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When the history of women began to receive focused attention in the

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New post Updated on: 01 Apr 2019, 05:32
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When the history of women began to receive focused attention in the 1970’, Eleanor Roosevelt was one of a handful of female Americans who were well known to both historians and the general public. Despite the evidence that she had been important in social reform circles before her husband was elected President and that she continued to advocate different causes than he did, she held a place in the public imagination largely because she was the wife of a particularly influential President. Her own activities were seen as preparing the way for her husband’s election or as a complement to his programs. Even Joseph Lash’s two volumes of Sympathetic biography, Eleanor and Franklin (1971) and Eleanor: The Years Alone (1972), reflected this assumption.

Lash’s biography revealed a complicated woman who sought through political activity both to flee inner misery and to promote causes in which she passionately believed. However, she still appeared to be an idiosyncratic figure, somehow self-generated not amenable to any generalized explanation. She emerged from the biography as a mother to the entire nation, or as a busybody, but hardly as a social type, a figure comprehensible in terms of broader social developments. But more recent work on the feminism of the post-suffrage years (following 1920) allows us to see Roosevelt in a different light and to bring her life into a more richly detailed context. Lois Scharf’s Eleanor Roosevelt, written in 1987, depicts a generation of privileged women, born in the late nineteenth century and maturing in the twentieth, who made the transition from old patterns of female association to new ones. Their views and their lives were full of contradictions. They maintained female social networks but began to integrate women into mainstream politics; they demanded equal treatment but also argued that women’s maternal responsibilities made them both wards and representatives of the public interest. Thanks to Scharf and others, Roosevelt’s activities—for example, her support both for labor laws protecting women and for appointments of women to high public office—have become intelligible in terms of this social context rather than as the idiosyncratic career of a famous man’s wife.
1. The passage as a whole is primarily concerned with which of the following?

(A) Changes in the way in which Eleanor Roosevelt’s life is understood
(B) Social changes that made possible the role played by Eleanor Roosevelt in social reform
(C) Changes in the ways in which historians have viewed the lives of American women
(D) Social changes that resulted from the activities of Eleanor Roosevelt
(E) Changes in the social roles that American women have played


2. Which of the following studies would proceed in a way most similar to the way in which, according to the passage. Scharf's book interprets Eleanor Roosevelt's career?

(A) An exploration of the activities of a wealthy social reformer in terms of the ideals held by the reformer
(B) A history of the leaders of a political party which explained how the conflicting aims of its individual leaders thwarted and diverted the activities of each leader
(C) An account of the legislative career of a conservative senator which showed his goals to have been derived from a national conservative movement of which the senator was a part
(D) A biography of a famous athlete which explained her high level of motivation in terms of the kind of family in which she grew up
(E) A history of the individuals who led the movement to end slavery in the United States which attributed the movement's success to the efforts of those exceptional individuals


3. The author cites which of the following as evidence against the public view of Eleanor Roosevelt held in the 1970’s?

(A) She had been born into a wealthy family.
(B) Her political career predated the adoption of women’s suffrage.
(C) She continued her career in politics even after her husband’s death.
(D) She was one of a few female historical figures who were well known to historians by the 1970’s.
(E) Her activism predated her husband’s presidency and her projects differed from his.


4. The author indicates that, according to Scharf’s biography, which of the following was NOT characteristic of feminists of Eleanor Roosevelt’s generation?

(A) Their lives were full of contradictions
(B) Their policies identified them as idiosyncratic.
(C) They were from privileged backgrounds.
(D) They held that women had unique responsibilities.
(E) They made a transition from old patterns of an association to new ones.


5. The author mentions which of the following as one of the “contradictions” (highlighted) evident in the lives of the women discussed in the third paragraph?

1)They pursued political aims for personal motives.
2)They were idiosyncratic individuals who can nevertheless be seen as social types.
3)They came from wealthy families but sought to remedy the problems of the poor.
4)They demanded equal treatment for women but justified the privileges of wealth.
5)They maintained female social networks but promoted women's participation in mainstream politics.


6. The author credits which of the following for making possible the current understanding of Eleanor Roosevelt's career?

