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ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers

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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Feb 2013, 07:59
debayan222 wrote:
egmat wrote:

Correct these sentences if you feel they are incorrect.

1. The lamp decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty. = Incorrect
Correct = The lamp that decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty.

2. A leader guided his followers earned immense respect from the masses. = Incorrect
Correct = A leader who guided his followers earned immense respect from the masses.



Hi Shradhha,
For the first sentence-did the lamp do the action of decorating on its own? I guess not! Then how this sentence "The lamp that decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty." can be correct ? Please help me understand it.

For the second sentence-if we write this as 'A leader guided his followers and earned immense respect from the masses'...Will that be wrong ? Please explain.

Much appreciate your feedback.


Hi Debayan,

I can understand where your confusion arises from. You are thinking in lines of say: Amy decorated the room. Here, there is no confusion because Amy physically performed the action of decorating the room. However, in the “lamp sentence”, the lamp physically did not do the action of decorating the room. The word “decorated” has been used more in the sense of “beautified”. The lamp made the room more beautiful.

A leader guided his followers and earned immense respect from the masses.

Grammatically, this sentence is correct. However, the meaning is slightly different here. This sentence says that the leader did two things:
a. guided his followers
b. earned respect from the masses.

Both the actions are at the same level. However, in the e-gmat sentence, the leader performed one action “earned the respect”. Guiding the followers comes as the additional information in the sentence. The action of the IC and the action of the DC are not at the same level.

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Mar 2013, 09:24
egmat wrote:

C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated: Incorrect. “originated” here is a simple past tens verb. This leads to a run-on construction where the two independent clauses are connected by a comma.

Shraddha


Hi Shraddha,

Thanks for your kind explanation. However, I would like to seek further explanation on how "originated" is working as a "verb" here? How, language variations are acting as doer? Isnt action is done on them i.e Language Variations were originated from Ethnic and Cultural heritages ?
To me, originated is working as participle.

To make my point more clear, lets analyze the following sentences-

Newton originated the idea of Gravitation-> Here, Originated is working as Verb, since doer is Newton.

The concept of Gravitation was originated from an event, a free fall of an apple from a tree - Here, action is done by an event, hence passive voice. Hence, in option C, we need a working verb such as was/were to make it verb. However, in present sentence it is working as Participle only.

Please tell me where I am going wrong.

Thanks
Himanshu
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Apr 2013, 14:06
1
Great question Himanshu. Actually you have brought up a verb - originate - that has two possible meanings.
Meaning 1 - to create
Example 1 - Newton originated the idea of Gravitation

Meaning 2 - to come into being
Example 2 - The idea of gravitation originated from the discovery of a falling apple.


So as you can see the two meanings are pretty related to each other. In fact you can write the second example sentence in passive voice (using meaning 1 of the verb) as follows:

Example 3 - The idea of gravitation was originated by Newton when he discovered the falling apple.
Abbreviated Example 3 - The idea of gravitation was originated by Newton when he discovered the falling apple. INCORRECT
In this case the word "originated" is a verb-ed modifier. It is not a verb in past tense. In order to act as verb it needs "was".

Hope this helps with your doubt. Once again, great doubt!

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Payal
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Apr 2013, 10:25
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Dear egmat,
thanks for the good article.

After reading the article, I am able to understand a lot more about ed-modifiers & verbs.

However, in the process of breaking down the sentence I'm stuck, as ( I think) I could not break it up properly- to understand the correct meaning.


C1-Scientists have recently discovered [IC]
S=Scientists, V=have recently discovered

C2-what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus [DC]
S=what, V=could be

C3-that is an [DC]
V=is, that refers to giant fungus
In C3 is the subject that or giant fungus?
[list] interwoven filigree of mushrooms
and
root like tentacles
Phrase- [list]- no S-V
spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago
and
extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

Appreciate your help
1. in fixing the error in the above beak-up,
2. question- if we should start a new clause when we come across an Ed-modifier? Such as spawned in this case

Thanks
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Apr 2013, 14:05
Hi samg,

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

The way you have broken the sentence into clauses is absolutely correct. There are three clauses in this sentence.
Cl. 1: Scientists have recently discovered IC
Cl. 2: what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus DC
Cl. 3: that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and rootlike tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest. DC
(blue = subjects, green = verbs)

A clause MUST have a subject and a verb. In absence of any of these, the structure will not stand as clause. Hence, we must not break a the sentence at verb-ed modifiers.

