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ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers

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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink] New post 11 Feb 2013, 07:20
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Sinner1706 wrote:
Hi Shraddha/E-Gmat Team,

Understood the concept on Verb-ed Modifiers. Could you clarify the below question, in line with Verb-ing modifiers

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language
variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating


Hi there,
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

First of all, I would recommend you to read the following articles that describe in details various usages of “verb-ing” modifiers.
usage-of-verb-ing-modifiers-135220.html
verb-ing-modifiers-part-2-in-our-first-article-on-verb-ing-135567.html

Now let’s solve this problem at hand.

Meaning Analysis:

Popularity of television has resulted into decline of regional dialects. These regional dialects are language variations. Two characteristics of dialects have been presented:
a. they originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and
b. they are perpetuated by geographic isolation

Error Analysis:

The first characteristic of dialects has been presented in clause “which originate”. Hence the second characteristic must be presented in the same format. Now “which” can be taken to be understood in the case of second clause. However, notice the construction “perpetuated by geographic isolation”. This means dialects did not do the action of perpetuating. The action was done on them Hence, we need a passive voice verb here. To maintain parallelism, the correct verb should be “are perpetuated by…”. In absence of “are” before “perpetuated”, this word acts as a verb-ed modifier that cannot be parallel to a clause.

PoE:

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated: Incorrect for the reason stated above.

B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated: Incorrect. Same error as in choice A.

C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated: Incorrect. “originated” here is a simple past tens verb. This leads to a run-on construction where the two independent clauses are connected by a comma.

D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated: Correct. “originating”, the verb-ing modifier and “perpetuated”, the verb-ed modifier, correctly modify “language variations”. These two forms of modifiers are parallel because they both perform the same function.

E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating: Incorrect. Verb-ing modifier “perpetuating” incorrectly modifies “language variations”. This modification means that the action of “perpetuating” was done by “language variations” .

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Last edited by egmat on 11 Feb 2013, 07:24, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink] New post 11 Feb 2013, 07:23
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Sinner1706 wrote:
Another question, which is an entire opposite of the above question but tests the Verb+ing and the Verb+ed Modifiers to the hilt. The similarities and the differences in two questions, will help make the concept crystal clear.

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached
the observer’s meridian and differing
from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

A. which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
B. which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
C. which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
D. determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
E. determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing


Hi there,

Check my response for this one in the following thread:
challenging-question-95367-20.html

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink] New post 11 Feb 2013, 11:20
egmat wrote:
Sinner1706 wrote:
Hi Shraddha/E-Gmat Team,

Understood the concept on Verb-ed Modifiers. Could you clarify the below question, in line with Verb-ing modifiers

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language
variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating


Hi there,
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

First of all, I would recommend you to read the following articles that describe in details various usages of “verb-ing” modifiers.
usage-of-verb-ing-modifiers-135220.html
verb-ing-modifiers-part-2-in-our-first-article-on-verb-ing-135567.html

Now let’s solve this problem at hand.

Meaning Analysis:

Popularity of television has resulted into decline of regional dialects. These regional dialects are language variations. Two characteristics of dialects have been presented:
a. they originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and
b. they are perpetuated by geographic isolation

Error Analysis:

The first characteristic of dialects has been presented in clause “which originate”. Hence the second characteristic must be presented in the same format. Now “which” can be taken to be understood in the case of second clause. However, notice the construction “perpetuated by geographic isolation”. This means dialects did not do the action of perpetuating. The action was done on them Hence, we need a passive voice verb here. To maintain parallelism, the correct verb should be “are perpetuated by…”. In absence of “are” before “perpetuated”, this word acts as a verb-ed modifier that cannot be parallel to a clause.

PoE:

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated: Incorrect for the reason stated above.

B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated: Incorrect. Same error as in choice A.

C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated: Incorrect. “originated” here is a simple past tens verb. This leads to a run-on construction where the two independent clauses are connected by a comma.

D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated: Correct. “originating”, the verb-ing modifier and “perpetuated”, the verb-ed modifier, correctly modify “language variations”. These two forms of modifiers are parallel because they both perform the same function.

