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Using past participle in active-voiced modifier

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Using past participle in active-voiced modifier [#permalink] New post 30 Jun 2013, 02:17
Okay, this has been bugging me for quite sometimes.

When do we use past participle in active-voiced modifier?

Let me give you an example (from Manhattan SC)

"A new textbook focused on recent advances in artificial intelligence was assigned by our instructor."

Let me deconstruct (if I'm wrong, please correct me) this sentence:
    Subject = textbook
    Verb = was assigned
    Modifier to the subject = focused on recent advances in artificial intelligence

Now my question are:
1) Why does the sentence use "focused", not "focusing"?
2) Generally, isn't using past participle in modifier means the modifier is in passive-voice? i.e. "Satisfied by the quality of the work, John proceeded to pay the contractor"
3) Does using "focused" have anything to do with an act of having completed something in the past in this modifier context?
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Re: Using past participle in active-voiced modifier [#permalink] New post 10 Oct 2013, 16:53
clafikraz wrote:
Okay, this has been bugging me for quite sometimes.

When do we use past participle in active-voiced modifier?

Let me give you an example (from Manhattan SC)

"A new textbook focused on recent advances in artificial intelligence was assigned by our instructor."

Let me deconstruct (if I'm wrong, please correct me) this sentence:
    Subject = textbook
    Verb = was assigned
    Modifier to the subject = focused on recent advances in artificial intelligence

Now my question are:
1) Why does the sentence use "focused", not "focusing"?
2) Generally, isn't using past participle in modifier means the modifier is in passive-voice? i.e. "Satisfied by the quality of the work, John proceeded to pay the contractor"
3) Does using "focused" have anything to do with an act of having completed something in the past in this modifier context?

Hi,

I am not an expert but as for as i know. . Focused is verb ed modifier and Subject of the sentence is Our Instructor.

After the sentence is corrected "Was assigned" is the verb.

Regards,
Rrsnathan.
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Re: Using past participle in active-voiced modifier [#permalink] New post 11 Oct 2013, 20:55
Expert's post
The use of the past participle in the MGMAT example you cited is due to tense and meaning. The textbook 'was' (in the past) so it should be 'focused' (in the past). Also, the textbook was already written and printed so it would make sense that the textbook was 'focused'. I wouldn't say there is a preference of participle based on active or passive voice.

A few words on passive vs active. The active voice is when the subject is doing the action in the sentence - 'I hit the ball'. I am the subject and I did the action. The passive voice is when the subject receives the action - 'The ball was hit by me.' The ball is now the subject and it's receiving my action.

FYI- the GMAT does not really have a preference towards active or passive voice.

KW

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Re: Using past participle in active-voiced modifier   [#permalink] 11 Oct 2013, 20:55
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