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jul 2013, 03:24
egmat wrote:
debayan222 wrote:
Hi eGMAT,
Going by your 'Takeaway', if the subject of the sentence IS NOT the doer of the action then is there any exception that still the verb-ed form in that sentence,IS NOT the MODIFIER...?

Can you show some examples ?


Hi Debayan,

A verb-ed word will be either a verb or a verb-ed modifier. If it is a verb, it will certainly have a Subject or some doer (if the sentence does not have any grammatical error). If it is not a verb, then the verb-ed word has to be a modifier.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha





Hi E-Gmat/Shraddha,

The below sentence is from your article on Verb-ed modifiers. The correct answer is the same as the sentence given below. After going through Verb-ing modifier concept on E-GMAT, I understand that Verb-ing modifier modifies the preceding noun. However, in the below sentence, that rule is getting violated. Please help me understand this.


Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

Thanks,
Knuckledown
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jul 2013, 01:42
1
egmat wrote:
SOLUTION

Identify whether the underlined words are verbs or verb-ed modifiers.

1. Like birds today, Archaeopteryx had feathers that were fully formed.
Formed = simple past tense verb. In the relative pronoun clause, “that” is the subject that stands for “feathers” and the verb for this subject is “were formed”.

2. Our powers of color vision are derived from cells in our eyes called cones, three types in all, each triggered by different wavelengths of light.
Called & triggered = verb-ed modifier
Litmus Test: Did the “eyes” do the action of calling? No. Hence, it’s a modifier.
Did “each” do the job of triggering? No. Different wavelengths of light did that job. Hence, “triggered” is the modifier.

3. As Joel Bregman hoped, dozens of young stars turned up in each of the three dead galaxies—and as an added surprise, they even appeared in Messier 105.
Hoped, turned & appeared = simple past tense verbs for subjects “Joel Bregman”, “dozens of young stars” and “they” respectively.
Added = modifier that modifies “surprise”.

4. Dark matter might actually be produced at the energies explored by the world’s most powerful particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).
Explored = verb-ed modifier
Litmus Test: Will “the energies” do the job of exploring? No. The world’s most powerful particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider might do that action. Hence, “explored” is the modifier.

5. A leader guided by sound principles earned immense respect from the masses.
Guided = verb-ed modifier, earned = simple past tense verb for the subject “A leader”.
Litmus Test: Did a leader do the action of guiding? In this context, no. “Sound principles” guided “a leader”. Hence, guided is the modifier.

6. A company founded on sound business principles achieves much higher success.
Founded = verb-ed modifier
Litmus Test: Did a company do the action of founding? In this context no. May be the founder of the company did that job. Hence, founded is the verb-ed modifier.

7. The lamp decorated with stars filled the child’s room with innocent beauty.
Decorated = verb-ed modifier, filled = simple past tense verb for the subject “The lamp”.
Litmus Test: Did the lamp do the action of decorating. No. Hence, it is the modifier.

Correct these sentences if you feel they are incorrect.

1. The lamp decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty. = Incorrect
Correct = The lamp that decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty.

2. A leader guided his followers earned immense respect from the masses. = Incorrect
Correct = A leader who guided his followers earned immense respect from the masses.



Sam was cheated by his brother.

According to the litnus test given above, In this sentence cheated is ed-modifier or simple past?
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jul 2013, 08:30
abhinawster wrote:
egmat wrote:
SOLUTION

Identify whether the underlined words are verbs or verb-ed modifiers.

1. Like birds today, Archaeopteryx had feathers that were fully formed.
Formed = simple past tense verb. In the relative pronoun clause, “that” is the subject that stands for “feathers” and the verb for this subject is “were formed”.

2. Our powers of color vision are derived from cells in our eyes called cones, three types in all, each triggered by different wavelengths of light.
Called & triggered = verb-ed modifier
Litmus Test: Did the “eyes” do the action of calling? No. Hence, it’s a modifier.
Did “each” do the job of triggering? No. Different wavelengths of light did that job. Hence, “triggered” is the modifier.