1)The work of historians in the 1970s
2)Accounts written by feminists in the 1920s
3)Recent studies of feminists of her generation
4)Official records of her husband's presidency
5)The discovery of the writings of her associates



JOURNAL ARTICLE
Review: "Practical Idealists": Women's Politics and Culture in the New Deal Years
Reviewed Works: Eleanor Roosevelt: First Lady of American Liberalism by Lois Scharf; Partner and I: Molly Dewson, Feminism, and New Deal Politics by Susan Ware
Review by: Sharon Hartman Strom
Reviews in American History
Vol. 16, No. 4 (Dec., 1988), pp. 604-611
Published by: The Johns Hopkins University Press
DOI: 10.2307/2702361
https://www.jstor.org/stable/2702361
Page Count: 8

Attachment:
strom1988.pdf [1.01 MiB]
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Originally posted by goalsnr on 09 Jul 2008, 23:26.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 01 Apr 2019, 05:32, edited 11 times in total.
Added Q5 and 6, Highlighted text and corrected OA of Q2
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New post 11 Jul 2008, 17:45
2
Q23. A
The passage begins by saying - despite the fact the ER was an active social reformer before her husband was elected President she held a place in the public imagination largely because she was the wife of a particularly influential President.

The passage ends by saying - Beacuse of teh work of Scharf and teh others, ER's activies have become intelligible in terms of this social context rather than as the idiosyncratic career of a famous man’s wife.

This clearly shows that teh passage is concerned with -Changes in the way in which Eleanor
Roosevelt’s life is understood


Q25. C (this one was a though one. POE leaves only C) "Scharf’s book depicts ER as someone privileged women, born in the late Nineteenth century and maturing in the twentieth, who made the transition from old patterns of female association to new ones. Basically these women were shaped by the events of their times and whilel they maintained female social networks they also began to integrate women into mainstream politics, demanded equal treatment but also argued that women’s maternal responsibilities made them both wards and representatives of the public interest.

Similarily - A conservative senator whose goals and ideals were shaped by by the movement he was a part of.

Q26. E

Public view: held in high regard beacuse she was the wife of a el presidente.

Author says ER had been important in socialreform circles before her husband was elected President.
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New post 12 Jul 2008, 16:12
1
x97agarwal wrote:
goalsnr wrote:
oAs -ADE


Can anyone explain why the OA is D for Q25.


Q 25:
Which of the following studies would proceed in a
way most similar to the way in which, according to
the passage. Scharf’s book interprets Eleanor
Roosevelt’s career?

I think the keys points are :
1. Biography
2. family background

- Scharf’s book on Eleanor is a biography
-Privileged women, born in the late
Nineteenth century and maturing
(50) in the twentieth, who made the
transition from old patterns of
female association to new ones.
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New post 18 May 2012, 18:36
OA is ABDE, but I strongly doubt OA for the question 25.

I picked E, but I am not sure about my answer.

Lois
Scharf’s Eleanor Roosevelt, written
In 1987, depicts a generation of
Privileged women
, born in the late
Nineteenth century and maturing
(50) in the twentieth, who made the
transition from old patterns of
female association to new ones.

Their views and their lives were full
Of contradictions. They maintained
(55) female social networks but began
to integrate women into mainstream
politics; they demanded equal
treatment but also argued that
women’s maternal responsibilities
(60) made them both wards and representatives
of the public interest.


I think that to solve Q25, we should focus on this part above.
I picked E because of the bold parts above.
Schart talked about a generation of privileged women who made the transition from old patters of female association to new ones. E also mentions a group of people who led the movement to end slavery.

Feel free to point out any flaws in my reasoning.
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New post 17 Feb 2013, 05:58
Hi roopika,

I agree, not easy. My hypothesis for why D is the OA is this:

The key word in answer D is 'context'. I.e. the Athelete's success is explained because of the context in which they grew up.

In the passage Scarfe attributes Roosevelt's success to the context in which she was brought up - i.e. that group of priviliged women.

My question with E would be that it's subject is 'a group of women' whearas in the question we're just talking about one woman.

What do you think?

