Due to Vs Because of : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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# Due to Vs Because of

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09 Oct 2012, 17:37
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In conversational English, we may hear or use sentences in which we present reason for something by using the expression “due to”. While in certain cases, this usage may be grammatically correct.

But in certain other scenarios, it is incorrect. In this post, I will discuss these scenarios. Through this discussion, I will also answer the following question

Q: Can ‘due to’ and ‘because of’ be used interchangeably?
A: No. ‘due to’ is used to modify nouns only. ‘Because of’ is used to modify verbs. Thus, these two expressions cannot be used interchangeably.

What is “Due To” Used for?

RULE 1: The expression ‘due to’ can only be used to modify nouns. Thus, you cannot use this expression to present reason for an action in the clause

In sentence 1, use of ‘due to’ is incorrect because it is used to explain ‘why it is cold’. In other words, it is used to explain the reason behind the “verb” or “action” in the clause. This is not idiomatically correct.

RULE 2: ‘Due to’ is correct if the sentence makes sense when you replace ‘due to’ with ’caused by’. If, it does not, then use of ‘due to’ is not correct

Here when ‘due to’ is replaced with ’caused by’, the sentence makes complete sense. This check proves that usage of ‘due to’ is correct.

What is “Because of” used for?

Rule 3: The expression ‘because of’ is used to modify entire clauses. Thus, you can use this expression to present reason for an action in the clause.

Sentence 1 above can be corrected by replacing ‘due to’ with ‘because of’. Now ‘because of’ modifies the clause presenting the reason why it is cold in Arizona.

What are correct and incorrect usages of ‘Due to’, ‘Caused by’,& ‘Because of”?

The parent-teacher meeting was canceled due to heavy rains. – INCORRECT
‘Due to’ modifies the action in the preceding clause and hence is not used correctly.

The parent-teacher meeting was canceled caused by heavy rains. – INCORRECT
Note how when “due to” is replaced with “caused by”, the sentence no longer makes sense.

The parent-teacher meeting was canceled because of heavy rains. – CORRECT
‘because of’ modifies the action in preceding clause, indicating why the meeting was canceled.

The cancellation of parent-teacher meeting was due to heavy rains. – CORRECT
‘Due to’ modifies the noun – cancellation.

The cancellation of parent-teacher meeting was caused by heavy rains.- CORRECT
Note how when “due to” is replaced with “caused by”, the sentence makes complete sense.

What are the Key Take-Away Messages?

Use ‘due to’ only to modify nouns.
Usage of ‘due to’ is correct, if the sentence makes sense when ‘due to’ is replaced with ’caused by’.
Use ‘because of’ to modify verbs.
‘Due to’ & ‘because of’ are not interchangeable.

Official Sentences (Exercises)

Given this framework, let’s solve these official questions. But before we give the detailed solution from the standpoint of “due to”, “because of”, and “because”, we want you to take a stab at these. Give us your rationale for making your selection of the correct answer. Be sure to provide a detailed analysis at least for “due to” aspect of the question.

OG12#6

In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repairing due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing in the walls.

A. due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
B. due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
C. because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within then to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
D. because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
E. because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

GMATPrep

It seems likely that a number of astronomical phenomena, such as the formation of planetary nebulas, may be caused by the interaction where two stars orbit each other at close range.

A. may be caused by the interaction where two stars orbit each other
B. may be caused by the interaction between two stars that each orbit the other
C. are because of the interaction between two stars that orbit each other
D. are caused by the interaction of two stars where each is orbiting the other
E. are caused by the interaction of two stars orbiting each other
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Last edited by egmat on 27 Aug 2013, 16:03, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: Due to Vs Because of [#permalink]

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09 Oct 2012, 19:04
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egmat wrote:
OG12#6

In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repairing due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing in the walls.

Here due to is modifying the action of preceding clause- so usage of due to is incorrect here.

A. due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing - Usage of due to & which are incorrect
B. due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize - Usage of due to is incorrect & parallelism error
C. because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within then to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize - parallelism error
D. because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize - parallelism error, too wordy
E. because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing - usage of because is correct & parallelism is maintained

Hence Correct choice is E

egmat wrote:
GMATPrep

It seems likely that a number of astronomical phenomena, such as the formation of planetary nebulas, may be caused by the interaction where two stars orbit each other at close range.

