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ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers

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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Oct 2013, 09:36
karant wrote:
Hello Shraddha,

First of all, I want to thank you and e-gmat team for the wonderful articles.

Need your help in below official question.

By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

A and she earned them at a time when aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew to be
B earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were
C earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were
D earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were
E earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

1. Why Choice A is wrong?
IC,AND IC (if we consider earned a verb)

2. What is wrong with the usage of earning(verb-ing modifier) here.
I have compared the above question with the example you have cited in verb-ing article :
Sachin Tendulkar played an exceptionally outstanding innings, making the team win gloriously.

Thanks


Hi karant,

Let us use the 3 step process to solve this problem

Meaning Analysis:

Pilot Jacqueline Cochran had seventeen records by 1940. She earned them at a time when aviation was still so new that many planes which she flew were of dangerously experimental design.

Sentence Structure Analysis:


    • By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, and
    • she earned them at a time
      o when aviation was still so new for
      o many of the planes she flew to be of dangerously experimental design.

Notice that the noun “many of the planes” has no verb associated with it. Moreover, “for” is incorrect here. “that” should be used.

Option Choice Analysis:

Option A: Incorrect for the above mentioned reasons.

Option B: earning them at a time that aviation was still so new for many of the planes she flew were

This option also incorrectly uses “for”. Moreover “that” in “at a time that aviation was still…” is incorrect. “when” should be used to refer to an event or time period.

Option C: earning these at a time where aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

Again, “where” is incorrect in Option C. “when” should be used to refer to an event or time period.

Option D: earned at a time in which aviation was still so new such that many of the planes she flew were

such that” is used to present a purpose or intent. (For example, “The rock was fixed at an angle such that it doesn’t allow water to leak”). “that” is more appropriate in place of “such that” in this sentence.

Option E: earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were

This is the correct option. Notice how this option corrects the errors present in the previous options. :)


karant wrote:
egmat wrote:
Great question Himanshu. Actually you have brought up a verb - originate - that has two possible meanings.
Meaning 1 - to create
Example 1 - Newton originated the idea of Gravitation

Meaning 2 - to come into being
Example 2 - The idea of gravitation originated from the discovery of a falling apple.


So as you can see the two meanings are pretty related to each other. In fact you can write the second example sentence in passive voice (using meaning 1 of the verb) as follows:

Example 3 - The idea of gravitation was originated by Newton when he discovered the falling apple.
Abbreviated Example 3 - The idea of gravitation was originated by Newton when he discovered the falling apple. INCORRECT
In this case the word "originated" is a verb-ed modifier. It is not a verb in past tense. In order to act as verb it needs "was".

Hope this helps with your doubt. Once again, great doubt!

Regards,
Payal



Hello Payal/e-gmat team,

I am still confused why we are not treating 'originated' as verb-ed modifier in choice C
1. Language Variations is not the doer of the action 'Originates'. Litmus test fails.

2. As per the definition of verb-ed modifier, we should be able to write verb-ed modifier in passive voice with the help of relative pronoun
The company extended the training period. (The company that was extended....does not make sense. Hence, extended is working as verb here)
The training period extended last year made interns unhappy. (The training period that was extended......makes sense. Hence, extended working as verb-ed modifier)

Now coming to the question.
Language variations originated from diverse ethnic... (Choice C)
Language variations that were originated from diverse ethnic ........ According to me the sentence makes complete sense. So, originated can be used as modifier here.

If originated is working as modifier in choice C, why Choice C is wrong ? (Originated and Perpetuated both are modifiers)

Please help where I am going wrong.

Thanks


Coming to your second query,

Please note that, the usage “Language variations were originated …” is incorrect.

For example, it is grammatically correct to say “Lizards originated from Dinosaurs”.

However, it is not grammatically correct to say “Lizards were originated from Dinosaurs”.

This is because there is no doer of the action “originated” in the second sentence.

Similarly, “Language variations that were originated” is incorrect.

So we cannot consider “originated” as a Verb-ed modifier in this sentence.

Hope this helps! :)

Regards,
Krishna
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Nov 2013, 18:47
Hi Shraddha,

Thanks for the article. I'm an e-gmat student and have a clarifying question.