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New post 10 Aug 2016, 01:57
Took 9 mins and 10 seconds , including 3 mins to read . Question 3 is difficult :|
-The passage is concerned with explaining how Eleanor Roosevelt’s life was understood in a certain way by historians
- The passage is then concerned with explaining how her life is now understood

1.
Option (A) is a clear word justification of the key takeaways and is hence correct

2.
Every option choice is mentioned in the passage except option (B). Hence correct.

3.
"Thanks to Scharf and others, Roosevelt’s activities—for example, her support both for labor laws protecting women and for appointments of women to high public office—have become intelligible in terms of this social context rather than as the idiosyncratic career of a famous man’s wife"

The author is concerned with studying the life of Eleanor Roosevelt with regard to her own ideals rather than her influence as a famous man’s wife.
Answer D

4.
"Despite the evidence that she had been important in social reform circles before her husband was elected President and that she continued to advocate different causes than he did"
Option (E) is a clear word justification of the above and is hence correct.
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New post 13 Aug 2016, 07:52
Took 9 mins. Got three correct and 1 incorrect(Ques No. 3)

Can someone please throw some light on ques 3? I am not clear with the explanation given above.
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New post 13 Aug 2016, 07:54
1
roopika2990 wrote:
Can anyone explain the second question?

For ques 2, read the last sentence of the paragraph. It clearly states that their policies didn't identify them as idiosyncratic. Hence, B is the answer.
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New post 04 Jul 2017, 20:42
4
abhimahna wrote:
Took 9 mins. Got three correct and 1 incorrect(Ques No. 3)

Can someone please throw some light on ques 3? I am not clear with the explanation given above.



Scharf’s book ‘Eleanor Roosevelt’ focuses on the lives and views of a generation of women – it brings Eleanor’s life into a richly detailed context; It also focuses of Eleanor’s life in this context, rather than treat her simply as a famous public figure.
The best way to approach this is PoE:
A: Ideals of Eleanor not mentioned in Scharf’s book.
B: Conflicting aims of leaders and the effect on their activities – no parallel to Scharf’s book on Eleanor
C: This is tempting because Scharf’s book talks about a generation of women – but there is no collective national movement in Eleanor’s time.
D: Probable. I see some parallels – the life of a famous figure (athlete, Eleanor) viewed not from the usual point of view (sports, First Lady) but from a different perspective (family upbringing, life & views).
E: Exceptional individuals and their successful reform against slavery – no parallel to Scharf’s book on Eleanor.
On the whole, I would go with D.
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New post 20 Jul 2017, 19:18
plumber250 wrote:
Hi roopika,

I agree, not easy. My hypothesis for why D is the OA is this:

The key word in answer D is 'context'. I.e. the Athelete's success is explained because of the context in which they grew up.

In the passage Scarfe attributes Roosevelt's success to the context in which she was brought up - i.e. that group of priviliged women.

My question with E would be that it's subject is 'a group of women' whearas in the question we're just talking about one woman.

What do you think?

James


Hi plumber250,
Can you please shed some light on how I can eliminate Answer choice A?
Which of the following studies would proceed in a way most similar to the way in which, according to the passage. Scharf’s book interprets Eleanor Roosevelt’s career?

A. An exploration of the activities of a wealthy social reformer in terms of the ideals held by the reformer

The passage states this about Scharf's book: "Scharf’s Eleanor Roosevelt, written In 1987, depicts a generation of privileged women...Their views and their lives were full of contradictions", and "they demanded equal treatment" among other things.

Doesn't this match the answer choice A, which talks about a wealthy social reformer (a contradiction in itself), his ideals (views)?
How should I go about reasoning to eliminate this answer?
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New post 24 Aug 2017, 01:22
The answers according to me -

