.

I don't believe this. Must be E. Here is the discussion and explanation given by SC guru Paul

http://www.gmatclub.com/phpbb/viewtopic.php?t=8422

This question was discussed on the forum before. It is a complicated one, that's why I posted it here. The OA is D.

Selene,

I went through the links provided by you.
However I have a doubt which I had earlier.

Don't you think in D "ever-present congestion" is not clear??
It seems as if congestion is present everywhere. Actually it should say "congestion is present everywhere in Japan."

In B

Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its ever-present congestion tolerable.

Here Japan can be a system.
I am not sure if it's appropriate to say "Japan is a culture".
"its" clearly says about Japan's Congestion.

Regards,
Brajesh
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08 Jun 2006, 20:57
u2lover wrote:
hm... I might agree with comparison of culture and system, but I don't quite get how a possessive "Japan's" can be a subject, or is it?

interesting... did the question come from the OG?

I think "culture" is not explicitly stated here.

Japan's culture is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the
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08 Jun 2006, 21:27
ps_dahiya wrote:
u2lover wrote:
hm... I might agree with comparison of culture and system, but I don't quite get how a possessive "Japan's" can be a subject, or is it?

interesting... did the question come from the OG?

I think "culture" is not explicitly stated here.

Japan's culture is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

hey ps_dahiya, thanks for answering my crazy questions when others ignore it... after visiting this forum for a while I realized that my SC hit rate drastically dropped for some reason... it used to be my strength... I guess the more I think about the question, the more mistakes I make... hope it will go up one day
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08 Jun 2006, 21:37
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u2lover wrote:
ps_dahiya wrote:
u2lover wrote:
hm... I might agree with comparison of culture and system, but I don't quite get how a possessive "Japan's" can be a subject, or is it?

interesting... did the question come from the OG?

I think "culture" is not explicitly stated here.

Japan's culture is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

hey ps_dahiya, thanks for answering my crazy questions when others ignore it... after visiting this forum for a while I realized that my SC hit rate drastically dropped for some reason... it used to be my strength... I guess the more I think about the question, the more mistakes I make... hope it will go up one day

Hey u2lover,

Your question was already answered in one of my posts.

b14kumar wrote:

It's between B and D.
I would go with B.

Ok let's take D first:

Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the ever-present congestion tolerable.

We may think "Japan's is" as "Culture of Japan" and can rewrite the sentence as

"Culture of Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the ever-present congestion tolerable."

However, a culture can not be a system.
Moreover "ever-present congestion" is not clear. It seems as if congestion is present everywhere. Actually it should say congestion is present everywhere in Japan.

So D is out.

In B

Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its ever-present congestion tolerable.

Here Japan can be a system.
I am not sure if it's appropriate to say "Japan is a culture".
"its" clearly says about Japan's Congestion.

So IMO B should be the answer.

Regards,
Brajesh

And hey, your hit rate will definitely go up.
I am also expecting same for me.
We need to practice more and more.....
All the best!!

Regards,
Brajesh
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08 Jun 2006, 21:44
thanks brajesh,

somehow I missed it as "culture of Japan" seemed different from the possessive, that's why I overlooked it...

but it's great that someone is paying attention to an underdog like me!!!

by the way, is it common to see the subject omitted like this?
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08 Jun 2006, 22:13
u2lover wrote:
thanks brajesh,

somehow I missed it as "culture of Japan" seemed different from the possessive, that's why I overlooked it...

but it's great that someone is paying attention to an underdog like me!!!

by the way, is it common to see the subject omitted like this?

This is the first SC I have seen with such subject.
May be this type of questions are not frequently asked but it's good to have knowledge about this kind of tricky questions.

And hey, This forum is meant to learn and disseminate our learnings among members.
We should pay attention to everyone's post.

Best wishes for all your efforts.

Regards,
Brajesh
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08 Jun 2006, 23:00
So finally may I know what is the OA ?

Is it 'D' or 'E'
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09 Jun 2006, 04:20
b14kumar wrote:
selene wrote:
ps_dahiya wrote:
selene wrote:
OA is ^ D ^

Here we should talk about the culture so we need "Japan's". Otherwise we would be trying to find a connection between Japan and the culture and that is not what we want ..

So we are left with D and E.

(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the

(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

In E we have the redundancy with the repetition of "of". It is not necessary.

But the main subject is that "which" in E has no clear referrant. As we use "which" with non restrictive clauses and "that" with restrcitive clauses, "that" is better for this question.

I don't believe this. Must be E. Here is the discussion and explanation given by SC guru Paul

http://www.gmatclub.com/phpbb/viewtopic.php?t=8422

This question was discussed on the forum before. It is a complicated one, that's why I posted it here. The OA is D.

Selene,

I went through the links provided by you.
However I have a doubt which I had earlier.

Don't you think in D "ever-present congestion" is not clear??
It seems as if congestion is present everywhere. Actually it should say "congestion is present everywhere in Japan."

In B

Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its ever-present congestion tolerable.

Here Japan can be a system.
I am not sure if it's appropriate to say "Japan is a culture".
"its" clearly says about Japan's Congestion.

Regards,
Brajesh

The OA for this interesting question is given as ^ D ^, as I provided in the links. There is not an OE I have. However, the main point in this question is finding the right subject. Is it Japan or the culture of Japan??

>> As the sentence goes on like "... a culture of accomodation ..." we can understand that we should talk about Japanese culture not Japan itself. Culture of Japan is ok, Japan's is ok, Japanese is ok, but I don't think we can use Japan as the subject. It cannot be a culture.

>>Just like I have told in my previous post, this way we are left with E and D. An D is better than E.
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Re: SC - ever-present congestion [#permalink]

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09 Jun 2006, 09:35
selene wrote:
Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A cuture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

good question selen.

IMO too it should be D. however D and E donot have any significant difference but a very minor i.e a coma (,).

because in general a coma (,) is required before "which" where the same is not necessary before "that". in the above question, there is no coma. therefore D make sense.
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21 Aug 2006, 05:36
Knarly SC. ...`s is a .... pattern went straight to the notes.
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21 Aug 2006, 11:38
I remember I got it wrong the first time... Japan is not a SYSTEM... it is Japan's culture that is a system.

D for the 2nd time

a classic SC
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22 Aug 2006, 03:24
Really good one. I should not forget this.

D
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22 Aug 2006, 04:06
Hummm.

I eliminated on the first glance D and E and hesitated b/w B and C.

For me D was out because it seems wordy and says "J's culture is a culture of accomodation, a system of forms that make ....

This sentence raises few interrogations:
- I have the feeling something is missing such as an AND=>culture is a culture AND a system.
Or are we allowed sometimes to ignore the linking element?
Ex : My car is red,big OR My car is red and big?

- U2 said Japan is not a system. Can culture be a system?
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22 Aug 2006, 07:51
It's D

Japan is a country/nation not a culture, therefore A is out; B is out japan isn't a system; C is out, Japan isn'y a culture (this time in pre-position).

E is out because of "of" that doesn't reate to anything. In D system is an acceptable apposition to culture (culture is a system of forms) and rthe absolute possessive case is OK "Japan's is" cf "Hers were the toil and suffering...."

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint,
a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is
a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A cuture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system
of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system
of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system
of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

Please don't be stingy with your explanations!!![/quote]
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Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system [#permalink]

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02 Nov 2007, 23:13
Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system   [#permalink] 02 Nov 2007, 23:13

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# Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system

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