In another of your e-gmat article titled 'Verb-Ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers', it is mentioned that the Verb-ED modifier modifies the immediately preceding noun; in the case that the immediately preceding noun is non-sensical, the Verb-ED modifier would modify the immediately preceding noun phrase. Moreover, the Verb-ED modifier cannot jump over a verb to modify a noun in the subject place. In this example, how can spawned modify 'a giant fungus'? Shouldn't be it modifying the noun phrase 'an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles'? If it were modifying 'a giant fungus', isn't it jumping over the verb 'is'?

How similar or different is this fungus example than the diabetes example in the article I cited here, in terms of the Verb-ED modifier issue?

Best,
Prital
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Dec 2013, 00:56
rxprital wrote:
Hi Shraddha,

Thanks for the article. I'm an e-gmat student and have a clarifying question.

In another of your e-gmat article titled 'Verb-Ed modifiers Vs. Verb-ing modifiers', it is mentioned that the Verb-ED modifier modifies the immediately preceding noun; in the case that the immediately preceding noun is non-sensical, the Verb-ED modifier would modify the immediately preceding noun phrase. Moreover, the Verb-ED modifier cannot jump over a verb to modify a noun in the subject place. In this example, how can spawned modify 'a giant fungus'? Shouldn't be it modifying the noun phrase 'an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles'? If it were modifying 'a giant fungus', isn't it jumping over the verb 'is'?

How similar or different is this fungus example than the diabetes example in the article I cited here, in terms of the Verb-ED modifier issue?

Best,
Prital


Hi Prital,

That is a very good observation. :)

Let us look at the sentence.

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

You are right that "spawned" modifies "an interwoven filigree of mushrooms..."

But what according to the sentence is the "interwoven filigree of mushrooms...."?

Is it not giant fungus? :)

So, the verb-ed modifier isn't modifying "giant fungus" directly. It is modifying "interwoven filigree....". However, according to the sentence, since both "giant fungus" and "interwoven filigree..." are same, we can say that the verb-ed modifier modifies "giant fungus".

Hope this helps :)

Regards,
Krishna
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jan 2014, 08:36
Hi E-GMAT

Just in the reference of the above article , mainly on the how the Verb-ed modifier is derived, Could you please help me differentalting the two statement ,which are stated above and discussed in the article.

1. A leader guided his followers honestly earned immense respect from the mass.

2.Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro excavation in Pakistan, the site of an ancient civilization that flourished at the same time as the civilizations in the Nile delta and the river valleys of Tigris and Euphrates.

So in the statement 1.is very clear that the statement is in active voice . and guided and earned these two verb are not connected properly that leads to fragment error.

No in statement 2. if we remove that , then there is only one modifier flourished,which modify "the site of an ancient civilization ".

So my confusion is how does "that" helps here to remove the fragment here?. Flourished still modifying" the the site of an ancient civilization"

Could you please help me to highlight the main verb or whole sentence structures into clauses.

Thanks
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jan 2014, 07:53
Referring to the article mainly on "How the Verb-ED modifier is derived section".There are two sentence which are discussed in the article makes me a bit confuse.

1.A leader guided his followers honestly earned immense respect from the mass.

2.(OG12-#85) Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro excavation in Pakistan, the site of an ancient civilization [b]that flourished at the same time as the civilizations [/b]in the Nile delta and the river valleys of Tigris and Euphrates.

My analysis and query...

The Statement 1 makes it very clear that guided and earned are not connected properly and the sentence is written in Active voice . So a relative pronoun is must in this statement.

But in Statement 2 ,even if you remove "That " the modifier flourished is modifying the civilization and i didn't see any other verb-ed or verb in the sentence after "that". So the statement seems correct to me.

Could you please Highlight the clauses in the sentence 2 and correct me where i'm going wrong?
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jan 2014, 12:19
1
Nitinaka19 wrote:
Referring to the article mainly on "How the Verb-ED modifier is derived section".There are two sentence which are discussed in the article makes me a bit confuse.

1.A leader guided his followers honestly earned immense respect from the mass.

2.(OG12-#85) Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro excavation in Pakistan, the site of an ancient civilization [b]that flourished at the same time as the civilizations [/b]in the Nile delta and the river valleys of Tigris and Euphrates.

My analysis and query...

The Statement 1 makes it very clear that guided and earned are not connected properly and the sentence is written in Active voice . So a relative pronoun is must in this statement.