1. A

2. B

3. A

A. An exploration of the activities of a wealthy social reformer in terms of the ideals held by the
reformer - "Roosevelt was privileged (though not necessarily wealthy) but what she did was according to her ideology" - Correct Answer
B. A history of the leaders of a political party which explained how the conflicting aims of its
individual leaders thwarted and diverted the activities of each leader - Irrelevant to context
C. An account of the legislative career of a conservative senator which showed his goals to have been
derived from a national conservative movement of which the senator was a part - "Roosevelt's goals were not derived from any movement but from her social ideology"
D. A biography of a famous athlete which explained her high level of motivation in terms of the kind
of family in which she grew up - "She is concerned about labor laws etc. , not because of her family"
E. A history of the individuals who led the movement to end slavery in the United States which
attributed the movement’s success to the efforts of those exceptional individuals - "Roosevelt's efforts were not necessarily successful, passage doesn't confirm" "Also, Scharf mentions her social ideology, not her success"

4. E

Please share the OA if possible.
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New post 11 Sep 2017, 07:20
RMD007 wrote:
iyera211 wrote:

Hi plumber250,
Can you please shed some light on how I can eliminate Answer choice A?
Which of the following studies would proceed in a way most similar to the way in which, according to the passage. Scharf’s book interprets Eleanor Roosevelt’s career?

A. An exploration of the activities of a wealthy social reformer in terms of the ideals held by the reformer

The passage states this about Scharf's book: "Scharf’s Eleanor Roosevelt, written In 1987, depicts a generation of privileged women...Their views and their lives were full of contradictions", and "they demanded equal treatment" among other things.

Doesn't this match the answer choice A, which talks about a wealthy social reformer (a contradiction in itself), his ideals (views)?
How should I go about reasoning to eliminate this answer?


GMATNinja, I have the same query as posted above. Please help.


Hi Even i have the same query but I came up with some reasoning and wanted to discuss. Here is the second rewritten

Which of the following studies would proceed in a way most similar to the way in which, according to the passage. Scharf’s book interprets Eleanor Roosevelt’s career?

(A) An exploration of the activities of a wealthy social reformer in terms of the ideals held by the reformer
(B) A history of the leaders of a political party which explained how the conflicting aims of its individual leaders thwarted and diverted the activities of each leader
(C) An account of the legislative career of a conservative senator which showed his goals to have been derived from a national conservative movement of which the senator was a part
(D) A biography of a famous athlete which explained her high level of motivation in terms of the kind of family in which she grew up
(E) A history of the individuals who led the movement to end slavery in the United States which attributed the movement's success to the efforts of those exceptional individuals

Lois Scharf’s Eleanor Roosevelt, written in 1987, depicts a generation of privileged women, born in the late nineteenth century and maturing in the twentieth, who made the transition from old patterns of female association to new ones. Their views and their lives were full of contradictions. They maintained female social networks but began to integrate women into mainstream politics; they demanded equal treatment but also argued that women’s maternal responsibilities made them both wards and representatives of the public interest.

If we read the except of the passage we can see that the author wants to highlight the contradiction mentioned in the passage.

Option D tells about the biography of the famous athlete and his motivation to be a result of the family in which grew but it did not explain how the athlete acquired motivation.

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New post 24 Sep 2018, 05:02
Hi everyone,
For Question 2, the one with Sharf's book, apparently the answer is C from the practice exams. So just as an FYI you're all doing it wrong.
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New post 09 Dec 2018, 00:42
2
workout
Please tag this to EP2. This is an RC passage from Gmat Prep EP2.
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New post 09 Dec 2018, 01:01
2
GMATNinja VeritasKarishma GMATNinjaTwo VeritasPrepBrian egmat

The answer to the below question is incorrectly given as D.

However in the GMAT EP2 exam 5 the answer is C.

Please help.

Quote:
2. Which of the following studies would proceed in a way most similar to the way in which, according to the passage. Scharf's book interprets Eleanor Roosevelt's career?

(A) An exploration of the activities of a wealthy social reformer in terms of the ideals held by the reformer
(B) A history of the leaders of a political party which explained how the conflicting aims of its individual leaders thwarted and diverted the activities of each leader
(C) An account of the legislative career of a conservative senator which showed his goals to have been derived from a national conservative movement of which the senator was a part
(D) A biography of a famous athlete which explained her high level of motivation in terms of the kind of family in which she grew up
(E) A history of the individuals who led the movement to end slavery in the United States which attributed the movement's success to the efforts of those exceptional individuals

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New post 14 Dec 2018, 06:33
please explain Q3 ...i still think it is A
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New post 14 Dec 2018, 10:53
someone kindly provide OE/explanation of this question

3:) The author cites which of the following as evidence against the public view of Eleanor Roosevelt held in the 1970’s?