E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating: Incorrect. Verb-ing modifier “perpetuating” incorrectly modifies “language variations”. This modification means that the action of “perpetuating” was done by “language variations” .

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha


Hi Shraddha,

Thanks for the profound explanation.

Couple of poignant after thoughts. Please confirm. (I have gone through the sessions on Verb-ed and Verb-ing modifiers.)

I already had comprehended the point that

Language Variations is the doer of only of the actions i.e. Originating, whereas the Geographic isolation is the doer of perpetuating.

Can we say, for the sake of time, that whenever we spot a Verb-ing modifier without comma we can safely assume that it modifies the previous eligible noun/noun phrase and never functions as a verb, until -ing is present with helping verbs such as was, is, are etc.

When we encounter a Verb-ed modifier, we need to be more cautious and confirm whether it is a simple past tense or a modifier?

Otherwise we can always say for Option D & E that since Language Variations is the doer of the action Originating, it functions as the verb.

In Short, the Litmus test mentioned in the tutorial only applies to Verb-ed modifiers and not Verb-ing modifiers.
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink] New post 14 Feb 2013, 13:16
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Sinner1706 wrote:
Can we say, for the sake of time, that whenever we spot a Verb-ing modifier without comma we can safely assume that it modifies the previous eligible noun/noun phrase and never functions as a verb, until -ing is present with helping verbs such as was, is, are etc.

When we encounter a Verb-ed modifier, we need to be more cautious and confirm whether it is a simple past tense or a modifier?

Otherwise we can always say for Option D & E that since Language Variations is the doer of the action Originating, it functions as the verb.

In Short, the Litmus test mentioned in the tutorial only applies to Verb-ed modifiers and not Verb-ing modifiers.


Hi Sinner1706,

Yes, your takeaways are correct.

1. When a verb-ing modifier is not preceded by a comma, it always modifies the previous noun entity - a single word noun or a noun phrase.
2. It is correct that just a verb-ing word cannot function as a continuous/progressive verb tense unless it is preceded by such helping verbs as is/am/are/was/were etc.
3. When we see a verb-ed word, we must make sure whether it is a simple past tence verb or a modifier. This is so because a verb-ed word can play both these functions. A verb-ed word is generally taken to be a simple past tense verb when it may be functioning as a modifier.
4. There is no Litmus Test for verb-ing modifier because just the verb-ing word CANNOT function as progressive verb tense if it is not preceded by a heping word. There is no way of confusing just the verb-ing word with a verb.

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink] New post 14 Feb 2013, 14:26
egmat wrote:
Sinner1706 wrote:
Can we say, for the sake of time, that whenever we spot a Verb-ing modifier without comma we can safely assume that it modifies the previous eligible noun/noun phrase and never functions as a verb, until -ing is present with helping verbs such as was, is, are etc.

When we encounter a Verb-ed modifier, we need to be more cautious and confirm whether it is a simple past tense or a modifier?

Otherwise we can always say for Option D & E that since Language Variations is the doer of the action Originating, it functions as the verb.

In Short, the Litmus test mentioned in the tutorial only applies to Verb-ed modifiers and not Verb-ing modifiers.


Hi Sinner1706,

Yes, your takeaways are correct.

1. When a verb-ing modifier is not preceded by a comma, it always modifies the previous noun entity - a single word noun or a noun phrase.
2. It is correct that just a verb-ing word cannot function as a continuous/progressive verb tense unless it is preceded by such helping verbs as is/am/are/was/were etc.
3. When we see a verb-ed word, we must make sure whether it is a simple past tence verb or a modifier. This is so because a verb-ed word can play both these functions. A verb-ed word is generally taken to be a simple past tense verb when it may be functioning as a modifier.
4. There is no Litmus Test for verb-ing modifier because just the verb-ing word CANNOT function as progressive verb tense if it is not preceded by a heping word. There is no way of confusing just the verb-ing word with a verb.