But in Statement 2 ,even if you remove "That " the modifier flourished is modifying the civilization and i didn't see any other verb-ed or verb in the sentence after "that". So the statement seems correct to me.

Could you please Highlight the clauses in the sentence 2 and correct me where i'm going wrong?


Hi Nitin,

Thanks for posting you doubt here.

1. A leader guided his followers honestly earned immense respect from the mass.

So your analysis for this one is absolutely correct.

Now let's look at the official sentence:
Salt deposits and moisture threaten to destroy the Mohenjo-Daro excavation in Pakistan, the site of an ancient civilization that flourished at the same time as the civilizations in the Nile delta and the river valleys of Tigris and Euphrates.

(Subjects = blue, Verb = green)

The word "that" in this official sentence has been used as a Relative Pronoun. It modifies and provides additional information about the previous noun entity "an ancient civilization". Since, "that" is the Subject of the Dependent Clause that it starts, "flourished" acts as the Verb for this Subject. It is the ancient civilization that did the action of flourishing itself. "flourished" is NOT a Verb-ed Modifier here because it is not an action that was done on the ancient civilization by something else.

If we remove the relative pronoun "that" from the sentence, then "flourished" will directly become the Verb for the Subject "an ancient civilization". in that situation, we will have Two Independent Clauses connected with each other with just a Comma. This is not grammatical.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jan 2014, 01:21
bagdbmba wrote:
egmat wrote:
debayan222 wrote:

Correct these sentences if you feel they are incorrect.

1. The lamp decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty. = Incorrect
Correct = The lamp that decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty.

2. A leader guided his followers earned immense respect from the masses. = Incorrect
Correct = A leader who guided his followers earned immense respect from the masses.



Hi Shradhha,
For the first sentence-did the lamp do the action of decorating on its own? I guess not! Then how this sentence "The lamp that decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty." can be correct ? Please help me understand it.

For the second sentence-if we write this as 'A leader guided his followers and earned immense respect from the masses'...Will that be wrong ? Please explain.

Much appreciate your feedback.


Hi Debayan,

I can understand where your confusion arises from. You are thinking in lines of say: Amy decorated the room. Here, there is no confusion because Amy physically performed the action of decorating the room. However, in the “lamp sentence”, the lamp physically did not do the action of decorating the room. The word “decorated” has been used more in the sense of “beautified”. The lamp made the room more beautiful.

A leader guided his followers and earned immense respect from the masses.

Grammatically, this sentence is correct. However, the meaning is slightly different here. This sentence says that the leader did two things:
a. guided his followers
b. earned respect from the masses.

Both the actions are at the same level. However, in the e-gmat sentence, the leader performed one action “earned the respect”. Guiding the followers comes as the additional information in the sentence. The action of the IC and the action of the DC are not at the same level.

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha





Hi Shraddha,

In the first sentence The lamp didnt not do the action of "Decorating" so it is modifier.
In the sentence "The lamp decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty." why we need to convert it into Relative clause by adding "that". As sentence can have modifier word and a verb right?

Please enlighten me. :(

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Rrsnathan.
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jan 2014, 11:39
rrsnathan wrote:
Hi Shraddha,

In the first sentence The lamp didnt not do the action of "Decorating" so it is modifier.
In the sentence "The lamp decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty." why we need to convert it into Relative clause by adding "that". As sentence can have modifier word and a verb right?

Please enlighten me. :(

Regards,
Rrsnathan.


Hi rrsnathan,

Let's take this sentence.

I decorated my room.

There is no doubt that here :decorated" is a verb because "I" - the Subject - himself/herself did the action of decorating the room.

Now let's take a look this one.

The lamp decorated the room.

Now here again, "The lamp" is the Subject and "decorated" is the Verb. Yes, this sentence is different from the sentence I presented above because here lamp is not a living being that used its hands to decorate the room. What this sentence conveys that the lamp adorned the room.

Now let's take the sentence that has confused you:

The lamp decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty.