(A) She had been born into a wealthy family.
(B) Her political career predated the adoption of women’s suffrage.
(C) She continued her career in politics even after her husband’s death.
(D) She was one of a few female historical figures who were well known to historians by the 1970’s.
(E) Her activism predated her husband’s presidency and her projects differed from his.
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New post 15 Dec 2018, 10:45
2
AdityaHongunti wrote:
please explain Q3 ...i still think it is A


AdityaHongunti

below is an extract from the first para.

"Despite the evidence that she had been important in social reform circles before her husband was elected President and that she continued to advocate different causes than he did, she held a place in the public imagination largely because she was the wife of a particularly influential President."

So, it is clearly mentioned that her activism in social reforms predated her husband`s activity. "predate" means occur or exist earlier.

So E is correct i answer.

3. The author cites which of the following as evidence against the public view of Eleanor Roosevelt held in the 1970’s?

(A) She had been born into a wealthy family.
(B) Her political career predated the adoption of women’s suffrage.
(C) She continued her career in politics even after her husband’s death.
(D) She was one of a few female historical figures who were well known to historians by the 1970’s.
(E) Her activism predated her husband’s presidency and her projects differed from his.


shubham2312 hope this helps you too
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New post 28 Dec 2018, 15:12
shubham2312 wrote:
someone kindly provide OE/explanation of this question

3.The author cites which of the following as evidence against the public view of Eleanor Roosevelt held in the 1970’s?

AdityaHongunti wrote:
please explain Q3 ...i still think it is A

The question itself has a couple twists and turns, so let's straighten it out fully:

  • The public held a certain view of ER in the 1970s.
  • The author makes a case against that view.
  • In doing so, the author cites a piece of evidence. What was that evidence?

To really stay on track, let's be clear about each part:

  • The public held a certain view of ER in the 1970s. As dave13 has pointed out, ER "held a place in the public imagination largely because she was the wife of a particularly influential President. Her own activities were seen as preparing the way for her husband’s election or as a complement to his programs." If we were only to read the texts of the 1970s, we would learn about "the idiosyncratic career of a famous man’s wife."
  • The author makes a case against that view. Right up front, the author states that ER "had been important in social reform circles before her husband was elected President and that she continued to advocate different causes than he did." Then, in the second paragraph, the author cites the work of Scharf to continue presenting this alternative view: That ER represented a generation of privileged women "who made the transition from old patterns of female association to new ones." The author suggests that this context of generational change helps us understand ER more than the previous public view.
  • In doing so, the author cites a piece of evidence. What was that evidence? There's plenty of evidence in the passage to support the author's case, and only 5 answer choices. So let's go ahead and work through the answer choices.

We're going to eliminate anything that was not used by the author to go against the 1970's public view of Eleanor Roosevelt. We'll probably have to eliminate choices that sound right, because we need to check many more boxes than "Is this true, according to the passage?"

Quote:
(A) She had been born into a wealthy family.

This is true, but does the author cite this fact in order to make a case against the 1970's view?

Not really. ER's wealth, on its own, plays a minor part in both the 1970s view and the author's view. The fact that ER was wealthy doesn't explain the context of change, contradiction, and political awakening that ER's generation lived through. That's why we eliminate (A).

Quote:
(B) Her political career predated the adoption of women’s suffrage.

The author never brings this up to go against the 1970's public view of ER. In fact, the only time the author mentions suffrage is to tell us that Scharf studied ER in the years after (not before) women in the U.S. achieved suffrage. Eliminate (B).

Quote:
(C) She continued her career in politics even after her husband’s death.

As with (B), the author doesn't discuss ER's career in the time period after her husband's death. Eliminate (C) as well.

Quote:
(D) She was one of a few female historical figures who were well known to historians by the 1970’s.

This is true, but what does it have to do with the author's case? As with (A), this is more of a basic fact that could be incorporated into any view of ER. It's not evidence that the author uses to make a case against the 1970's public view of ER. Eliminate (D).

