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Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms,

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Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms,  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 11 Dec 2018, 05:04
9
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A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

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Question Stats:

38% (01:35) correct 62% (01:36) wrong based on 1844 sessions

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Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.


(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its

(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its

(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its

(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the

(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

Originally posted by MartinMag on 13 Sep 2003, 21:02.
Last edited by Bunuel on 11 Dec 2018, 05:04, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms,  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 15 Sep 2003, 07:31
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3
MartinMag wrote:
Oops! Sorry about that! Answer is D and not E

Could you explain a little further? Why is E wrong?
Is "that" better than "which" ?

Thanks and sorry again

Martin


In D, The clause starting with "that" is a RESTRICTIVE clause...how do i know that?

Remove the "that" clause..we are left with a run on sentence.

With Restrictive Clauses, ALWAYS use THAT.

NOTE:
Its true that both "that" and "which" can be used to start restrictive clauses...but "that" is always preferred.

So we zoom in to D..[/b]

Another reason for rejecting E...

Japan's is a culture of X, of a system of forms...this structure is not quite correct...

Culture and System are two different things.. isnt it?

Culture of a System of.......isnt that messed up?

correct version can be:

Japan's is a culture of X and a system of Y that makes its Z


ok, now to answer in general about that and which

That starts a restrictive clause providing essential information.. no commas ever for "that"

The book, which is on the table, is mine...wrong

If we remove the red part, you will ask...which book....isnt it?

We need more information...

The book that is on the table is mine...correct

The sentence in blue is thus integral to the sentence.

Here we have complete information about the book...so this is fine
So if you get rid of a "which" clause ...it "should not" change the meaning of the sentence..if it does, then your sentence construction is wrong.....the Which clause is usually set of from the sentence by commas...

Be advised..there may be cases where ETS will introduce the same error in ALL the choices...in that case, dont lose sight of the fact that you got to pick the BEST answer....for example , you may have five choices...all of these have no comma before which...in that case..you can be sure that the rule " no comma before which" is not tested here.

Is that good enough?

Thanks
Praetorian

Originally posted by Praetorian on 15 Sep 2003, 02:50.
Last edited by Praetorian on 15 Sep 2003, 07:31, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms,  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jun 2006, 22:05
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1
It's between B and D.
I would go with B.

Ok let's take D first:

Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the ever-present congestion tolerable.

We may think "Japan's is" as "Culture of Japan" and can rewrite the sentence as
"Culture of Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the ever-present congestion tolerable."

However, a culture can not be a system.
Moreover "ever-present congestion" is not clear. It seems as if congestion is present everywhere. Actually it should say congestion is present everywhere in Japan.

So D is out.


In B

Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its ever-present congestion tolerable.

Here Japan can be a system.
I am not sure if it's appropriate to say "Japan is a culture".
"its" clearly says about Japan's Congestion.

So IMO B should be the answer.

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New post 08 Jun 2006, 04:16
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OA is ^ D ^


Here we should talk about the culture so we need "Japan's". Otherwise we would be trying to find a connection between Japan and the culture and that is not what we want ..

So we are left with D and E.

(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the

(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

In E we have the redundancy with the repetition of "of". It is not necessary.

But the main subject is that "which" in E has no clear referrant. As we use "which" with non restrictive clauses and "that" with restrcitive clauses, "that" is better for this question.
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Re: Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms,  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Aug 2008, 23:01
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marshpa wrote:
34. Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.
(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

OA is D but my question is whats wrong with C and how D can be OA...Japan's is a culture, is this idiomatic expression? Folks please help me with this..


A,B,C
Says.. Japan is a Culture.. So.. they are gone.

between D and E.. (They may not be best but better than other 3 options)

In D, I think verb "IS" placed in the midlle of the subject "Janpan's Culture"

I can rewrite the setence like below

Japan's culture of accommodation and constraint IS a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the


E is out.."of systems of forms" --> awkward.
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Re: Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms,  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2008, 13:44
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jitendra wrote:
34. Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

Getting no clue about right one. pls help


A, B and C tells us that Japan is a culture which is incorrect. (Japan is a country).
D and E states- Japan's is a culture which means, Japan has a culture which is characterized by (accomodation and contraint- use proper form).
Between (D) and (E), (D) is parallel.
In (E), "of a system of forms, etiquette" breaks teh parallelism.
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Re: Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms,  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Oct 2009, 20:39
kairoshan wrote:
34. Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the


Can't resist replying to a Q on Japan :)

IMO (D)

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
<--"its" predecessor is not clear"
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its <--same as (A)
(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
<--Japan is not a culture. It should be Japan's culture
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the <--a culture of <>, a system of <> parallel form
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the <--a culture of a system of forms... sounds awkward and seems like changing the meaning of original

an edit on (A) reason
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Re: Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms,  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Oct 2009, 23:50
kairoshan wrote:
34. Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the



Realized that Japan cannot be a culture - so changed to D from A:

(A) is incorrect and wrong meaning as "Japan" cannot be '"a culture of accommodation and constraint".
(B) is incorrect and wrong meaning as "Japan" cannot be '"a culture of accommodation and constraint".
also "which" refers to "images", which is plural and the verb of plural "which" should be "make" not "makes".
(C) Too wired???????


(D) is correct as "Japan's" can be a culture of accommodation and constraint. The sentence reads as:
“Japan’s is a culture of accommodation and constraints, a system (of forms and etiquettes) that makes the everpresent congestion tolerable”.


(E) "Japan's" cannot be a culture of accommodation and constraint.
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Re: Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms,  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Oct 2009, 03:06
D for me.

