When the history of women
began to receive focused attention
in the 1970’, Eleanor Roosevelt
Line was one of a handful of female
(5) Americans who were well known
to both historians and the general
public. Despite the evidence that
she had been important in socialreform
circles before her husband
(10) was elected President and that
she continued to advocate different
causes than he did, she held
a place in the public imagination
largely because she was the wife
(15) of a particularly influential President.
Her own activities were
seen as preparing the way for her
husband’s election or as a complement
to his programs. Even
(20) Joseph Lash’s two volumes of
Sympathetic biography, Eleanor and
Franklin (1971) and Eleanor: The
Years Alone (1972), reflected this
(25) Lash’s biography revealed a
Complicated woman who sought
Through political activity both to
flee inner misery and to promote
causes in which she passionately
(30) believed. However, she still
appeared to be an idiosyncratic
figure, somehow self-generated
not amenable to any generalized
explanation. She emerged from
(35) the biography as a mother to the
entire nation, or as a busybody.
but hardly as a social type, a
figure comprehensible in terms
of broader social developments.
(40) But more recent work on the
feminism of the post-suffrage
years (following 1920) allows us
to see Roosevelt in a different
light and to bring her life into a
(45) more richly detailed context. Lois
Scharf’s Eleanor Roosevelt, written
In 1987, depicts a generation of
Privileged women, born in the late
Nineteenth century and maturing
(50) in the twentieth, who made the
transition from old patterns of
female association to new ones.
Their views and their lives were full
Of contradictions. They maintained
(55) female social networks but began
to integrate women into mainstream
politics; they demanded equal
treatment but also argued that
women’s maternal responsibilities
(60) made them both wards and representatives
of the public interest.
Thanks to Scharf and others,
Roosevelt’s activities—for example,
her support both for labor laws
(65) protecting women and for appointments
of women to high public
office—have become intelligible in
terms of this social context rather
than as the idiosyncratic career of
a famous man’s wife.
The passage as a whole is primarily concerned with which of the following?
A. Changes in the way in which Eleanor Roosevelt’s life is understood
B. Social changes that made possible the role Played by Eleanor Roosevelt in social reform
C. Changes in the ways in which historians have viewed the lives of American women
D. Social changes that resulted from the activities of Eleanor Roosevelt
E. Changes in the social roles that American women have played
The author indicates that, according to Scharf’s biography, which of the following was NOT
characteristic of feminists of Eleanor Roosevelt’s generation?
A. Their lives were full of contradictions
B. Their policies identified them as idiosyncratic.
C. They were from privileged backgrounds.
D. They held that women had unique responsibilities.
E. They made a transition from old patterns of a association to new ones.
Which of the following studies would proceed in a way most similar to the way in which, according to
the passage. Scharf’s book interprets Eleanor Roosevelt’s career?
A. An exploration of the activities of a wealthy social reformer in terms of the ideals held by the
B. A history of the leaders of a political party which explained how the conflicting aims of its
individual leaders thwarted and diverted the activities of each leader
C. An account of the legislative career of a conservative senator which showed his goals to have been
derived from a national conservative movement of which the senator was a part
D. A biography of a famous athlete which explained her high level of motivation in terms of the kind
of family in which she grew up
E. A history of the individuals who led the movement to end slavery in the United States which
attributed the movement’s success to the efforts of those exceptional individuals
The author cites which of the following as evidence against the public view of Eleanor Roosevelt held
in the 1970’s?
A. She had been born into a wealthy family.
B. Her political career predated the adoption of women’s suffrage.
C. She continued her career in politics even After her husband’s death.
D. She was one of a few female historical Figures who were well known to historians By the 1970’s.
E. Her activism predated her husband’s presidency and her projects differed from his.
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