3. As Joel Bregman hoped, dozens of young stars turned up in each of the three dead galaxies—and as an added surprise, they even appeared in Messier 105.
Hoped, turned & appeared = simple past tense verbs for subjects “Joel Bregman”, “dozens of young stars” and “they” respectively.
Added = modifier that modifies “surprise”.

4. Dark matter might actually be produced at the energies explored by the world’s most powerful particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).
Explored = verb-ed modifier
Litmus Test: Will “the energies” do the job of exploring? No. The world’s most powerful particle accelerator, the Large Hadron Collider might do that action. Hence, “explored” is the modifier.

5. A leader guided by sound principles earned immense respect from the masses.
Guided = verb-ed modifier, earned = simple past tense verb for the subject “A leader”.
Litmus Test: Did a leader do the action of guiding? In this context, no. “Sound principles” guided “a leader”. Hence, guided is the modifier.

6. A company founded on sound business principles achieves much higher success.
Founded = verb-ed modifier
Litmus Test: Did a company do the action of founding? In this context no. May be the founder of the company did that job. Hence, founded is the verb-ed modifier.

7. The lamp decorated with stars filled the child’s room with innocent beauty.
Decorated = verb-ed modifier, filled = simple past tense verb for the subject “The lamp”.
Litmus Test: Did the lamp do the action of decorating. No. Hence, it is the modifier.

Correct these sentences if you feel they are incorrect.

1. The lamp decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty. = Incorrect
Correct = The lamp that decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty.

2. A leader guided his followers earned immense respect from the masses. = Incorrect
Correct = A leader who guided his followers earned immense respect from the masses.



Sam was cheated by his brother.

According to the litnus test given above, In this sentence cheated is ed-modifier or simple past?


Hi there,

The verb in this sentence is not just cheated but "was cheated" The verb is written in passive voice. Because the sentence is written in passive voice it is obvious that the subject (Sam) is the receiver of the action and the object (his brother) is the doer of the action.

Thanks. :)
Shraddha
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jul 2013, 08:36
1
KnuckleDown wrote:
Hi E-Gmat/Shraddha,

The below sentence is from your article on Verb-ed modifiers. The correct answer is the same as the sentence given below. After going through Verb-ing modifier concept on E-GMAT, I understand that Verb-ing modifier modifies the preceding noun. However, in the below sentence, that rule is getting violated. Please help me understand this.


Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

Thanks,
Knuckledown


Hi Knuckledown,

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

This is how you should read the sentence and then you will see that the sentence does not break any rule:

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

The "that clause" that separates "a giant fungus" from its verb-ed modifier "spawned" is a modifier that gives additional information about "a giant fungus". Since it is just a modifier "spawned" can jump over it and refer to "a gain fungus".

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jul 2013, 06:32
jitendersingh wrote:
Sinner1706 wrote:
Hi Shraddha/E-Gmat Team,

Understood the concept on Verb-ed Modifiers. Could you clarify the below question, in line with Verb-ing modifiers

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language
variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating


B IS THE ANSWER IS THT TRUE.PLZ LET ME KNOW


Hi Jitender,

I'm afraid B is not the correct answer. Why don't you try it once more and post your analysis here? It will help you why B and other three choices are incorrect and why the correct choice is correct.

Thanks. :)
Shraddha
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jul 2013, 23:50
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language
variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

'Language variations...' is an absolute phrase. 'which...' and 'perpetuated..' tell us more about language variation. To check whether 'perpetuated' is a ver-ed modifier or verb? We should ask the question, Did 'language variations' do the action of perpetuation? No. 'Perpetuating was done by geographical locations. Thus 'perpetuated' is a verd-ed modifier. As there is an 'and' parallel marker, parallelism needs to be maintained. A phrase and a cluase can be parallel. 'Originated' is a verb. Usage of 'perpetuating' is also incorrect as language variations are not doing the action of 'perpetuating'. Thus D is the right answer.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated-Incorrect parallelism
B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated-Incorrect parallelism
C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated-Verb and Verb-ed can't be parallel
D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated-Correct
E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating-'originating' is correct whereas 'perpetuating' is not

@Shraddha: I face a problem when dealing with this type of questions. I get bit engrossed in deciding whether (for eg) did 'language variations' do the action of 'originating'?. Is there any other simple manner to check whether the given ED verb is verb-ed modifier or a verb? Any help is deeply appreciated.