Here again,
decorated" has been used in the same manner as it has been used in the second example presented above. So "decorated" is a verb here and Not a modifier. But again, there is one more Verb for the Subject "The lamp". That is "filled". A Subject CAN definitely have two Verbs, but they must be connected properly through a conjunction. We just CANNOT write two Verbs for one Subject side by side without joining them with a conjunction. So that's the problem here. We must do something so that the sentence remains grammatical. So there are multiple ways of doing that:

1. The lamp that decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty.
2. The lamp decorating the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty.
3. The lamp decorated the child’s room and filled his room with innocent beauty.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jun 2014, 06:29
1
Very succinctly put e-gmat. Kudos.. For the question put up in the topic below was my thought process. Could you please comment if it correct and more importantly could this fail me ?

Q - Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

A. extending
B. extends
C. extended
D. it extended
E. is extending

In the above sentence we can see that the underlined portion is just a modifying phrase giving extra information , so if we omit that the sentence becomes

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth........extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

Now we can see that only extending fits in .
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jun 2014, 05:45
1
himanshujovi wrote:
Very succinctly put e-gmat. Kudos.. For the question put up in the topic below was my thought process. Could you please comment if it correct and more importantly could this fail me ?

Q - Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

A. extending
B. extends
C. extended
D. it extended
E. is extending

In the above sentence we can see that the underlined portion is just a modifying phrase giving extra information , so if we omit that the sentence becomes

Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth........extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

Now we can see that only extending fits in .



Hi himanshujovi,
Thank you for the query. :)


• Scientists have recently discovered what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, a giant fungus that is an interwoven filigree of mushrooms and root like tentacles spawned by a single fertilized spore some 10,000 years ago and extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

You have correctly identified that the highlighted part of the sentence is a modifier. However I want to add two points to your analysis:

1. A modifying phrase cannot end with ‘and’ as it is the case with the underlined portion “a giant fungus….years ago and”. So, the modifier extends till the end of the sentence i.e. “a giant fungus that….. Michigan forest.”

2. In the given sentence, you omitted the comma also while omitting the underlined part, but the comma is not the part of the modifying phrase. So, we cannot remove it.
Now, the presence of a comma before a verb-ing modifier can change the meaning of the sentence and the modified entity. Let’s understand the usage of verb-ing modifier:

USAGE I
If a verb-ing modifier is placed after a clause, and it is preceded by a comma, then it modifies the preceding clause. This modifier:
i) Either provides additional information about the preceding clause
ii) Or presents the result of the preceding clause.

Tom killed the snake, using a stick. (Additional information)
The recession adversely affected the company’s business, reducing its profits by 50%. (Outcome)


USAGE II
If a verb-ing modifier is placed after a clause and it is not preceded by a comma then it modifies the preceding noun.
He got into the cab waiting outside his house. (‘waiting’ modifies ‘the cab’)


Now, when we omit the highlighted part, the sentence becomes:
Scientists have recently discovered
what could be the largest and oldest living organism on Earth, extending for more than 30 acres in the soil of a Michigan forest.

Now, since the verb-ing modifier ‘extending’ here is preceded by a comma, it should modify the entire preceding clause, and it should make sense with the subject of the preceding clause.
However it is not clear what the additional information presented by the modifier ‘extending’ is. Also, it does not make sense with the subject of the preceding clause ‘what’. So, this option is incorrect.

If you have any doubts in the understanding of the verb-ing modifiers please refer to the following articles:
usage-of-verb-ing-modifiers-135220.html
verb-ing-modifiers-part-2-in-our-first-article-on-verb-ing-135567.html




So, your understanding regarding the usage of the modifiers in this question is not completely correct. I would recommend that you go through the above articles to know more about the verb-ing modifiers and then come back to this question. If you have any more doubts regarding this, I’ll be more than happy to help.
Also, don’t forget to refer to Shraddha’s awesome explanation for this question at the beginning of this article. This explanation clearly states that the modifier 'extending' modifies "a giant fungus" in the original sentence. If we remove the highlighted part in this sentence, it won't be possible for 'extending' to modify 'a giant fungus'.

Hope this helps! :)
Regards,
Deepak
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jun 2014, 12:19
1
russ9 wrote:
egmat wrote:

Correct these sentences if you feel they are incorrect.

1. The lamp decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty. = Incorrect
Correct = The lamp that decorated the child’s room filled his room with innocent beauty.

2. A leader guided his followers earned immense respect from the masses. = Incorrect
Correct = A leader who guided his followers earned immense respect from the masses.