Here caused by is correctly used and it is modifying the noun astronomical phenomena. The word likely in underlined portion suggest possibility so may be is redundant here. A number of phenomena : Here phenomena is plural subject so usage of are will be correct.

A. may be caused by the interaction where two stars orbit each other - Redundancy
B. may be caused by the interaction between two stars that each orbit the other - Redundancy
C. are because of the interaction between two stars that orbit each other - Incorrect usage of because of
D. are caused by the interaction of two stars where each is orbiting the other- incorrect usage of where
E. are caused by the interaction of two stars orbiting each other- Correct choice

Hence correct choice E
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Last edited by SOURH7WK on 11 Oct 2012, 19:16, edited 1 time in total.
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10 Oct 2012, 20:42
In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repairing due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing in the walls.

Meaning -- Moisture inside the chambers increased so high that salt xxxxx and hence they are closed for cleaning and repair.

Error Analysis --

C1 - Chambers - plural sub ; were closed ( plural verb )
C2- Due to moisture exhaled by tourists (no sub ; no verb; exhaled is modifier )
C3 Which raised ( verb ) correctly modifies 'moisture' because you can't move by tourists anywhere.

C1 - perfect
C2 - due to modifying why it is closed ( action )
C3 - 'it' is referring to Chambers - wrong
Crystallizing and growing - parallel ( needed )

A. due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing - BECAUSE OF PRONOUN ERROR incorrect
B. due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize - Pronoun error and MEANING ISSUE - it says reparing and closing ; moisture exhaled - everything resulted in humidity increase. Also parallelism error
C. because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize - were exhaling that means it exhaling and repair both happening at the same time.
D. because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize - Tourist can't raise humidity- meaning error.
E. because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing - Perfect

Note WHICH is correct in the above sentence. It correctly modifies Moisture.

Option E.
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26 Oct 2012, 01:55
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A. due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
B. due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
C. because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within then to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
D. because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
E. because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

A. may be caused by the interaction where two stars orbit each other
B. may be caused by the interaction between two stars that each orbit the other
C. are because of the interaction between two stars that orbit each other
D. are caused by the interaction of two stars where each is orbiting the other
E. are caused by the interaction of two stars orbiting each other - modifying stars
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Re: Due to Vs Because of [#permalink]

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08 Dec 2012, 22:27
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HI egmat,
Could you please come up with OA and your excellent explanation and analysis..?
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Re: Due to Vs Because of [#permalink]

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16 Dec 2012, 21:11
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I appreciate the article by E-gmat .

In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repairing due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing in the walls.

A. due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
"Due to" only modifies NOUN, here it is action "Chambers were closed".
B. due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
"Due to" only modifies NOUN, here it is action "Chambers were closed".
C. because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within them to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
Although it uses progressive past tense, it would have been correct unless "would" was used as "was. "Which" is used properly referring to moisture.Presence of two actions (1). Chambers were closed "A later event" (2). "Had raised humidity" a past event due to which chambers were closed.
D. because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
Verbing (Raising) without a "Comma" modifies a immediate noun(a concept by E-GMat only) Incorrect
E. because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing
Correct Indeed !!!!

GMATPrep

It seems likely that a number of astronomical phenomena, such as the formation of planetary nebulas, may be caused by the interaction where two stars orbit each other at close range.

A. may be caused by the interaction where two stars orbit each other
B. may be caused by the interaction between two stars that each orbit the other
C. are because of the interaction between two stars that orbit each other
D. are caused by the interaction of two stars where each is orbiting the other
E. are caused by the interaction of two stars orbiting each other
Correct without any doubts !!!

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saurabh
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22 Dec 2012, 08:09
debayan222 wrote:
HI egmat,
Could you please come up with OA and your excellent explanation and analysis..?

Any update on this ?

OA is E for both the qs. I think.

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Re: Due to Vs Because of [#permalink]

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16 Jan 2013, 04:43
Hi ,

Seems this can't be applied to the gmat prep question I have attached.

economy’s continued strength does act like a noun phrase , yet the correct answer has A as the answer.

