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# OG81 Mortgage: another comparision

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SVP
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OG81 Mortgage: another comparision [#permalink]  09 Feb 2005, 21:28
81. In 1973 mortgage payments represented twenty-one percent of an average thirty-year-old male's income; and forty-four percent in 1984.
(A) income; and forty-four percent in 1984
(B) income; in 1984 the figure was forty-four percent
(C) income, and in 1984 forty-four percent
(D) income, forty-four percent in 1984 was the figure
(E) income that rose to forty-four percent in 1984

Director
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A) income; and forty-four percent in 1984
You cannot start a sentence with a conjunction I think.
What was forty-four percent?

(B) income; in 1984 the figure was forty-four percent
Okay

(C) income, and in 1984 forty-four percent
What was forty-four percent?

(D) income, forty-four percent in 1984 was the figure
ACKWARD

(E) income that rose to forty-four percent in 1984

What rose to forty-four percent - Is it the income or the Mortgage payment. This implies income rost to forty-four percent.
Director
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(B)
Manager
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In 1973 mortgage payments represented twenty-one percent of an average thirty-year-old male's income; and forty-four percent in 1984.

(A) income; and forty-four percent in 1984 - Grammatically, you can start a sentence with a conjunction; it's just considered poor form. Either way, a semi-colon is used to separate two independent clauses while indicating a relationship between them.

(B) income; in 1984 the figure was forty-four percent - This is a grammatically correct sentence. You can safely assume that the figure discussed relates to the mortgage payments, since "of an average thirty-year-old male's income" is just one long prepositional phrase.

(C) income, and in 1984 forty-four percent - This is a disruptive comma. In order to place a comma before the "and" (or any conjunction, for that matter) in a sentence, it must be dividing two independent clauses.

(D) income, forty-four percent in 1984 was the figure - This is a comma splice. Because the clause after the comma is independent, the sentence needs either a conjunction to separate the two clauses (with a comma - see above), or there need to be two sentences.

(E) income that rose to forty-four percent in 1984 - "That" is a modifier that modifies "income" and not the mortgage payment. In this case, the "that" alters the meaning of the sentence altogether.

Hope this helps!
SVP
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Is it ok to introduce "the figure" in (B)? Why can't C be right in the sense of elipse?
Manager
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You can introduce the figure in B because of the semi-colon. A semi-colon generally indicates a closer elationship with the previous clause than a period does. Take for example: He ate 22 moon pies; the sheer quantity was disgusting. Another example (just to demonstrate how a semi-colon can create ties between two random thoughts): Sarah's calves are sore; she wears high-heels every day.

As for the rest of your question, I'm not sure what you mean about C in the sense of an elipse...

C is incorrect because you can't put a comma in the middle of sentence unless it serves a specific function (e.g. lists, appositives, non-essential clauses/phrases, etc). In C, the comma sets off a dependent, essential phrase - two circumstances in which commas shouldn't be used.

Did that clarify?
Manager
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Halahpeno,

Great explaination.As for (E),why can't that refer to the mortage payment?Is it because the subject income is closer compared to mortage payment?Please advice.Thank you.Rgds,

Anna

halahpeno wrote:
In 1973 mortgage payments represented twenty-one percent of an average thirty-year-old male's income; and forty-four percent in 1984.

(A) income; and forty-four percent in 1984 - Grammatically, you can start a sentence with a conjunction; it's just considered poor form. Either way, a semi-colon is used to separate two independent clauses while indicating a relationship between them.

(B) income; in 1984 the figure was forty-four percent - This is a grammatically correct sentence. You can safely assume that the figure discussed relates to the mortgage payments, since "of an average thirty-year-old male's income" is just one long prepositional phrase.

(C) income, and in 1984 forty-four percent - This is a disruptive comma. In order to place a comma before the "and" (or any conjunction, for that matter) in a sentence, it must be dividing two independent clauses.

(D) income, forty-four percent in 1984 was the figure - This is a comma splice. Because the clause after the comma is independent, the sentence needs either a conjunction to separate the two clauses (with a comma - see above), or there need to be two sentences.

(E) income that rose to forty-four percent in 1984 - "That" is a modifier that modifies "income" and not the mortgage payment. In this case, the "that" alters the meaning of the sentence altogether.

Hope this helps!

_________________

We can crack the exam together

SVP
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halahpeno wrote:
You can introduce the figure in B because of the semi-colon. A semi-colon generally indicates a closer elationship with the previous clause than a period does. Take for example: He ate 22 moon pies; the sheer quantity was disgusting. Another example (just to demonstrate how a semi-colon can create ties between two random thoughts): Sarah's calves are sore; she wears high-heels every day.

As for the rest of your question, I'm not sure what you mean about C in the sense of an elipse...

C is incorrect because you can't put a comma in the middle of sentence unless it serves a specific function (e.g. lists, appositives, non-essential clauses/phrases, etc). In C, the comma sets off a dependent, essential phrase - two circumstances in which commas shouldn't be used.

Did that clarify?

