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Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology

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Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology [#permalink] New post 14 Nov 2012, 18:54
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Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology broadcast special program information that only radios with an RDS feature can receive. Between 1994 and 1996, the number of RDS radio stations in Verdland increased from 250 to 600. However, since the number of RDS-equipped radios in Verdland was about the same in 1996 as in 1994, the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. few if any of the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations.

B. In 1996 most Verdlanders who lived within the listening area of an RDS station already had a radio equipped to receive RDS.

C. Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not decrease the station’s listening area.

D. In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not receive any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994.

E. The RDS radio stations in Verdland in 1996 did not all offer the same type of programming.

Cheers

OA after some discussion.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by WaterFlowsUp on 12 Jan 2014, 11:47, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Radio stations with radio data system (RDS [#permalink] New post 15 Nov 2012, 00:03
Jp27 wrote:
Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology broadcast special program information that only radios with an RDS feature can receive. Between 1994 and 1996, the number of RDS radio stations in Verdland increased from 250 to 600. However, since the number of RDS-equipped radios in Verdland was about the same in 1996 as in 1994, the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. few if any of the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations.
B. In 1996 most Verdlanders who lived within the listening area of an RDS station already had a radio equipped to receive RDS.
C. Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not decrease the station’s listening area.
D. In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not receive any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994.
E. The RDS radio stations in Verdland in 1996 did not all offer the same type of programming.

Cheers
OA after some discussion.


Only A supports the argument. no other contender.
Ans A it is.
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Re: Radio stations with radio data system (RDS [#permalink] New post 15 Nov 2012, 01:05
Jp27 wrote:
Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology broadcast special program information that only radios with an RDS feature can receive. Between 1994 and 1996, the number of RDS radio stations in Verdland increased from 250 to 600. However, since the number of RDS-equipped radios in Verdland was about the same in 1996 as in 1994, the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. few if any of the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations.

B. In 1996 most Verdlanders who lived within the listening area of an RDS station already had a radio equipped to receive RDS.

C. Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not decrease the station’s listening area.

D. In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not receive any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994.

E. The RDS radio stations in Verdland in 1996 did not all offer the same type of programming.

Cheers

OA after some discussion.



OA is C Since that is the assumption central to the conclusion given in the question
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Re: Radio stations with radio data system (RDS [#permalink] New post 15 Nov 2012, 15:38
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ashdah wrote:
Jp27 wrote:
Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology broadcast special program information that only radios with an RDS feature can receive. Between 1994 and 1996, the number of RDS radio stations in Verdland increased from 250 to 600. However, since the number of RDS-equipped radios in Verdland was about the same in 1996 as in 1994, the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. few if any of the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations.

B. In 1996 most Verdlanders who lived within the listening area of an RDS station already had a radio equipped to receive RDS.

C. Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not decrease the station’s listening area.

D. In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not receive any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994.

E. The RDS radio stations in Verdland in 1996 did not all offer the same type of programming.

Cheers

OA after some discussion.



OA is C Since that is the assumption central to the conclusion given in the question


In order to find on which assumption the conclusion lies, you need to find which answer, if turned around, weakens the argument.
Answer C, if turned around, says " Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not decrease the station’s listening area."
If it decreases the listening area, it means that fewer people will be able to listen and of course the number of listeners will would not change significantly. Actually, answer C, turned around, supports the argument, does not weaken it.

If we turn around the meaning of A, though, "few if any of the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations." to " most of the radio stations .......broadcast to people with RDS equipped radios living in areas not previously reached", this suggests that most of the new stations broadcast to other areas with RDS radios, so they reach new people and the people who can listen it increases. This statement weakens the argument, so it is the answer.

A
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Re: Radio stations with radio data system (RDS [#permalink] New post 15 Nov 2012, 18:11
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Conclusion: the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly.

If we negate the options we get:-
A) most of the radio stations .......broadcast to people with RDS equipped radios living in areas not previously reached.
It implies that it is reaching newer members such as listeners of a nearby area, who were not reached earlier, etc. Had the option been "most of the radio stations .......broadcast to people with RDS equipped radios living in areas OF VERNLAND not previously reached" ,then it could have been a strong contender. But for now, just eliminate it.
B. In 1996 most Verdlanders who lived within the listening area of an RDS station already had a radio equipped to receive RDS.------> Its not an assumption, but rather a restatement of the premise.
C. Equipping a radio station with RDS technology doesnotdecreases the station’s listening area.-----> It can be clearly observed how negating this option clearly cancels the reverse happening. Absolutely correct. No doubt about that.
D. In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not receive any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994.-----> Sorry not an assumption.Eliminate it.
E. The RDS radio stations in Verdland in 1996 did not all offer the same type of programming. ----> We are not concerned about the type of programming.

Answer must be C.
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Re: Radio stations with radio data system (RDS [#permalink] New post 15 Nov 2012, 18:35
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Jp27 wrote:
Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology broadcast special program information that only radios with an RDS feature can receive. Between 1994 and 1996, the number of RDS radio stations in Verdland increased from 250 to 600. However, since the number of RDS-equipped radios in Verdland was about the same in 1996 as in 1994, the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. few if any of the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations.

