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# Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher th is year than

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Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher th is year than [#permalink]  03 Jun 2010, 19:17
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Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher th is year than last because refiners are paying about $5 a barrel more for crude oil than they were last year. (A) Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher this year than last because refiners are paying about$5 a barrel more for crude oil than they were
(8) Heating-oil prices are expected to rise higher this year over last because refiners pay about $5 a barrel for crude oil more than they did (C) Expectations are for heating-oil prices to be higher this year than last year's because refiners are paying about$5 a barrel for crude oil more than they did
(d) It is the expectation that heating-oil prices will be higher for this year over last because refiners are paying about $5 a barrel more for crude oil now than what they were (E) It is expected that heating-oil prices will rise higher this year than last year's because refiners pay about$5 a barrel for crude oil more than they did
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher th is year than [#permalink]  03 Jun 2010, 19:32
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IMO A

rise and higher is redundant
Director
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Re: Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher th is year than [#permalink]  05 Jun 2010, 18:15
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Example of ellipsis

Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher this year than last [year's prices] ----> Bulls eye

A is correct. "expected to be" is correct idiom. and "paying" is correct.

hence A.

C: is comparing expectations of this year vs the last year's. change of meaning. OUT

A it is.
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Re: Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher th is year than [#permalink]  05 Jun 2010, 22:42
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Yes by the process of elimination we reach A.

Can some one explain what exactly are we comparing here and whether the things being compared are parallel.

IMO we are comparing the prices last year with the prices this year and the years.
From a parallelism perspective is A correct? If yes How?

Thanks
Director
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Re: Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher th is year than [#permalink]  05 Jun 2010, 23:12
Its clear we are comparing the heating oil prices of current year with the previous'

Refiners are paying the cruel oil prices not the taxes

You refine crude oil and get the heating - oil. Hence when the price of crude oil goes up then heating oil will become expensive.

Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher this year than last because refiners are paying about $5 a barrel more for crude oil than they were last year. _________________ Please press kudos if you like my post. Manager Joined: 09 Jun 2009 Posts: 225 Followers: 2 Kudos [?]: 162 [0], given: 6 Re: Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher th is year than [#permalink] 10 Jun 2010, 11:56 Killer explanation.... I wanted to know the elipse funda...btw i've been hearing it for quite some time now...everytiime i think i caught a parallelism bug...it turns out to be ellipse.. Can we please discuss so that i dont commit a mistake again? Thanks SVP Joined: 17 Feb 2010 Posts: 1559 Followers: 14 Kudos [?]: 392 [0], given: 6 Re: Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher th is year than [#permalink] 18 Jun 2010, 07:56 Can someone please explain why C is wrong. I thought the comparison is between this year's heating oil prices and last year's heating oil prices. option C Expectations are for heating-oil prices to be higher this year than last year's [heating-oil prices].....................correct comparison option A Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher this year than last [dont we need last year's heating-oil prices?] Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher this year than last because refiners are paying about$5 a barrel more for crude oil than they were last year.

(A) Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher this year than last because refiners are paying about $5 a barrel more for crude oil than they were (B) Heating-oil prices are expected to rise higher this year over last because refiners pay about$5 a barrel for crude oil more than they did

(C) Expectations are for heating-oil prices to be higher this year than last year's because refiners are paying about $5 a barrel for crude oil more than they did (D) It is the expectation that heating-oil prices will be higher for this year over last because refiners are paying about$5 a barrel more for crude oil now than what they were

(E) It is expected that heating-oil prices will rise higher this year than last year's because refiners pay about $5 a barrel for crude oil more than they did Manager Joined: 25 May 2010 Posts: 142 Followers: 116 Kudos [?]: 556 [54] , given: 0 Re: Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher th is year than [#permalink] 18 Jun 2010, 09:46 54 This post received KUDOS 22 This post was BOOKMARKED papillon86 wrote: Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher this year than last because refiners are paying about$5 a barrel more for crude oil than they were last year.

(A) Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher this year than last because refiners are paying about $5 a barrel more for crude oil than they were (B) Heating-oil prices are expected to rise higher this year over last because refiners pay about$5 a barrel for crude oil more than they did
(C) Expectations are for heating-oil prices to be higher this year than last year's because refiners are paying about $5 a barrel for crude oil more than they did (D) It is the expectation that heating-oil prices will be higher for this year over last because refiners are paying about$5 a barrel more for crude oil now than what they were
(E) It is expected that heating-oil prices will rise higher this year than last year's because refiners pay about $5 a barrel for crude oil more than they did You've done a good job guys! Let me see if I can help you out with some of the confusion regarding comparisons and ellipses: A. Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher this year than last because refiners are paying about$5 a barrel more for crude oil than they were
What is compared here are the times-- "this year" and "last" (meaning "last year"-- this is an ellipses).