Hi egmat

Can you please explain why "that" is needed in the first sentence? I know that the lamp didn't DO the decorating but I don't see how "that" fixes this?

Thanks!


Hi russ9,
Thank you for the post. :)

Let’s do the sentence structure for the given sentence:
The lamp
o decorated the child’s room
o filled his room with innocent beauty.

As shown, there are two verbs for the subject ‘the lamp’ in the given sentence. These verbs are not connected properly. So, either we need to connect these verbs using ‘and’ or we can provide another subject for one of the verbs. Now, let’s see how ‘that’ solves this problem:

The lamp
o that decorated the child’s room
filled his room with innocent beauty.

So, ‘that’ acts as the subject for the verb ‘decorated’ and now the sentence becomes grammatically correct.

Hope this helps! :)
Deepak
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jul 2014, 00:23
Hi @egmat/Shraddha,
One question regarding the litmus test. In one of the sentence for practice - "Our powers of color vision derive from cells in our eyes called cones, three types in all, each triggered by different wavelengths of light."- we concluded that "called" is a modifier as action of calling is not done by cells. This makes sense.

However, I was trying to apply the same concept to another usage of "called" and got confused. What is called in the sentence below :
"I am called Ravi."
Isn't "am called" the verb of the sentence? But if I apply the litmus test here, it would suggest that called is a modifier as the action of calling is still not done by the subject - "I". Right?

Am I making any mistake here? It would be great if you could help me clarify my doubt.

Thanks,
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jul 2014, 21:52
1
UrsTruly wrote:
Hi @egmat/Shraddha,
One question regarding the litmus test. In one of the sentence for practice - "Our powers of color vision derive from cells in our eyes called cones, three types in all, each triggered by different wavelengths of light."- we concluded that "called" is a modifier as action of calling is not done by cells. This makes sense.

However, I was trying to apply the same concept to another usage of "called" and got confused. What is called in the sentence below :
"I am called Ravi."
Isn't "am called" the verb of the sentence? But if I apply the litmus test here, it would suggest that called is a modifier as the action of calling is still not done by the subject - "I". Right?

Am I making any mistake here? It would be great if you could help me clarify my doubt.

Thanks,
UrsTruly




Hi UrsTruly,
Thank your for the query. :)

You are absolutely correct in saying that “am called” is the verb of the sentence. Now, as we know “is/am/are” are usually followed by verb-ing form, but here “am” is followed by the past participle form. Why is it so? - Because this is a passive verb, not an active verb.

Let’s take an example:
Harry completed the assignment.

Here, the verb is “completed”, and it makes sense with the subject “Harry”. Now, let’s change the sentence to passive voice:
The assignment was completed by Harry.

In this sentence “completed” does not make sense with the subject “the assignment”. However, the verb here is “was completed”, which makes perfect sense with the subject “the assignment”. So, “the assignment” is not the subject of “completed”, it is subject of “was completed”. Now, can you apply the same understanding to your question?


Hope this helps! :)
Deepak
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Aug 2014, 04:55
Sinner1706 wrote:
Sinner1706 wrote:
Hi Shraddha/E-Gmat Team,

Understood the concept on Verb-ed Modifiers. Could you clarify the below question, in line with Verb-ing modifiers

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language
variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating


Another question, which is an entire opposite of the above question but tests the Verb+ing and the Verb+ed Modifiers to the hilt. The similarities and the differences in two questions, will help make the concept crystal clear.

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached
the observer’s meridian and differing
from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

A. which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
B. which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
C. which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
D. determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
E. determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing


Whats the OA BTW.. Is it B in first Qs and E in second question? Good questions..just need the answer to cement the understanding on Verb-ed & Verb-ing. :roll:
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Aug 2014, 07:34
1
Zakir14 wrote:
Sinner1706 wrote:
Sinner1706 wrote:
Hi Shraddha/E-Gmat Team,

Understood the concept on Verb-ed Modifiers. Could you clarify the below question, in line with Verb-ing modifiers

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language
variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating


Another question, which is an entire opposite of the above question but tests the Verb+ing and the Verb+ed Modifiers to the hilt. The similarities and the differences in two questions, will help make the concept crystal clear.