Thanks for the great explanation! For C I was thinking it may mean this:
In 1973 mortgage payments represented twenty-one percent of an average thirty-year-old male's income, and in 1984 (it represented) forty-four percent.

Would this be correct?
Director
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Quote:
In 1973 mortgage payments represented twenty-one percent of an average thirty-year-old male's income, and in 1984 (it represented) forty-four percent.

I agree with that. Sometime ellipsis will work and sometime it does not. I couldn't master about ellipsis until now.
SVP
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qhoc0010 wrote:
I couldn't master about ellipsis until now.

This means you have mastered it now, correct?
Manager
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HongHu - you're understanding is absolutely correct - the sentence tries to assume that you know what it's saying (which you do). The problem is the misuse of the comma. Otherwise, it would be correct, I think.

Now I see what you mean by ellipsis! :)
Director
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HongHu wrote:
qhoc0010 wrote:
I couldn't master about ellipsis until now.

This means you have mastered it now, correct?

ah, let me rephrase it.

I cannot master about ellipsis even until now.
SVP
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halahpeno wrote:
HongHu - you're understanding is absolutely correct - the sentence tries to assume that you know what it's saying (which you do). The problem is the misuse of the comma. Otherwise, it would be correct, I think.

Do you mean that there shouldn't be a comma, or do you mean that there should be a semicolon in place of the comma?
SVP
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qhoc0010 wrote:
HongHu wrote:
qhoc0010 wrote:
I couldn't master about ellipsis until now.

This means you have mastered it now, correct?

ah, let me rephrase it.

I cannot master about ellipsis even until now.

I still haven't mastered it till now.
I have yet to master it even till now.

Hmmm not sure what is the best way to say this.
Manager
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[quote="HongHu"][quote="halahpeno"]HongHu - you're understanding is absolutely correct - the sentence tries to assume that you know what it's saying (which you do). The problem is the misuse of the comma. Otherwise, it would be correct, I think.
[/quote]

Do you mean that there shouldn't be a comma, or do you mean that there should be a semicolon in place of the comma?[/quote]

There should be no comma.
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HongHu wrote:
halahpeno wrote:
You can introduce the figure in B because of the semi-colon. A semi-colon generally indicates a closer elationship with the previous clause than a period does. Take for example: He ate 22 moon pies; the sheer quantity was disgusting. Another example (just to demonstrate how a semi-colon can create ties between two random thoughts): Sarah's calves are sore; she wears high-heels every day.

As for the rest of your question, I'm not sure what you mean about C in the sense of an elipse...

C is incorrect because you can't put a comma in the middle of sentence unless it serves a specific function (e.g. lists, appositives, non-essential clauses/phrases, etc). In C, the comma sets off a dependent, essential phrase - two circumstances in which commas shouldn't be used.

Did that clarify?

Thanks for the great explanation! For C I was thinking it may mean this:
In 1973 mortgage payments represented twenty-one percent of an average thirty-year-old male's income, and in 1984 (it represented) forty-four percent.

Would this be correct?

I concur with Hong on the possible use of Ellipsis to justify C being correct. Can somebody clarify this?

I still get confused with ellipsis and parallelism sometimes....
CEO
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Re: OG81 Mortgage: another comparision [#permalink]  29 Jul 2007, 13:14
HongHu wrote:
81. In 1973 mortgage payments represented twenty-one percent of an average thirty-year-old male's income; and forty-four percent in 1984.
(A) income; and forty-four percent in 1984
wrong use of a semicolon

(B) income; in 1984 the figure was forty-four percent
correct

(C) income, and in 1984 forty-four percent
missing a noun. makes it very unclear whether forty percent of income or mortgage. in addition, a statistic cannot stand alone. it must be a figure of 44%, an amount of 44%...etc

(D) income, forty-four percent in 1984 was the figure
no conjunction, runon sentence

(E) income that rose to forty-four percent in 1984
that restricts its immediate referent. it is not income, but rather mortgage pmts that rose.

Director
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B

A/C are out as they're not independent clauses. B is best because they're dependent clauses, the second clause refers to the first but can stand alone as a sentence.

It's like this sentence

In 2007, I was a poor student, having literally no income; now, in 2012, my income exceeds $400 million. Break it up: In 2007, I was a poor student, having literally no income now, in 2012, my income exceeds$400 million.

You can make two sentences out of it, so it's valid. But if you had:

In 2007, I was a poor student, having literally no income; now, in 2012, it exceeds $400 million. Is wrong: In 2007, I was a poor student, having literally no income now, in 2012, it exceeds$400 million.

What exceeds \$400M? It's not an independent clause.

ok im tired im going to bed, it's 6:15am lol. GN
Director
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I have highlighted the parallel portions for choice C.

(C) In 1973 mortgage payments represented twenty-one percent of an average thirty-year-old male's income;
-----in 1984 the figure was forty-four percent(of an average thirty-year-old male's income - ellipsed portion).

Two rules are enough to eliminate other choices:
-usage of semicolon - check Elements of Style at http://www.bartleby.com/141/strunk.html#5
-parallelism
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