When comparing time or place, you have two options for structuring the comparison:

1. Joe studies more at night that he does during the day. (The sentence compares Joe to himself.)

2. Joe studies more at night than during the day. (The sentence compares "at night" to "during the day.")

B. Heating-oil prices are expected to rise higher this year over last because refiners pay about $5 a barrel for crude oil more than they did Important Note!! The comparative structure requires that you use "than" after the "--er". Correct: Tom is older than Bob. Incorrect: Tom is older compared to/in comparison with/over Bob You must use "than" after you've used a word ending with --er. C. Expectations are for heating-oil prices to be higher this year than last year's because refiners are paying about$5 a barrel for crude oil more than they did

You can stop reading as soon as you get to "for heating-oil prices" because that is not a correct description of the the expectations. The expectations are not for prices, but rather that prices will....

Important Note: Do not change a relative clause into a mere prepositional phrase!!

Ex. "I think that chickens fly" (relative clause: that+subject+verb) IS NOT EQUIVALENT TO "I think of chickens flying" (prepositional phrase: of chickens)

D. It is the expectation that heating-oil prices will be higher for this year over last because refiners are paying about $5 a barrel more for crude oil now than what they were Same problem as B. E. It is expected that heating-oil prices will rise higher this year than last year's because refiners pay about$5 a barrel for crude oil more than they did

"prices will rise higher this year than last year's" uses ellipses that hide the logic problem. Complete everything that was left out, and the resulting sentence is: "prices will rise higher this year than last year's prices rose. This is not intended meaning of the sentence.

Second, the word "more" is not correctly placed.

Correct: I paid 5 dollars more for my sandwich today than I did yesterday.

Incorrect: I paid 5 dollars for my sandwich more than I did yesterday.

"More" describes $5 and must therefore be placed next to$5.

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Re: Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher th is year than [#permalink]  18 Jun 2010, 10:26
Very nice explanation
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Re: Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher th is year than [#permalink]  18 Jun 2010, 12:41
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I have faced problems with these kinds of questions often...finally after reading Sara's note I am clear on how to handle these problems... would like to present a summary of my understanding to clear potential doubts in the minds of people who are struggling with these concepts...
---------------------------------------------
It is not correct to say -

HEATING OIL PRICES THIS YEAR ARE EXPECTED TO BE HIGHER THAN LAST YEAR – this way we are comparing heating oil prices of this year with the LAST YEAR (an illogical comparison) where as what we intend to compare are the prices of heating oil in each of the two years).

So we must rephrase it as - HEATING OIL PRICES THIS YEAR ARE EXPECTED TO BE HIGHER THAN THE HEATING OIL PRICE OF LAST YEAR

WHICH CAN BE ELLIPSED TO

HEATING OIL PRICES THIS YEAR ARE EXPECTED TO BE HIGHER THAN LAST YEAR’S [PRICE]
OR HEATING OIL PRICES THIS YEAR ARE EXPECTED TO BE HIGHER THAN THEY WERE LAST YEAR

Another form similar to the one above is -
THIS YEAR, THE HEATING OIL PRICES ARE EXPECTED TO BE HIGHER THAN THEY WERE LAST YEAR (NOT HIGHER THAN LAST YEAR)
Or ellipsed form THIS YEAR, THE HEATING OIL PRICES ARE EXPECTED TO BE HIGHER THAN LAST YEAR’S [HEATING OIL PRICE]

Now if we reword the whole sentence as below – (we have removed THIS YEAR from the first part of the sentence and positioned it AFTER the main verb (are)