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha


Thanks Shraddha. Deeply indebted to you!!! :-D
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink] New post 18 Feb 2013, 07:22
egmat wrote:
Sinner1706 wrote:
Hi Shraddha/E-Gmat Team,

Understood the concept on Verb-ed Modifiers. Could you clarify the below question, in line with Verb-ing modifiers

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language
variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating


Hi there,
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

First of all, I would recommend you to read the following articles that describe in details various usages of “verb-ing” modifiers.
usage-of-verb-ing-modifiers-135220.html
verb-ing-modifiers-part-2-in-our-first-article-on-verb-ing-135567.html

Now let’s solve this problem at hand.

Meaning Analysis:

Popularity of television has resulted into decline of regional dialects. These regional dialects are language variations. Two characteristics of dialects have been presented:
a. they originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and
b. they are perpetuated by geographic isolation

Error Analysis:

The first characteristic of dialects has been presented in clause “which originate”. Hence the second characteristic must be presented in the same format. Now “which” can be taken to be understood in the case of second clause. However, notice the construction “perpetuated by geographic isolation”. This means dialects did not do the action of perpetuating. The action was done on them Hence, we need a passive voice verb here. To maintain parallelism, the correct verb should be “are perpetuated by…”. In absence of “are” before “perpetuated”, this word acts as a verb-ed modifier that cannot be parallel to a clause.

PoE:

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated: Incorrect for the reason stated above.

B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated: Incorrect. Same error as in choice A.

C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated: Incorrect. “originated” here is a simple past tens verb. This leads to a run-on construction where the two independent clauses are connected by a comma.

D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated: Correct. “originating”, the verb-ing modifier and “perpetuated”, the verb-ed modifier, correctly modify “language variations”. These two forms of modifiers are parallel because they both perform the same function.

E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating: Incorrect. Verb-ing modifier “perpetuating” incorrectly modifies “language variations”. This modification means that the action of “perpetuating” was done by “language variations” .

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha



Shraddha,

Great explanation. One question or rather just a thought.

In both D and E, perpetuating and perpetuated are modifying language variations. However perpetuated is correct.
Can we say that for verb ing modifier, the modified entity should associate to the action presented by the modifier. However that need not be true for verb-ed modifier?
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink] New post 19 Feb 2013, 11:21
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scp wrote:
Shraddha,

Great explanation. One question or rather just a thought.

In both D and E, perpetuating and perpetuated are modifying language variations. However perpetuated is correct.
Can we say that for verb ing modifier, the modified entity should associate to the action presented by the modifier. However that need not be true for verb-ed modifier?


Hi scp,

The comma + verb-ing modifier by default associates with the action of the preceding modified clause in that this modifier presents either additional information on the "HOW" aspect of the action in the preceding clause or the result of the action of the preceding clause.

The thing we must take a note of is that the action denoted by the verb-ing modifier must make sense with the subject of teh modified clause.

The reason why "perpetuating" in Choice E is incorrect because the choice now suggests that "language variations" did the action of "perpetuating". This is not true because the action of "perpetuating" was done on "language variations". This is the reason why we need verb-ed modifier "perpetuated" here.

This is the reason why "originating" is the correct modifier to modify "language variations" because "language variations" did the action of originating and hence makes sense with subject. You can study any correct sentence with coma + verb-ing modifier. This point is mentioned in our article as well.

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink] New post 24 Feb 2013, 06:25
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egmat wrote:

Correct these sentences if you feel they are incorrect.

1. The lamp decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty. = Incorrect
Correct = The lamp that decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty.

2. A leader guided his followers earned immense respect from the masses. = Incorrect
Correct = A leader who guided his followers earned immense respect from the masses.



Hi Shradhha,
For the first sentence-did the lamp do the action of decorating on its own? I guess not! Then how this sentence "The lamp that decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty." can be correct ? Please help me understand it.

For the second sentence-if we write this as 'A leader guided his followers and earned immense respect from the masses'...Will that be wrong ? Please explain.

Much appreciate your feedback.
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink] New post 24 Feb 2013, 22:59
Sinner1706 wrote:
Hi Shraddha/E-Gmat Team,

Understood the concept on Verb-ed Modifiers. Could you clarify the below question, in line with Verb-ing modifiers

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language
variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating


See this link for a good explanation:

the-increased-popularity-and-availability-of-televisions-has-85756.html#p719974
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink] New post 25 Feb 2013, 06:59
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debayan222 wrote:
egmat wrote:

Correct these sentences if you feel they are incorrect.