Regards,
Heman2727
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jul 2013, 07:53
heman2727 wrote:
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language
variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

'Language variations...' is an absolute phrase. 'which...' and 'perpetuated..' tell us more about language variation. To check whether 'perpetuated' is a ver-ed modifier or verb? We should ask the question, Did 'language variations' do the action of perpetuation? No. 'Perpetuating was done by geographical locations. Thus 'perpetuated' is a verd-ed modifier. As there is an 'and' parallel marker, parallelism needs to be maintained. A phrase and a cluase can be parallel. 'Originated' is a verb. Usage of 'perpetuating' is also incorrect as language variations are not doing the action of 'perpetuating'. Thus D is the right answer.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated-Incorrect parallelism
B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated-Incorrect parallelism
C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated-Verb and Verb-ed can't be parallel
D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated-Correct
E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating-'originating' is correct whereas 'perpetuating' is not

@Shraddha: I face a problem when dealing with this type of questions. I get bit engrossed in deciding whether (for eg) did 'language variations' do the action of 'originating'?. Is there any other simple manner to check whether the given ED verb is verb-ed modifier or a verb? Any help is deeply appreciated.

Regards,
Heman2727



Hi Heman2727,

Very good analysis I must say. You have explained the usage of "perpetuated" and "perpetuating" pretty nicely. Keep up the good job of doing such a thorough analysis.

I would juts like to add a bit to your analysis. In choice A, usage of "perpetuated" is certainly incorrect. As you said that the "which = language variations" did the job of originating while geographic isolation did the action of perpetuating. This error can be corrected by turning "perpetuated" into a verb also. We need to add "are" before perpetuated to do so.

Now "which" will have two verbs "originate" and "are perpetuated". These entities are also correct.
So we see there can be multiple ways to correct an incorrect sentence.

Also, the easiest way to find out whether an ED word is a simple past tense verb or a verb-ed modifier is to find out whether the subject is the doer of that action or not. This will become a natural process once you have practiced well. You are already pretty good at this as I can see from your analysis.

Thanks. :)
Shraddha
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jul 2013, 06:36
Hi all,
Here comes the detailed solution of this problem.

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

Meaning Analysis:

Popularity of television has resulted in decline of regional dialects. Regional dialects are language variations which:
• Originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages
• Are perpetuated by geographic location

Error Analysis:

“perpetuated” is a verb-ed modifier now. It modifies “language variations”. But it is not parallel to the simple present tense verb “originate”. Hence, either we make “perpetuated” a verb by adding “are” before it because this verb needs to be in passive voice. Or we make “originate” into a noun modifier that modifies “language variations”. That word would be “originating”.

Image


PoE:

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated: Incorrect for the reason stated above.

B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated: Incorrect. Same parallelism error as in choice A. But here we need “was” before “perpetuated” to make it a passive voice verb.

C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated: Incorrect.
1. “originated” is a verb here. This leads to a run-on sentence now because two independent clauses are joined just be a comma.
2. Same parallelism error as in choice B.

D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated: Correct. Here “originating” and “perpetuated” both are noun modifiers that modifies “language variations”.

E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating: Incorrect.
1. Use of “perpetuating by” is incorrect. It now denotes that the “language variations” did the action of perpetuating.
2. This choice has parallelism error. Even though “originating” and “perpetuating” look identical, they are logically not parallel.

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Sep 2013, 11:19
egmat wrote:
debayan222 wrote:
Hi eGMAT,
Going by your 'Takeaway', if the subject of the sentence IS NOT the doer of the action then is there any exception that still the verb-ed form in that sentence,IS NOT the MODIFIER...?

Can you show some examples ?