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Re: Due to Vs Because of [#permalink]

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16 Jan 2013, 07:27
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Sachin9 wrote:
Hi ,

Seems this can't be applied to the gmat prep question I have attached.

economy’s continued strength does act like a noun phrase , yet the correct answer has A as the answer.

Regards,
Sach

Hi Sachin,

The basic difference between “due to” and “because of” is that “due to” is used as “caused by” and “because of” is used to present the reason of an action.

Since February, the Federal Reserve has raised its short-term interest rate target five times, and because of the economy’s continued strength, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will be raised again in November.

Per this sentence, analysts have been predicting for weeks that the target will be raised again in November. And what is the reason of this prediction? The reason of this prediction is economy’s continued strength. We need to present the reason for analysts’ prediction. Hence, usage of “because of” in choice A is correct.

If you go through the article well, you will see that both “due to” and “because of” are followed by noun entities. “Due to” refers only to a noun entity while “because of” presents reason.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Due to Vs Because of [#permalink]

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09 Mar 2013, 09:48
Hi Shraddha, great initiative and excellent posts. It helps me a lot. So a big thank you to your team.

Gmatclub Grammar book :

NOTE: The phrase "because of" can also be expressed with the phrase "due to".

It is confirmed that this statement is not applicable.
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Re: Due to Vs Because of [#permalink]

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Hi EGMAT,

It seems likely that a number of astronomical phenomena, such as the formation of planetary nebulas, may be caused by the interaction where two stars orbit each other at close range.

A. may be caused by the interaction where two stars orbit each other
B. may be caused by the interaction between two stars that each orbit the other
C. are because of the interaction between two stars that orbit each other
D. are caused by the interaction of two stars where each is orbiting the other
E. are caused by the interaction of two stars orbiting each other

Also, please share few examples of caused by cases... does the noun immediately need to follow "due to" or there can be distance.

please share simple as well as complex examples to through some more light on this topic.
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Re: Due to Vs Because of [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2013, 07:50
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here is another method that I use
suppose you have a sentence structure, e.g., XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX because of/due to YYYYYYYYYYYYY
now, if XXXXXXXXXXX can stand as a clause (complete sentence) on itself then because of is the correct usage; otherwise, if XXXXXXXXXXX is just a noun phrase then due to is the correct usage.
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Re: Due to Vs Because of [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2013, 12:53
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My try:
In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repairing due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing in the walls.
A. due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
B. due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
C. because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within then to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
D. because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
E. because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

The way I understand it (cutting the flab...)
Chambers were closed for...(why?) BECAUSE high level of moisture had raised the humidity to a level that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing in the walls.

EA:
1) Chambers were closed DUE TO... (were closed clause in the non underlined section...) DUE TO is wrong... has to be replaced by BECAUSE OF...
2) due to (-> BECAUSE OF) is followed by moisture {exhausted by... modifier} NOT logical. It must be followed by the reason why the chambers were closed... because "high levels of humidity..... that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing in the walls"
3) Right choice must contain "crystallizing" In the clause "that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing in the walls" to maintain the parallelism.

POE:
1)DUE TO scan: A and B are gone
2) Because of must be followed by the reason: C is gone
3) crystallizing/crystallize: Except A and E all violate this -> D is also gone

GMATPrep

It seems likely that a number of astronomical phenomena, such as the formation of planetary nebulas, may be caused by the interaction where two stars orbit each other at close range.

A. may be caused by the interaction where two stars orbit each other
B. may be caused by the interaction between two stars that each orbit the other
C. are because of the interaction between two stars that orbit each other
D. are caused by the interaction of two stars where each is orbiting the other
E. are caused by the interaction of two stars orbiting each other

The way I understand it (cutting the flab...)
- It seems likely
- that a number of astronomical phenomena, {such as the formation AP}, are caused by the interaction in which two stars orbit each other at close range.

EA:
A possibility has been presented.
Lets take an example:
It is likely that something is true.
It is likely that something may be true.
In the above two sentences, second is wrong. Why? Because use of "may be" with likely already being said for the same purpose is redundant.