1. The lamp decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty. = Incorrect
Correct = The lamp that decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty.

2. A leader guided his followers earned immense respect from the masses. = Incorrect
Correct = A leader who guided his followers earned immense respect from the masses.



Hi Shradhha,
For the first sentence-did the lamp do the action of decorating on its own? I guess not! Then how this sentence "The lamp that decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty." can be correct ? Please help me understand it.

For the second sentence-if we write this as 'A leader guided his followers and earned immense respect from the masses'...Will that be wrong ? Please explain.

Much appreciate your feedback.


Hi Debayan,

I can understand where your confusion arises from. You are thinking in lines of say: Amy decorated the room. Here, there is no confusion because Amy physically performed the action of decorating the room. However, in the “lamp sentence”, the lamp physically did not do the action of decorating the room. The word “decorated” has been used more in the sense of “beautified”. The lamp made the room more beautiful.

A leader guided his followers and earned immense respect from the masses.

Grammatically, this sentence is correct. However, the meaning is slightly different here. This sentence says that the leader did two things:
a. guided his followers
b. earned respect from the masses.

Both the actions are at the same level. However, in the e-gmat sentence, the leader performed one action “earned the respect”. Guiding the followers comes as the additional information in the sentence. The action of the IC and the action of the DC are not at the same level.

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink] New post 25 Feb 2013, 10:06
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egmat wrote:
debayan222 wrote:
egmat wrote:

Correct these sentences if you feel they are incorrect.

1. The lamp decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty. = Incorrect
Correct = The lamp that decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty.

2. A leader guided his followers earned immense respect from the masses. = Incorrect
Correct = A leader who guided his followers earned immense respect from the masses.



Hi Shradhha,
For the first sentence-did the lamp do the action of decorating on its own? I guess not! Then how this sentence "The lamp that decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty." can be correct ? Please help me understand it.

For the second sentence-if we write this as 'A leader guided his followers and earned immense respect from the masses'...Will that be wrong ? Please explain.

Much appreciate your feedback.


Hi Debayan,

I can understand where your confusion arises from. You are thinking in lines of say: Amy decorated the room. Here, there is no confusion because Amy physically performed the action of decorating the room. However, in the “lamp sentence”, the lamp physically did not do the action of decorating the room. The word “decorated” has been used more in the sense of “beautified”. The lamp made the room more beautiful.

A leader guided his followers and earned immense respect from the masses.

Grammatically, this sentence is correct. However, the meaning is slightly different here. This sentence says that the leader did two things:
a. guided his followers
b. earned respect from the masses.

Both the actions are at the same level. However, in the e-gmat sentence, the leader performed one action “earned the respect”. Guiding the followers comes as the additional information in the sentence. The action of the IC and the action of the DC are not at the same level.

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha



Thanks Shraddha for your reply.

2nd question is clear now :)

But still have confusion over the 1st one...Whether the case is "The lamp that decorated the child’s room..." or "The lamp decorated the child’s room...", 'The lamp' is still the subject and hence the doer of the verb 'decorated'.However if we consider this sentence in the same way(re: as you explained above) as the second one,then I guess the difference between "The lamp that decorated the child’s room..." or "The lamp decorated the child’s room..." is the former provides some additional information ONLY...

Please let me know your thoughts.
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink] New post 28 Mar 2013, 08:24
egmat wrote:

C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated: Incorrect. “originated” here is a simple past tens verb. This leads to a run-on construction where the two independent clauses are connected by a comma.

Shraddha


Hi Shraddha,

Thanks for your kind explanation. However, I would like to seek further explanation on how "originated" is working as a "verb" here? How, language variations are acting as doer? Isnt action is done on them i.e Language Variations were originated from Ethnic and Cultural heritages ?
To me, originated is working as participle.

To make my point more clear, lets analyze the following sentences-

Newton originated the idea of Gravitation-> Here, Originated is working as Verb, since doer is Newton.