Hi Debayan,

A verb-ed word will be either a verb or a verb-ed modifier. If it is a verb, it will certainly have a Subject or some doer (if the sentence does not have any grammatical error). If it is not a verb, then the verb-ed word has to be a modifier.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha



Hello Shraddha,

I am curious to know what is the Verb for "Giant Fungus" in the above sentence. Starting "that......" is a clause and "spawned" and "extending" are Verbed and Verbing so where is the main verb for Giant Fungus?

Thanks,
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Sep 2013, 11:46
egmat wrote:
heman2727 wrote:
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language
variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

'Language variations...' is an absolute phrase. 'which...' and 'perpetuated..' tell us more about language variation. To check whether 'perpetuated' is a ver-ed modifier or verb? We should ask the question, Did 'language variations' do the action of perpetuation? No. 'Perpetuating was done by geographical locations. Thus 'perpetuated' is a verd-ed modifier. As there is an 'and' parallel marker, parallelism needs to be maintained. A phrase and a cluase can be parallel. 'Originated' is a verb. Usage of 'perpetuating' is also incorrect as language variations are not doing the action of 'perpetuating'. Thus D is the right answer.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated-Incorrect parallelism
B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated-Incorrect parallelism
C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated-Verb and Verb-ed can't be parallel
D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated-Correct
E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating-'originating' is correct whereas 'perpetuating' is not

@Shraddha: I face a problem when dealing with this type of questions. I get bit engrossed in deciding whether (for eg) did 'language variations' do the action of 'originating'?. Is there any other simple manner to check whether the given ED verb is verb-ed modifier or a verb? Any help is deeply appreciated.

Regards,
Heman2727



Hi Heman2727,

Very good analysis I must say. You have explained the usage of "perpetuated" and "perpetuating" pretty nicely. Keep up the good job of doing such a thorough analysis.

I would juts like to add a bit to your analysis. In choice A, usage of "perpetuated" is certainly incorrect. As you said that the "which = language variations" did the job of originating while geographic isolation did the action of perpetuating. This error can be corrected by turning "perpetuated" into a verb also. We need to add "are" before perpetuated to do so.

Now "which" will have two verbs "originate" and "are perpetuated". These entities are also correct.
So we see there can be multiple ways to correct an incorrect sentence.

Also, the easiest way to find out whether an ED word is a simple past tense verb or a verb-ed modifier is to find out whether the subject is the doer of that action or not. This will become a natural process once you have practiced well. You are already pretty good at this as I can see from your analysis.

Thanks. :)
Shraddha



Hello Shraddha,

Heman has already provided a very detailed explanation to the question, I would still like to know how "originated" is the verb here. My thought process is how can language variation (l.v) originate itself and apparently, its evident in the question stem that l.v originated from diverse.......".

Your advice will be highly solicited!

Thanks,
Saurav
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Sep 2013, 14:20
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Smgs wrote:
egmat wrote:
debayan222 wrote:
Hi eGMAT,
Going by your 'Takeaway', if the subject of the sentence IS NOT the doer of the action then is there any exception that still the verb-ed form in that sentence,IS NOT the MODIFIER...?

Can you show some examples ?


Hi Debayan,

A verb-ed word will be either a verb or a verb-ed modifier. If it is a verb, it will certainly have a Subject or some doer (if the sentence does not have any grammatical error). If it is not a verb, then the verb-ed word has to be a modifier.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha



Hello Shraddha,

I am curious to know what is the Verb for "Giant Fungus" in the above sentence. Starting "that......" is a clause and "spawned" and "extending" are Verbed and Verbing so where is the main verb for Giant Fungus?

Thanks,
Saurav


Image


Hi Saurav,

Thanks for posting your question here. :-)

Let's understand the structure of the sentence here:

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

What we really need to understand here is that "a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest" is a Noun + Noun Modifier.

Noun = a giant fungus
Noun Modifier(s) = spawned... (verb-ed modifier) and extending... (verb-ing modifier)

A Noun + Noun Modifier is never a complete clause. For more on this concept, please read the following article:
noun-noun-modifiers-before-we-start-discussing-about-the-137292.html

If you take this structure to be a clause, you will be introducing a couple of errors in the sentence.
Firstly, we will have two independent clauses joined just by "comma". This will lead to fragment error. (Remember we are talking about the correct official answer choice.)
Secondly, if "spawned" is a verb for "a giant fungus", then "is extending" should have been the correct answer choice in order to be parallel with "spawned".