So, 1) may be MUST get replaced by ARE

2) 'may be caused by' is supposed to and is modifying "astronomical phenomena". So "Because of" cannot be used in its pace..."because of" might come in...(in that case following phrase has to be modifies accordingly)

3) Where can only refer to a physical place (country, place, city etc.) not to a situation
So, IN WHICH must be used

POE:
1) LIKELY (non-underlined)/MAY BE: A and B are gone
2) use of "because of": C is gone
3) use of "where": A and D are gone (A twice )

Left with E !
I am not going for seeing meaning of those answers I have already marked wrong!

Happy to be get corrected on my misunderstanding!
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Re: Due to Vs Because of [#permalink]

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15 Sep 2013, 03:17
thanks for the great explanation
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Re: Pronoun Ambiguity and "Due to" vs "Because of" [#permalink]

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04 Jan 2014, 18:00
OG12#6

In late 1997, the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repairing due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing in the walls.

A. due to moisture exhaled by tourists, which raised its humidity to such levels so that salt from the stone was crystallizing
B. due to moisture that tourists had exhaled, thereby raising its humidity to such levels that salt from the stone would crystallize
C. because tourists were exhaling moisture, which had raised the humidity within then to levels such that salt from the stone would crystallize
D. because of moisture that was exhaled by tourists raising the humidity within them to levels so high as to make the salt from the stone crystallize
E. because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

e-GMAT experts! you guys are awesome. Thanks for such nice article. I have always been confused how to choose between "due to" and "because of", but after reading this article I am confident that I am in a better position to answer the questions related to this concept.

Now coming to my question: As explained in posts above "choice E" is the best answer. However, use of "them" in this sentence always perplexes me. I think "them" is ambiguous here as it can refer to both tourists and chambers. I know as per context of sentence only chambers make sense, however, I am not certain whether such use is permitted in GMAT.....
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Re: Pronoun Ambiguity and "Due to" vs "Because of" [#permalink]

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04 Jan 2014, 20:19
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piyushjj wrote:
OG12#6
e-GMAT experts! you guys are awesome. Thanks for such nice article. I have always been confused how to choose between "due to" and "because of", but after reading this article I am confident that I am in a better position to answer the questions related to this concept.

Now coming to my question: As explained in posts above "choice E" is the best answer. However, use of "them" in this sentence always perplexes me. I think "them" is ambiguous here as it can refer to both tourists and chambers. I know as per context of sentence only chambers make sense, however, I am not certain whether such use is permitted in GMAT.....

Consider the option,
E. because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

In the above clause, moisture is the subject, and exhaled is a verb-ed modifier (not a verb). The actual verb corresponding to the subject is had raised.

'exhaled by tourists' is a verbal modifier, modifying the subject 'moisture'.

So, what had raised the humidity within the chambers? Moisture.

Subject and verb pair are perfectly agreeing with each other and also with the main clause.

The sentence can be re-written as follows (striking out the modifiers, prepositional phrases etc) just to see the subject-verb agreement and pronoun agreement.

In late 1997,the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repairing because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing in the walls.

As you see, 'them' has a clear antecedent - 'chambers'
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Re: Pronoun Ambiguity and "Due to" vs "Because of" [#permalink]

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04 Jan 2014, 20:37
sivasanjeev wrote:
piyushjj wrote:
OG12#6
e-GMAT experts! you guys are awesome. Thanks for such nice article. I have always been confused how to choose between "due to" and "because of", but after reading this article I am confident that I am in a better position to answer the questions related to this concept.

Now coming to my question: As explained in posts above "choice E" is the best answer. However, use of "them" in this sentence always perplexes me. I think "them" is ambiguous here as it can refer to both tourists and chambers. I know as per context of sentence only chambers make sense, however, I am not certain whether such use is permitted in GMAT.....

Consider the option,
E. because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

In the above clause, moisture is the subject, and exhaled is a verb-ed modifier (not a verb). The actual verb corresponding to the subject is had raised.

'exhaled by tourists' is a verbal modifier, modifying the subject 'moisture'.

So, what had raised the humidity within the chambers? Moisture.

Subject and verb pair are perfectly agreeing with each other and also with the main clause.

The sentence can be re-written as follows (striking out the modifiers, prepositional phrases etc) just to see the subject-verb agreement and pronoun agreement.

In late 1997,the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repairing because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing in the walls.