HEATING OIL PRICES ARE EXPECTED TO BE HIGHER THIS YEAR THAN LAST
Now the comparison focus shifts from Price to Time frame (this year versus last)
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Re: Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher th is year than [#permalink]  26 Jun 2010, 21:33
nice explanation guys .. thanks ..
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Re: Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher th is year than [#permalink]  07 Jul 2010, 06:35
Quote:
Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher th is year than last because refiners are paying about $5 a barrel more for crude oil than they were last year. Hi everyone ....... Thanks a lot for such a detailed explanation!! There is just one thing that is still bugging me:- In option A ----- "Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher this year than last because refiners are paying about$5 a barrel more for crude oil than they were" last year,

shouldn't there be "paying" AGAIN after "were" to make it as:
Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher this year than last because refiners are paying about $5 a barrel more for crude oil than they were paying last year. How can we hide "paying" ? Is this also ellipses ?? If so, kindly explain as i have NOT understood this well !! Thanks so much _________________ .... ........ ............ Manager Joined: 25 May 2010 Posts: 142 Followers: 116 Kudos [?]: 556 [2] , given: 0 Re: Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher th is year than [#permalink] 11 Jul 2010, 02:27 2 This post received KUDOS Hi tgtharvard, Yes, this is ellipses. Since "paying" already appears in the sentence, there is no need to repeat it after the word "were". Best, Sarai _________________ Sarai GMAT Verbal Instructor at http://www.linkedin.com/company/ofek-gmat/online-gmat-tutoring-22305743/product?trk=biz_product Email me at saraiyaseen@gmail.com If this helped, kindly give Kudos! Intern Joined: 02 Jul 2010 Posts: 27 Schools: Harvard (R2-applied), MIT (R2-applied) WE 1: Military WE 2: Social Entrepreneur Followers: 3 Kudos [?]: 3 [0], given: 3 Re: Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher th is year than [#permalink] 11 Jul 2010, 03:36 SaraiGMAXonline wrote: Hi tgtharvard, Yes, this is ellipses. Since "paying" already appears in the sentence, there is no need to repeat it after the word "were". Best, Sarai Dear Sarai .... Thanks for clarifying that ..... !! And now that it is indeed an ellipses, please bear with me as i have another doubt that comes to light if option A is correct. Please help me with this one as well !!! ....... Sorry for the trouble!!!! :- In the last part of this sentence: Quote: Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher this year than last because refiners are paying about$5 a barrel more for crude oil than they were last year.

Who does THEY refer to ????

Isn't it a case of unclear antecedent reference as "they" could refer to both "Heating-Oil prices" as well as "Refiners" ???

I know that the use of "were" makes it refer to "prices" but if we had used "did" instead of "were" it could as easily have referred to "refiners". In any case, the use of "were" or "did" doesnt stop "they from being called "an ambigios referrent", does it ?!?!
I hope i have made my doubt clear and not confused you all further !!

And if that is NOT the case, then could u please explain as to where am I faulting in my logic !!!!

Thanks a ton ...

Sam
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Re: Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher th is year than [#permalink]  11 Jul 2010, 03:51
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Hi Sam,

The issue of ambiguous pronouns is more a matter of logic than a GMAT 'trick'. If the pronoun has more than one logical referent, there is ambiguity.

Ex. Computer A is next to computer B, and it is broken.

In this sentence both computers are logical referents for "it". When you are presented with an ambiguous pronoun you will have trouble understanding what your sentence is saying. A correct answer will be a version of the sentence that is easier for you to understand because it is clearer.

Ex. Computer A, which is next to computer B, is broken.

In the problem at hand, "refiners" are the only word that make sense as the subject for the verb "were (paying)". Nothing else in the sentence has the ability to pay, so there is no problem with ambiguity here.

Hope that helps! Lots of luck!!!

-Sarai
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Re: Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher th is year than [#permalink]  11 Jul 2010, 03:55
Thank You for a gr8 & also a very prompt reply.

Will keep this thing in mind. .......

Thanks a lot ......

Kudos to u ..... actually, let me give it rather than say it !!!
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Re: Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher th is year than [#permalink]  20 Jul 2010, 05:14
Hi, Sarai! thanks for the nice explanation first, helps a lot.

but I still have a question concerning A...