B. In 1996 most Verdlanders who lived within the listening area of an RDS station already had a radio equipped to receive RDS.

C. Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not decrease the station's listening area.

D. In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not receive any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994.

E. The RDS radio stations in Verdland in 1996 did not all offer the same type of programming.

Cheers

OA after some discussion.


Assumption question: Find the conclusion. Find out which answer option is essential for the condition to be true.

Premises:
-Only radios with RDS feature can receive programs of Radio stations with RDS technology
-Between 1994 and 1996, the number of RDS radio stations in Verdland increased from 250 to 600.
- the number of RDS-equipped radios in Verdland was about the same in 1996 as in 1994


Conclusion:the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly.

Even though new RDS radio stations have been set up, since the number of radios with RDS feature is same in 1996 as in 1994, the author is concluding that the same number of people are receiving RDS programs.

a. Few if any of the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations.

What if the new RDS radio stations were set in areas which did not receive RDS programs before.. (say, if that particular frequency was not available in remote areas but when new radio stations were set, these areas starting receiving RDS prgrams.) There might be people in these areas who already had RDS equipped radio. These people would have started receiving RDS programs (e.g. Initially FM had limited reach and though many radios had FM capability, they could not receive it. After FM became common, even though people didn't buy new radios, more people started receiving FM)
So for his conclusion to be true, the author is assuming that RDS radio stations that began after 1994 did not broadcast to people who were unreachable previously. Hence answer A.

(C). Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not decrease the station's listening area.
This is not an assumption the author is making. The conclusion says ' the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly' based on the fact that the number of RDS equipped radios is the same.
To understand this, try to negate the assumption: Equipping a radio station with RDS technology decreases the station's listening area. Can our conclusion "the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly." still hold true? Most certainly. In fact, it is more likely that our conclusion is true. Since our conclusion can hold even if the supposed assumption is negated, it is not an assumption at all.
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Re: Radio stations with radio data system (RDS [#permalink] New post 15 Nov 2012, 18:46
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Conclusion: the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly.

If we negate the options we get:-
A) most of the radio stations .......broadcast to people with RDS equipped radios living in areas not previously reached.
It implies that it is reaching newer members such as listeners of a nearby area, who were not reached earlier, etc. Had the option been "most of the radio stations .......broadcast to people with RDS equipped radios living in areas OF VERNLAND not previously reached" ,then it could have been a strong contender. But for now, just eliminate it.
B. In 1996 most Verdlanders who lived within the listening area of an RDS station already had a radio equipped to receive RDS.------> Its not an assumption, but rather a restatement of the premise.
C. Equipping a radio station with RDS technology doesnotdecreases the station’s listening area.-----> It can be clearly observed how negating this option clearly cancels the reverse happening. Absolutely correct. No doubt about that.
D. In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not receive any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994.-----> Sorry not an assumption.Eliminate it.
E. The RDS radio stations in Verdland in 1996 did not all offer the same type of programming. ----> We are not concerned about the type of programming.

Answer must be C.


I disagree with C. Answer must be A - This choices ensures that the coverage has not increased. That means though nos of radio stations is increased it did not cover those areas where there was no coverage. For example Let say there are total 1000 radios and in 1994 only 600 were under the coverage. Now they have increased the radio station from 250 -600 but in the area pertaining to 600 radios. They have not installed many radio stations in the area where 400 radios were existing (may be very few in those areas). So the out of 400 lets say 20 or 30 radios are now getting the special program. So now the scenario is stations have increased from 250-600 but transmission only improved from 600 to 620/630. ie not a significant increase. And option A correctly address this issue of non-uniform geographical increase of radio stations.
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Re: Radio stations with radio data system (RDS [#permalink] New post 15 Nov 2012, 19:01
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thanks karishma...I feel like an idiot now. Don't know why I chose C.
Maybe the first question at 7.30am in the morning is wrong approach :P
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Re: Radio stations with radio data system (RDS [#permalink] New post 15 Nov 2012, 23:25
Nicely explained Karishma..
I have a doubt, "Few if any" means "hardly any".
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Re: Radio stations with radio data system (RDS [#permalink] New post 18 Nov 2012, 10:22
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milan14kar wrote:
Nicely explained Karishma..
I have a doubt, "Few if any" means "hardly any".


Yes, that's right. "Few if any" means "Very few or none"
What seems to be the problem?
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Re: Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology [#permalink] New post 07 Dec 2012, 10:57
Dear Karishma ,

I will ask why D is wrong. D clearly states that if the owners have no way to get RDS information without RDS radios, then the conlusion is clear. What if there are other ways to obtain this information. I also choose A ,however I am little confused about that choice.

Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology broadcast special program information that only radios with an RDS feature can receive. Between 1994 and 1996, the number of RDS radio stations in Verdland increased from 250 to 600. However, since the number of RDS-equipped radios in Verdland was about the same in 1996 as in 1994, the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. few if any of the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations.

B. In 1996 most Verdlanders who lived within the listening area of an RDS station already had a radio equipped to receive RDS.

C. Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not decrease the station’s listening area.

D. In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not receive any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994.

E. The RDS radio stations in Verdland in 1996 did not all offer the same type of programming.
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Re: Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology [#permalink] New post 10 Dec 2012, 03:40
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Dear Karishma ,

I will ask why D is wrong. D clearly states that if the owners have no way to get RDS information without RDS radios, then the conlusion is clear. What if there are other ways to obtain this information. I also choose A ,however I am little confused about that choice.



Gist of what D says: No RDS enabled radio meant no RDS program reception from later radio stations.
Conclusion of the argument: Number of people receiving RDS program did not increase significantly in 1996.

We have to consider whether D is an assumption. An assumption is a necessary missing premise. If the assumption is not true, the conclusion cannot be true. Let's negate the assumption. Then we will whether the conclusion can still hold.

Negated D: Even without RDS enabled radios, people could receive RDS programs from later radio stations.
Can the conclusion still hold true? Sure. If people can receive RDS programs without an RDS radio (e.g. at friends/neighbors etc) from later stations, these people could have received RDS programs in the same way before 1996 too. So number of people receiving RDS programs could have stayed the same. Since the conclusion can still hold even if D is negated, D is not an assumption.
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Re: Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology [#permalink] New post 25 Jul 2014, 17:23
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
Jp27 wrote:
Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology broadcast special program information that only radios with an RDS feature can receive. Between 1994 and 1996, the number of RDS radio stations in Verdland increased from 250 to 600. However, since the number of RDS-equipped radios in Verdland was about the same in 1996 as in 1994, the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. few if any of the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations.

B. In 1996 most Verdlanders who lived within the listening area of an RDS station already had a radio equipped to receive RDS.

C. Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not decrease the station's listening area.

D. In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not receive any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994.

E. The RDS radio stations in Verdland in 1996 did not all offer the same type of programming.

Cheers

OA after some discussion.


Assumption question: Find the conclusion. Find out which answer option is essential for the condition to be true.

Premises:
-Only radios with RDS feature can receive programs of Radio stations with RDS technology
-Between 1994 and 1996, the number of RDS radio stations in Verdland increased from 250 to 600.
- the number of RDS-equipped radios in Verdland was about the same in 1996 as in 1994


Conclusion:the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly.

Even though new RDS radio stations have been set up, since the number of radios with RDS feature is same in 1996 as in 1994, the author is concluding that the same number of people are receiving RDS programs.

a. Few if any of the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations.

What if the new RDS radio stations were set in areas which did not receive RDS programs before.. (say, if that particular frequency was not available in remote areas but when new radio stations were set, these areas starting receiving RDS prgrams.) There might be people in these areas who already had RDS equipped radio. These people would have started receiving RDS programs (e.g. Initially FM had limited reach and though many radios had FM capability, they could not receive it. After FM became common, even though people didn't buy new radios, more people started receiving FM)
So for his conclusion to be true, the author is assuming that RDS radio stations that began after 1994 did not broadcast to people who were unreachable previously. Hence answer A.

(C). Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not decrease the station's listening area.
This is not an assumption the author is making. The conclusion says ' the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly' based on the fact that the number of RDS equipped radios is the same.
To understand this, try to negate the assumption: Equipping a radio station with RDS technology decreases the station's listening area. Can our conclusion "the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly." still hold true? Most certainly. In fact, it is more likely that our conclusion is true. Since our conclusion can hold even if the supposed assumption is negated, it is not an assumption at all.


Thanks for your help.

I was wondering. If C instead said:
Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not increase the station's listening area.

This would be a valid assumption too right?
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Re: Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology [#permalink] New post 27 Jul 2014, 19:42
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pleezy wrote:

I was wondering. If C instead said:
Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not increase the station's listening area.

This would be a valid assumption too right?


No, that wouldn't be an assumption either.

Note that the point is not how far the RDS stations can transmit. Even if they transmit everywhere now, it is worthless if people do not have RDS equipped radios. Since no of people with RDS equipped radios has stayed the same, the author is saying that number of people receiving RDS programming is the same as before even if RDS stations cover more area now. So even if RDS tech increases the listening area, still number of people receiving the RDS programming could be the same since number of RDS equipped radios is the same. Hence the modified statement is not an assumption.
The assumption is that the new stations are not broadcasting in areas where RDS programming was not available before but people still had RDS equipped radios. If this were not true, people with RDS equipped radios would have started receiving RDS programming and the author's conclusion would be violated.

This argument has a parallel in the real world. In 1980s and early 1990s, most cities in India did not have FM channels but most radios came with FM because it became a standard feature - so that people living in cities with FM channels can access them.
Then in 1990s, many new FM channels came up in many cities. Did many more people buy FM equipped radios? Perhaps no. But did many *new* people start receiving FM channels? Sure. They already had FM equipped radios and FM broadcasting started in their cities so they started receiving it.

So when we say that since many new radios with RDS were not bought so people getting RDS did not increase, we are assuming that RDS programming did not start in areas which did not have it before but where people had RDS equipped radios.
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Re: Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology   [#permalink] 27 Jul 2014, 19:42
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