The concept of Gravitation was originated from an event, a free fall of an apple from a tree - Here, action is done by an event, hence passive voice. Hence, in option C, we need a working verb such as was/were to make it verb. However, in present sentence it is working as Participle only.

Please tell me where I am going wrong.

Thanks
Himanshu
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink] New post 01 Apr 2013, 13:06
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Great question Himanshu. Actually you have brought up a verb - originate - that has two possible meanings.
Meaning 1 - to create
Example 1 - Newton originated the idea of Gravitation

Meaning 2 - to come into being
Example 2 - The idea of gravitation originated from the discovery of a falling apple.


So as you can see the two meanings are pretty related to each other. In fact you can write the second example sentence in passive voice (using meaning 1 of the verb) as follows:

Example 3 - The idea of gravitation was originated by Newton when he discovered the falling apple.
Abbreviated Example 3 - The idea of gravitation was originated by Newton when he discovered the falling apple. INCORRECT
In this case the word "originated" is a verb-ed modifier. It is not a verb in past tense. In order to act as verb it needs "was".

Hope this helps with your doubt. Once again, great doubt!

Regards,
Payal
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink] New post 02 Apr 2013, 06:01
egmat wrote:
Great question Himanshu. Actually you have brought up a verb - originate - that has two possible meanings.
Meaning 1 - to create
Example 1 - Newton originated the idea of Gravitation

Meaning 2 - to come into being
Example 2 - The idea of gravitation originated from the discovery of a falling apple.


So as you can see the two meanings are pretty related to each other. In fact you can write the second example sentence in passive voice (using meaning 1 of the verb) as follows:

Example 3 - The idea of gravitation was originated by Newton when he discovered the falling apple.
Abbreviated Example 3 - The idea of gravitation was originated by Newton when he discovered the falling apple. INCORRECT
In this case the word "originated" is a verb-ed modifier. It is not a verb in past tense. In order to act as verb it needs "was".

Hope this helps with your doubt. Once again, great doubt!

Regards,
Payal


Thanks Payal for the great explanation.
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink] New post 22 Apr 2013, 09:25
Dear egmat,
thanks for the good article.

After reading the article, I am able to understand a lot more about ed-modifiers & verbs.

However, in the process of breaking down the sentence I'm stuck, as ( I think) I could not break it up properly- to understand the correct meaning.


C1-Scientists have recently discovered [IC]
S=Scientists, V=have recently discovered

C2-what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus [DC]
S=what, V=could be

C3-that is an [DC]
V=is, that refers to giant fungus
In C3 is the subject that or giant fungus?
[list] interwoven filigree of mushrooms
and
root like tentacles
Phrase- [list]- no S-V
spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago
and
extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

Appreciate your help
1. in fixing the error in the above beak-up,
2. question- if we should start a new clause when we come across an Ed-modifier? Such as spawned in this case

Thanks
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink] New post 23 Apr 2013, 06:48
Hi samg,

I know that you have asked explanation from egmat, but I hope you wont mind my explanation. Ofcourse, it would be wonderful if egmat clarifies your doubt :)

Doubt 1:
In C3 is the subject that or giant fungus?

a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,300 years ago and extending for more than 33 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

It all goes to basics, Technically speaking the subject is "THAT", however, here that is working as Relative Pronoun so "That" must stand for noun, in this case noun is "Giant Fungus". All you need to make sure is that since "That" is referring to singular noun, so it must have singular verb, else it would result in grammatical error. For more clarification of "THAT", I opened one thread and there is lot discussion over there.

samg wrote:
V=is, that refers to giant fungus
In C3 is the subject that or giant fungus?
[list] interwoven filigree of mushrooms
and
root like tentacles


For below question, It depends on Meaning. You need to understand what the sentence is saying and then accordingly find out the function of every verb. Here, spawned is working as "Verb -ed" modifier not a Verb, as you have stated yourself. Verb ed modifier never stand as Verb, so why are you looking for a Clause.


samg wrote:
Phrase- [list]- no S-V
spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago
and
extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

Appreciate your help
1. in fixing the error in the above beak-up,
2. question- if we should start a new clause when we come across an Ed-modifier? Such as spawned in this case

Thanks

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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink] New post 29 Apr 2013, 13:05
Expert's post
Hi samg,

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

The way you have broken the sentence into clauses is absolutely correct. There are three clauses in this sentence.
Cl. 1: Scientists have recently discovered IC
Cl. 2: what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus DC
Cl. 3: that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest. DC
(blue = subjects, green = verbs)

A clause MUST have a subject and a verb. In absence of any of these, the structure will not stand as clause. Hence, we must not break a the sentence at verb-ed modifiers.