As you see, 'them' has a clear antecedent - 'chambers'

Hey SivaSandeep, thanks for nice and detailed explanation. So, if I am understanding it correctly, a pronoun - in main clause - can't refer to a noun subject in a modifier...
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Re: Pronoun Ambiguity and "Due to" vs "Because of" [#permalink]

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04 Jan 2014, 20:56
piyushjj wrote:
sivasanjeev wrote:
piyushjj wrote:
OG12#6
e-GMAT experts! you guys are awesome. Thanks for such nice article. I have always been confused how to choose between "due to" and "because of", but after reading this article I am confident that I am in a better position to answer the questions related to this concept.

Now coming to my question: As explained in posts above "choice E" is the best answer. However, use of "them" in this sentence always perplexes me. I think "them" is ambiguous here as it can refer to both tourists and chambers. I know as per context of sentence only chambers make sense, however, I am not certain whether such use is permitted in GMAT.....

Consider the option,
E. because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing

In the above clause, moisture is the subject, and exhaled is a verb-ed modifier (not a verb). The actual verb corresponding to the subject is had raised.

'exhaled by tourists' is a verbal modifier, modifying the subject 'moisture'.

So, what had raised the humidity within the chambers? Moisture.

Subject and verb pair are perfectly agreeing with each other and also with the main clause.

The sentence can be re-written as follows (striking out the modifiers, prepositional phrases etc) just to see the subject-verb agreement and pronoun agreement.

In late 1997,the chambers inside the pyramid of the Pharaoh Menkaure at Giza were closed to visitors for cleaning and repairing because moisture exhaled by tourists had raised the humidity within them to such levels that salt from the stone was crystallizing and fungus was growing in the walls.

As you see, 'them' has a clear antecedent - 'chambers'

Hey SivaSandeep, thanks for nice and detailed explanation. So, if I am understanding it correctly, a pronoun - in main clause - can't refer to a noun subject in a modifier...

A pronoun in the main clause having its antecedent (the subject/noun) in a modifier may not be possible. (but other way round can be possible)

More notes on this:

A modifier can contain a subject - but that will be different from the subject of the main independent clause.

For ex: The pen that is red, belongs to me
Subject of main clause + adjectival clause + main verb + object

Consider this ex.

Its surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, Jupiter's moon Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life

The italicized part is an absolute phrase modifying (the entire phrase is modifying) Europa. Its is the possessive pronoun referring to Europa. So, we do have a pronoun in the modifier, which refers to a noun/subject in the main clause.
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What are modifiers ??

Last edited by sivasanjeev on 06 Jan 2014, 01:12, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Pronoun Ambiguity and "Due to" vs "Because of" [#permalink]

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04 Jan 2014, 21:04
Hey SivaSandeep, thanks for nice and detailed explanation. So, if I am understanding it correctly, a pronoun - in main clause - can't refer to a noun subject in a modifier...[/quote]

A modifier will not contain a subject.[/quote]

Yeah, that's true. Thanks for clarifying. But Can a pronoun - in main clause - refer to a any noun in a modifier? It will be of great help if you can site one or two examples..
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Re: Pronoun Ambiguity and "Due to" vs "Because of" [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2014, 01:09
piyushjj wrote:
Hey SivaSandeep, thanks for nice and detailed explanation. So, if I am understanding it correctly, a pronoun - in main clause - can't refer to a noun subject in a modifier...

sivasanjeev wrote:
A modifier will not contain a subject.

piyushjj wrote:
Yeah, that's true. Thanks for clarifying. But Can a pronoun - in main clause - refer to a any noun in a modifier? It will be of great help if you can site one or two examples..

Hey,
small mistake from my end. A modifier can contain a subject - but that will be different from the subject of the main independent clause.

For ex: The pen that is red, belongs to me
Subject of main clause + adjectival clause + main verb + object

corrected the same in my explanation above.

Consider this ex.

Its surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, Jupiter's moon Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life

The italicized part is an absolute phrase modifying (the entire phrase is modifying) Europa. Its is the possessive pronoun referring to Europa. So, we do have a pronoun in the modifier, which refers to a noun/subject in the main clause.

The other way round, a pronoun in the main clause having its antecedent (the subject/noun) in a modifier may not be possible.
_________________

What are modifiers ??

Re: Pronoun Ambiguity and "Due to" vs "Because of"   [#permalink] 06 Jan 2014, 01:09

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