IMO the explanation should be as follows:

Japan's (that is japans culture) is:

1) a culture of accommodation and constraint,
2) a system of forms, etiquette and images (here we are not talking about this point as a separate entity but rather to aid in describing the above point and thereby japans culture - this would explain the use of a comma rather than 'and')

which makes (because we are referring to 'culture' which is singular) the ever-present congestion tolerable.

Hope this helps!

Let me know what you guys think.
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Re: Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms,  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Dec 2010, 05:59
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The first test here is whether what the relative pronoun ‘which’ or ‘that’ stands for. If it is argued that it stands for the noun ‘images’, then this structure runs into a serious problem of S-V disagreement – ‘images’ which or that ‘makes’. Otherwise, we have to labor to argue that it stands for the distant 'a system' or 'a culture'. This is untenable; so in my opinion, we have to drop B, D and E and go for A, or C which avoids the mismodification by using a present participle that modifies the entire noun phrase or phrases lying before it.

Second task is whether we can accept a country as a culture. I think it is acceptable metaphorically.

But between A and C, A has a subtle problem, Japan is a culture and a system as per the text. I think these two should have been conjugated by a conjunction ‘and’.

C - On the contrary, some feel that it is awkward to start a sentence with an absolute modifier such as in choice C. But I feel that there are so many instances where this type of form has been passed by GMAT. In an OG example given below, the answer choice is C which is using the absolute modifiers as starters of sentences.

Quote:
Architects and stonemasons, huge palace and temple clusters were built by the Maya without benefit of the wheel or animal transport.

(A) huge palace and temple clusters were built by the Maya without benefit of the wheel or animal transport
(B) without the benefits of animal transport or the wheel, huge palace and temple clusters were built by the Maya
(C) the Maya built huge palace and temple clusters without the benefit of animal transport or the wheel
(D) there were built, without the benefit of the wheel or animal transport, huge palace and temple clusters by the Maya
(E) were the Maya who, without the benefit of the wheel or animal transport, built huge palace and temple clusters
Here Architects and Stonemsosns stand for the May, a tribe


I feel that C makes the strongest case as the answer IMO. Any takers?
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New post 17 Feb 2011, 08:38
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I find an important custom of English usage sadly missed by many.

What do you think of the following statements?

Franklin Rooswelt was a ‘giant’ of a President.
Mahatma Gandhi was a ‘lion’ of a statesman.
He is a ‘horse’ when he drinks
It is raining ‘cats and dogs’.

These are metaphors used to stress some point and are perfectly licit. We should not think of a country only in terms of geography or geology. A country is much more than that. So let us not mistake that this text suffers from weirdness. That said, let us delve into the choices now.


A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ------
‘IMO, A is a perfect choice with proper participial modification that modifies the entire noun idea running before it and with proper punctuation.’


(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its ----- Which makes’ flouts relative pronoun touch- rule.
(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its ……. The sentence alters the meaning that only images are making its ever-present congestion tolerable.
D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images’ that makes ….. ‘That’ modifies images and flouts touch rule.

(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the
‘and images which makes the ‘Which’ is not preceded by a comma and hence the sentence is ungrammatical,

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Re: Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms,  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Oct 2012, 08:03
Thing to not here "that" and "which" maintains the touch rule. But not 100% of the time.
I sent the letter to my dad which contained the information.
This is a completely gmat-relevant sentence.
Also see that in D "makes" makes it clear that the subject of "makes" is not images but system (similar to the above sentence in which "letter" is the subject to the verb "contained".
D is the winner
Might not be a clear winner tho.

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Re: Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms,  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jul 2016, 07:02
beckee529 wrote:
Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

please explain your choice. i already know the answer.. thanks :)


Since people are having doubt between D and E, let me clarify that :

Other than that/which

a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the

D)
It says
Japan's is
1) a culture of accommodation and constraint
2) a system of forms, etiquette, and images

E)

It says :

Japan's is a :
1) a culture of accommodation and constraint
2) culture of a system of forms, etiquette, and images

We want to say Japan's system is a system of forms, etiquette and images
How can a culture match up with a system?

Hence D

Other than that, which can only refer to a single noun!!!! so which noun do we match up here?
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Re: Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms,  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Nov 2016, 04:21
MartinMag wrote:
Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its
(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its
(C) A cuture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its
(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the

Please don't be stingy with your explanations!!!


A, B, C are wrong because the sentence talks about cultures whereas the subject of the sentences is Japan.

between D and E,

E - which without comma is rarely used in GMAT
- Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the
is wierd.

D- that is preferred over which in this sentence as that is a restrictive clause.
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Re: Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms,  [#permalink]

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New post 08 May 2017, 21:24
1
Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.

Japan is not a culture!!!

(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its

(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its

(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its

(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the
--> correct.

(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the
--> awkward.
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Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms,  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jan 2019, 13:38
A, B and C all call Japan a system or a culture, so they are all wrong. It must be D or E. The correct answer should be D since E repeats ‘of’ twice. This is awkward and redundant.




MartinMag wrote:
Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its ever-present congestion tolerable.


(A) Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images, making its

(B) Japan, a culture of accommodation and constraint, is a system of forms, etiquette, and images, which makes its

(C) A culture of accommodation and constraint, Japan is a system of forms, etiquette, and images making its

(D) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms, etiquette, and images that makes the

(E) Japan's is a culture of accommodation and constraint, of a system of forms, etiquette, and images which makes the
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New post 06 Jan 2019, 15:49
Please can someone explain what does "Japan's is" mean?
This is from the answers D and E.

Thanks

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New post 06 Jan 2019, 21:53
I don't thing this one is GMAT standard question,it does not obey the touch rule.
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New post 30 Sep 2019, 20:35
VeritasKarishma , GMATGuruNY , GMATNinja , generis

Can you please explain this question ?
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Re: Japan is a culture of accommodation and constraint, a system of forms,   [#permalink] 30 Sep 2019, 20:35
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