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink] New post 16 May 2013, 10:48
egmat wrote:
SOLUTION

Identify whether the underlined words are verbs or verb-ed modifiers.

1. Like birds today, Archaeopteryx had feathers that were fully formed.
Formed = simple past tense verb. In the relative pronoun clause, “that” is the subject that stands for “feathers” and the verb for this subject is “were formed”.

2. Our powers of color vision are derived from cells in our eyes called cones, three types in all, each triggered by different wavelengths of light.
Called & triggered = verb-ed modifier
Litmus Test: Did the “eyes” do the action of calling? No. Hence, it’s a modifier.
Did “each” do the job of triggering? No. Different wavelengths of light did that job. Hence, “triggered” is the modifier.

3. As Joel Bregman hoped, dozens of young stars turned up in each of the three dead galaxies—and as an added surprise, they even appeared in Messier 105.
Hoped, turned & appeared = simple past tense verbs for subjects “Joel Bregman”, “dozens of young stars” and “they” respectively.
Added = modifier that modifies “surprise”.

4. Dark matter might actually be produced at the energies explored by the world’s most powerful particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).
Explored = verb-ed modifier
Litmus Test: Will “the energies” do the job of exploring? No. The world’s most powerful particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider might do that action. Hence, “explored” is the modifier.

5. A leader guided by sound principles earned immense respect from the masses.
Guided = verb-ed modifier, earned = simple past tense verb for the subject “A leader”.
Litmus Test: Did a leader do the action of guiding? In this context, no. “Sound principles” guided “a leader”. Hence, guided is the modifier.

6. A company founded on sound business principles achieves much higher success.
Founded = verb-ed modifier
Litmus Test: Did a company do the action of founding? In this context no. May be the founder of the company did that job. Hence, founded is the verb-ed modifier.

7. The lamp decorated with stars filled the child’s room with innocent beauty.
Decorated = verb-ed modifier, filled = simple past tense verb for the subject “The lamp”.
Litmus Test: Did the lamp do the action of decorating. No. Hence, it is the modifier.

Correct these sentences if you feel they are incorrect.

1. The lamp decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty. = Incorrect
Correct = The lamp that decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty.

2. A leader guided his followers earned immense respect from the masses. = Incorrect
Correct = A leader who guided his followers earned immense respect from the masses.


Thankyou very much for giving detailed explaination. :-D
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink] New post 01 Jun 2013, 16:37
Sinner1706 wrote:
Hi Shraddha/E-Gmat Team,

Understood the concept on Verb-ed Modifiers. Could you clarify the below question, in line with Verb-ing modifiers

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language
variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating


My answer is D. Here originating and perpetuated are modifiers.
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers [#permalink] New post 12 Jul 2013, 02:24
egmat wrote:
debayan222 wrote:
Hi eGMAT,
Going by your 'Takeaway', if the subject of the sentence IS NOT the doer of the action then is there any exception that still the verb-ed form in that sentence,IS NOT the MODIFIER...?

Can you show some examples ?


Hi Debayan,

A verb-ed word will be either a verb or a verb-ed modifier. If it is a verb, it will certainly have a Subject or some doer (if the sentence does not have any grammatical error). If it is not a verb, then the verb-ed word has to be a modifier.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha





Hi E-Gmat/Shraddha,

The below sentence is from your article on Verb-ed modifiers. The correct answer is the same as the sentence given below. After going through Verb-ing modifier concept on E-GMAT, I understand that Verb-ing modifier modifies the preceding noun. However, in the below sentence, that rule is getting violated. Please help me understand this.


Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

Thanks,
Knuckledown
Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers   [#permalink] 12 Jul 2013, 02:24
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