Quote:
(E) Her activism predated her husband’s presidency and her projects differed from his.

Aha! This is the first choice that actually cites a fact about ER in order to go against the 1970s view.

The 1970s view understood these activities as "preparing the way for her husband's election or as a complement to his programs." But choice (E) shows that ER was not simply the idiosyncratic wife of a famous man. She participated in the integration of women into mainstream politics, and had priorities that were separate from her husband's. This was part of the social change that she and her generation experienced.

(E) is the only choice that does what the question asked, so we'll stick with it.

I hope this helps!
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Re: When the history of women began to receive focused attention in the  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Dec 2018, 23:19
GMATNinja wrote:
shubham2312 wrote:
someone kindly provide OE/explanation of this question

3.The author cites which of the following as evidence against the public view of Eleanor Roosevelt held in the 1970’s?

AdityaHongunti wrote:
please explain Q3 ...i still think it is A

The question itself has a couple twists and turns, so let's straighten it out fully:

  • The public held a certain view of ER in the 1970s.
  • The author makes a case against that view.
  • In doing so, the author cites a piece of evidence. What was that evidence?

To really stay on track, let's be clear about each part:

  • The public held a certain view of ER in the 1970s. As dave13 has pointed out, ER "held a place in the public imagination largely because she was the wife of a particularly influential President. Her own activities were seen as preparing the way for her husband’s election or as a complement to his programs." If we were only to read the texts of the 1970s, we would learn about "the idiosyncratic career of a famous man’s wife."
  • The author makes a case against that view. Right up front, the author states that ER "had been important in social reform circles before her husband was elected President and that she continued to advocate different causes than he did." Then, in the second paragraph, the author cites the work of Scharf to continue presenting this alternative view: That ER represented a generation of privileged women "who made the transition from old patterns of female association to new ones." The author suggests that this context of generational change helps us understand ER more than the previous public view.
  • In doing so, the author cites a piece of evidence. What was that evidence? There's plenty of evidence in the passage to support the author's case, and only 5 answer choices. So let's go ahead and work through the answer choices.

We're going to eliminate anything that was not used by the author to go against the 1970's public view of Eleanor Roosevelt. We'll probably have to eliminate choices that sound right, because we need to check many more boxes than "Is this true, according to the passage?"

Quote:
(A) She had been born into a wealthy family.

This is true, but does the author cite this fact in order to make a case against the 1970's view?

Not really. ER's wealth, on its own, plays a minor part in both the 1970s view and the author's view. The fact that ER was wealthy doesn't explain the context of change, contradiction, and political awakening that ER's generation lived through. That's why we eliminate (A).

Quote:
(B) Her political career predated the adoption of women’s suffrage.

The author never brings this up to go against the 1970's public view of ER. In fact, the only time the author mentions suffrage is to tell us that Scharf studied ER in the years after (not before) women in the U.S. achieved suffrage. Eliminate (B).

Quote:
(C) She continued her career in politics even after her husband’s death.

As with (B), the author doesn't discuss ER's career in the time period after her husband's death. Eliminate (C) as well.

Quote:
(D) She was one of a few female historical figures who were well known to historians by the 1970’s.

This is true, but what does it have to do with the author's case? As with (A), this is more of a basic fact that could be incorporated into any view of ER. It's not evidence that the author uses to make a case against the 1970's public view of ER. Eliminate (D).

Quote:
(E) Her activism predated her husband’s presidency and her projects differed from his.

Aha! This is the first choice that actually cites a fact about ER in order to go against the 1970s view.

The 1970s view understood these activities as "preparing the way for her husband's election or as a complement to his programs." But choice (E) shows that ER was not simply the idiosyncratic wife of a famous man. She participated in the integration of women into mainstream politics, and had priorities that were separate from her husband's. This was part of the social change that she and her generation experienced.

(E) is the only choice that does what the question asked, so we'll stick with it.

I hope this helps!


Hi GMATNinja

Sir kindly explain Question#2
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Re: When the history of women began to receive focused attention in the   [#permalink] 29 Dec 2018, 23:19

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