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached
the observer’s meridian and differing
from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

A. which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
B. which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
C. which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
D. determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
E. determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing


Whats the OA BTW.. Is it B in first Qs and E in second question? Good questions..just need the answer to cement the understanding on Verb-ed & Verb-ing. :roll:


Hi Zakir14,

The detailed solution of both these questions are present in this thread only. The OA for the first question is D and for the second one is E.

Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
SJ
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Aug 2017, 16:54
I couldn't really follow how "extending" could be the right answer . I feel even the choice "Extending " as a verb in the present continuous form & not as a verb modifier .Kindly help here to clarify
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Aug 2017, 19:39
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kaarya58 wrote:
I couldn't really follow how "extending" could be the right answer . I feel even the choice "Extending " as a verb in the present continuous form & not as a verb modifier .Kindly help here to clarify


extending can be a present continuous verb form only if it follows a helping verb - example : "were extending", "are extending"

Learning fast, Jane cracked GMAT <-- modifier
Jane , learning fast, cracked GMAT <-- modifier
Jane is learning fast, so he will crack GMAT <-- verb
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Sep 2017, 18:07
egmat wrote:
This is the word document for the sections "How Verb-ed Modifier is derived" and "how can this help you answer GMAT SC questions?" and detailed solution of the Exercise.
Thanks.


FIRST OF ALL A NICE EXPLANATION GIVEN BY e-GMAT, but iw would be very kind of you, if you can help me with this...

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing

After reading e-gmat explanation, i was able to eliminate a/b/c options....Now the problem is between D/E. I am unable to find out whether in phrase local times differed from city to city( is the action of differing being done by local times or .......??) in first modifier its clearly mentioned local times determined BY, which makes easy to spot beacause of preposition By used which clearly tells that action has been done by some external factor, but in case of differed , it becomes complicated....

Please help ....@e-gmat
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New post Updated on: 28 Sep 2017, 03:18
gmatify17 wrote:

FIRST OF ALL A NICE EXPLANATION GIVEN BY e-GMAT, but iw would be very kind of you, if you can help me with this...

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing

After reading e-gmat explanation, i was able to eliminate a/b/c options....Now the problem is between D/E. I am unable to find out whether in phrase local times differed from city to city( is the action of differing being done by local times or .......??) in first modifier its clearly mentioned local times determined BY, which makes easy to spot beacause of preposition By used which clearly tells that action has been done by some external factor, but in case of differed , it becomes complicated....

Please help ....@e-gmat



Hello gmatify17,

I will be glad to help you with this one. :-)

In Choice D, the word differed is a verb because the local the local times themselves differed from city to city.

Let me present a simple example sentence to make the usage clear.

Local time differs in each of the six time zones in the Unites States.

My project differs from yours in its approach towards problem solving.



In both the above-mentioned sentences, differs acts as a verb.

Same is the usage of the word in simple past tense in Choice D. Hence, this choice stands incorrect because the modifier determined and the verb differed cannot be grammatically parallel.

Choice E rectifies this error by replacing the verb differed with the modifier differing.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Originally posted by egmat on 28 Sep 2017, 02:57.
Last edited by egmat on 28 Sep 2017, 03:18, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: ED FORMS - Verbs or Modifiers  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Sep 2017, 03:10
kaarya58 wrote:
I couldn't really follow how "extending" could be the right answer . I feel even the choice "Extending " as a verb in the present continuous form & not as a verb modifier .Kindly help here to clarify



Hello kaarya58,

I am aware that you wrote this post long time ago. Nonetheless, here is an easy explanation to understand why any word ending in "ing" and not preceded by an helping word such as is/am/are/was/were/ etc cannot act as a verb.

A verb has three traits:

i. It must have a tense - Past, Present, or Future.
ii. It must have a number - Singular or Plural.
iii. It must have a voice - Active or Passive.

Now can we specify the tense of the word extending? Also, is it singular or plural? Which voice is it written in?

We cannot answer any of these questions just be looking at the word ending in "ing". Now take a look at the following sentences:

Harry was watering the plants in the morning.

The students are planning to organize a party for the teachers.

They all will be going to the concert this weekend.


Needless to say that just be looking at the helping verbs that precedes each of the "ing" word in the above-mentioned sentences, we know about the tense and the number of the verbs. Also, all these verbs are written in active voice.

Hence, we need a helping verb to precede an "ing" word for it to act as a verb.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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