"spawned" and "extending" are noun modifiers that modify the noun "a giant fungus". They both present the characteristics of this giant fungus that scientists believe to be the oldest and the largest living organism.

For example:

The book appreciated by many by a lot and creating many controversies is coming to this library also.

Here "appreciated" is the verb-ed modifier while "creating" is a verb-ing modifier.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Sep 2013, 10:36
Quote:
Hello Shraddha,

Heman has already provided a very detailed explanation to the question, I would still like to know how "originated" is the verb here. My thought process is how can language variation (l.v) originate itself and apparently, its evident in the question stem that l.v originated from diverse.......".

Your advice will be highly solicited!

Thanks,
Saurav


Image


Hi Saurav,

The meaning of the word "originate" is "rise", "begin". It is absolutely logical to say that language variations began from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages because it is not the work of one individual person or society or group or association. It happened over the due course of time but the origin of language variations is diverse ethnic and cultural heritages.

We must take the meaning of the words in the context of the sentence. Here "originated" completely makes sense.

Hope this helps :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Oct 2013, 08:50
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Hi Shraddha,

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

in above sentence (our basic sentence) why spawned is not modifying tentacles ? how it is modifying giant fungus?
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Oct 2013, 07:51
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atalwar wrote:
Hi Shraddha,

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

in above sentence (our basic sentence) why spawned is not modifying tentacles ? how it is modifying giant fungus?


Hi @atalwar,
Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

To understand why “spawned” refers to “a giant fungus”, we need to understand the role of the relative pronoun clause “that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles”.

Relative pronoun clauses are Noun Modifiers. Although they appear in a clause form, essentially they remain Noun Modifier. Now the verb-ed modifier can jump over another Noun Modifier that is placed just after the noun entity the verb-ed modifier is supposed to modify. The way the verb-ed modifier can jump over a prepositional phrase, in the same way it can jump over relative pronoun modifiers as well.

For more details on this topic, please read the following article:
noun-modifiers-can-modify-slightly-far-away-noun-135868.html

So, here we have “spawned”, a verb-ed modifier that refers to a faraway noun “a giant fungus”. This is a logical modification.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Oct 2013, 03:51
egmat wrote:
Great question Himanshu. Actually you have brought up a verb - originate - that has two possible meanings.
Meaning 1 - to create
Example 1 - Newton originated the idea of Gravitation

Meaning 2 - to come into being
Example 2 - The idea of gravitation originated from the discovery of a falling apple.


So as you can see the two meanings are pretty related to each other. In fact you can write the second example sentence in passive voice (using meaning 1 of the verb) as follows:

Example 3 - The idea of gravitation was originated by Newton when he discovered the falling apple.
Abbreviated Example 3 - The idea of gravitation was originated by Newton when he discovered the falling apple. INCORRECT
In this case the word "originated" is a verb-ed modifier. It is not a verb in past tense. In order to act as verb it needs "was".

Hope this helps with your doubt. Once again, great doubt!

Regards,
Payal



Hello Payal/e-gmat team,

I am still confused why we are not treating 'originated' as verb-ed modifier in choice C
1. Language Variations is not the doer of the action 'Originates'. Litmus test fails.

2. As per the definition of verb-ed modifier, we should be able to write verb-ed modifier in passive voice with the help of relative pronoun
The company extended the training period. (The company that was extended....does not make sense. Hence, extended is working as verb here)
The training period extended last year made interns unhappy. (The training period that was extended......makes sense. Hence, extended working as verb-ed modifier)

Now coming to the question.
Language variations originated from diverse ethnic... (Choice C)
Language variations that were originated from diverse ethnic ........ According to me the sentence makes complete sense. So, originated can be used as modifier here.

If originated is working as modifier in choice C, why Choice C is wrong ? (Originated and Perpetuated both are modifiers)

Please help where I am going wrong.

Thanks
Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers &nbs [#permalink] 13 Oct 2013, 03:51

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