SaraiGMAXonline wrote:

A. Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher this year than last because refiners are paying about $5 a barrel more for crude oil than they were What is compared here are the times-- "this year" and "last" (meaning "last year"-- this is an ellipses). OA says that "the sentense connects a comparison between this year's and last year’s heating-oil prices", not the time frame... i'm so confused, hope you can shed some light on this issue. thank you in advance:) Intern Joined: 10 Aug 2009 Posts: 7 Followers: 0 Kudos [?]: 0 [0], given: 0 Re: Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher th is year than [#permalink] 27 Apr 2011, 07:41 kindly post OA along with the questions Intern Joined: 22 Aug 2011 Posts: 2 Followers: 0 Kudos [?]: 0 [0], given: 0 Re: Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher th is year than [#permalink] 23 Aug 2011, 12:09 KimiHana wrote: KimiHana wrote: Hi, Sarai! thanks for the nice explanation first, helps a lot. but I still have a question concerning A... SaraiGMAXonline wrote: A. Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher this year than last because refiners are paying about$5 a barrel more for crude oil than they were
What is compared here are the times-- "this year" and "last" (meaning "last year"-- this is an ellipses).

OA says that "the sentense connects a comparison between this year's and last year’s heating-oil prices", not the time frame...

i'm so confused, hope you can shed some light on this issue.

Can anybody explain this one?

Yes the OG mentions 'the possessive last year's does not parallel the adverbial phrase this year' as one of the reasons for 'E' being wrong.

We are comparing last year's heating-oil prices to this year's heating-oil prices! And option 'E' clearly creates a parallel between the prices. I don't understand what is OG's point.

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Re: Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher th is year than [#permalink]  24 Aug 2011, 17:53
SaraiGMAXonline wrote:
papillon86 wrote:
Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher this year than last because refiners are paying about $5 a barrel more for crude oil than they were last year. (A) Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher this year than last because refiners are paying about$5 a barrel more for crude oil than they were
(B) Heating-oil prices are expected to rise higher this year over last because refiners pay about $5 a barrel for crude oil more than they did (C) Expectations are for heating-oil prices to be higher this year than last year's because refiners are paying about$5 a barrel for crude oil more than they did
(D) It is the expectation that heating-oil prices will be higher for this year over last because refiners are paying about $5 a barrel more for crude oil now than what they were (E) It is expected that heating-oil prices will rise higher this year than last year's because refiners pay about$5 a barrel for crude oil more than they did

You've done a good job guys! Let me see if I can help you out with some of the confusion regarding comparisons and ellipses:

A. Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher this year than last because refiners are paying about $5 a barrel more for crude oil than they were What is compared here are the times-- "this year" and "last" (meaning "last year"-- this is an ellipses). When comparing time or place, you have two options for structuring the comparison: 1. Joe studies more at night that he does during the day. (The sentence compares Joe to himself.) 2. Joe studies more at night than during the day. (The sentence compares "at night" to "during the day.") B. Heating-oil prices are expected to rise higher this year over last because refiners pay about$5 a barrel for crude oil more than they did

Important Note!! The comparative structure requires that you use "than" after the "--er".

Correct: Tom is older than Bob.
Incorrect: Tom is older compared to/in comparison with/over Bob

You must use "than" after you've used a word ending with --er.

C. Expectations are for heating-oil prices to be higher this year than last year's because refiners are paying about $5 a barrel for crude oil more than they did You can stop reading as soon as you get to "for heating-oil prices" because that is not a correct description of the the expectations. The expectations are not for prices, but rather that prices will.... Important Note: Do not change a relative clause into a mere prepositional phrase!! Ex. "I think that chickens fly" (relative clause: that+subject+verb) IS NOT EQUIVALENT TO "I think of chickens flying" (prepositional phrase: of chickens) D. It is the expectation that heating-oil prices will be higher for this year over last because refiners are paying about$5 a barrel more for crude oil now than what they were

Same problem as B.

E. It is expected that heating-oil prices will rise higher this year than last year's because refiners pay about $5 a barrel for crude oil more than they did "prices will rise higher this year than last year's" uses ellipses that hide the logic problem. Complete everything that was left out, and the resulting sentence is: "prices will rise higher this year than last year's prices rose. This is not intended meaning of the sentence. Second, the word "more" is not correctly placed. Correct: I paid 5 dollars more for my sandwich today than I did yesterday. Incorrect: I paid 5 dollars for my sandwich more than I did yesterday. "More" describes$5 and must therefore be placed next to $5. These are great points! Although I did not analyze this sentence so thoroughly, I came to A since the more was oddly placed in most sentences I would have considered$5 a barrel more for crude oil Vs. \$5 a barrel for crude oil more

After narrowing those down, then I started comparing the options.
Re: Heating-oil prices are expected to be higher th is year than   [#permalink] 24 Aug 2011, 17:53

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