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Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec

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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Apr 2018, 02:04
prateek176 wrote:
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
perfectstranger1 wrote:
Dear Karishma ,

I will ask why D is wrong. D clearly states that if the owners have no way to get RDS information without RDS radios, then the conlusion is clear. What if there are other ways to obtain this information. I also choose A ,however I am little confused about that choice.



Gist of what D says: No RDS enabled radio meant no RDS program reception from later radio stations.
Conclusion of the argument: Number of people receiving RDS program did not increase significantly in 1996.

We have to consider whether D is an assumption. An assumption is a necessary missing premise. If the assumption is not true, the conclusion cannot be true. Let's negate the assumption. Then we will whether the conclusion can still hold.

Negated D: Even without RDS enabled radios, people could receive RDS programs from later radio stations.
Can the conclusion still hold true? Sure. If people can receive RDS programs without an RDS radio (e.g. at friends/neighbors etc) from later stations, these people could have received RDS programs in the same way before 1996 too. So number of people receiving RDS programs could have stayed the same. Since the conclusion can still hold even if D is negated, D is not an assumption.


VeritasPrepKarishma , mikemcgarry

Option D clearly means that we are negating the premise which i think isn't permissible in GMAT. Is my reasoning accurate?


Could you elaborate your reasoning? (D) does not negate any premise.
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Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Apr 2018, 08:35
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
prateek176 wrote:
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:

Gist of what D says: No RDS enabled radio meant no RDS program reception from later radio stations.
Conclusion of the argument: Number of people receiving RDS program did not increase significantly in 1996.

We have to consider whether D is an assumption. An assumption is a necessary missing premise. If the assumption is not true, the conclusion cannot be true. Let's negate the assumption. Then we will whether the conclusion can still hold.

Negated D: Even without RDS enabled radios, people could receive RDS programs from later radio stations.
Can the conclusion still hold true? Sure. If people can receive RDS programs without an RDS radio (e.g. at friends/neighbors etc) from later stations, these people could have received RDS programs in the same way before 1996 too. So number of people receiving RDS programs could have stayed the same. Since the conclusion can still hold even if D is negated, D is not an assumption.


VeritasPrepKarishma , mikemcgarry

Option D clearly means that we are negating the premise which i think isn't permissible in GMAT. Is my reasoning accurate?


Could you elaborate your reasoning? (D) does not negate any premise.


VeritasPrepKarishma

The argument has 3 premises:

Premises:
-Only radios with RDS feature can receive programs of Radio stations with RDS technology
-Between 1994 and 1996, the number of RDS radio stations in Verdland increased from 250 to 600.
- the number of RDS-equipped radios in Verdland was about the same in 1996 as in 1994

Option D is stating the obvious which is why i eliminated D. Sorry I phrased my question incorrectly.

But is this reasoning correct?
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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Apr 2018, 05:36
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prateek176 wrote:
The argument has 3 premises:

Premises:
-Only radios with RDS feature can receive programs of Radio stations with RDS technology
-Between 1994 and 1996, the number of RDS radio stations in Verdland increased from 250 to 600.
- the number of RDS-equipped radios in Verdland was about the same in 1996 as in 1994

Option D is stating the obvious which is why i eliminated D. Sorry I phrased my question incorrectly.

But is this reasoning correct?


Option (D) is not stating the obvious. The first premise and option (D) are different.
The first premise says that only those radios that have RDS capability can receive this special programming.
Option (D) says that PEOPLE who did not own RDS equipped radios in 1996 could not receive the special programming from the new stations.
People could access special programming through other people's radios too. So (D) is not the same as the first premise.
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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Oct 2018, 01:11
Can this become an assumption?

"Number of people receiving information per RDS radio did not increase significantly".

Also, in the reasoning given in A. what if RDS stations set up a new station outside but people did not own any RDS radio?

I am still confused. Please help.

Regards,
Ravi.
VeritasKarishma wrote:
piyushagarwal wrote:
I am not at all able to make out what A want to say.. :(


Since this questions seems to have confused people, let's try to break it down.

Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology broadcast special program information that only radios with an RDS feature can receive. Between 1994 and 1996, the number of RDS radio stations in Verdland increased from 250 to 600. However, since the number of RDS-equipped radios in Verdland was about the same in 1996 as in 1994, the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

a. Few if any of the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations.
b. In 1996 most Verdlanders who lived within the listening area of an RDS station already had a radio equipped to receive RDS.
c. Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not decrease the station's listening area.
d. In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not receive any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994.
e. The RDS radio stations in Verdland in 1996 did not all offer the same type of programming.

Assumption question: Find the conclusion. Find out which answer option is essential for the condition to be true.

Premises:
-Only radios with RDS feature can receive programs of Radio stations with RDS technology
-Between 1994 and 1996, the number of RDS radio stations in Verdland increased from 250 to 600.
- the number of RDS-equipped radios in Verdland was about the same in 1996 as in 1994


Conclusion:the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly.


Even though new RDS radio stations have been set up, since the number of radios with RDS feature is same in 1996 as in 1994, the author is concluding that the same number of people are receiving RDS programs.

a. Few if any of the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations.

What if the new RDS radio stations were set in areas which did not receive RDS programs before.. (say, if that particular frequency was not available in remote areas but when new radio stations were set, these areas starting receiving RDS prgrams.) There might be people in these areas who already had RDS equipped radio. These people would have started receiving RDS programs (e.g. Initially FM had limited reach and though many radios had FM capability, they could not receive it. After FM became common, even though people didn't buy new radios, more people started receiving FM)
So for his conclusion to be true, the author is assuming that RDS radio stations that began after 1994 did not broadcast to people who were unreachable previously. Hence answer A.

None of the other choices qualify as an assumption.
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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jan 2019, 17:34
There are multiple ways to eliminate option D in one get go. Our conclusion says “the number of Verdlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly”.

Two things we need to keep in our mind: We are strictly talking about special program AND the number of Verdlanders receiving the information prob did not increase SIGNIFICANTLY.

Negated option D: In 1996 Verdlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS COULD receive SOME programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994. 

Notice how option D talks about “some programming” whereas our conclusion is strictly limited to “special program”. We certainly cannot conclude for sure that Verdlanders who did not own radios equipped with RDS technology did receive this type of “special program”. Let’s say we missed this when we were reading our argument and do not realize that the conclusion talks strictly about “special program”, we can still eliminate this option. “The number of Verdlanders” who received some programming from the RDS stations that began broadcasting after 1994 - we still don’t know. For all we know the total number of Verdlanders who did not own such radios were only 2. If they did receive the broadcasting, can we say overall that “the number of Verdlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase SIGNIFICANTLY?” No, we can say the number prob increased but SIGNIFICANTLY? Certainly not.

Hope this helps!
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Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Mar 2019, 22:42
VeritasKarishma wrote:
pleezy wrote:

I was wondering. If C instead said:
Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not increase the station's listening area.

This would be a valid assumption too right?


No, that wouldn't be an assumption either.

Note that the point is not how far the RDS stations can transmit. Even if they transmit everywhere now, it is worthless if people do not have RDS equipped radios. Since no of people with RDS equipped radios has stayed the same, the author is saying that number of people receiving RDS programming is the same as before even if RDS stations cover more area now. So even if RDS tech increases the listening area, still number of people receiving the RDS programming could be the same since number of RDS equipped radios is the same. Hence the modified statement is not an assumption.
The assumption is that the new stations are not broadcasting in areas where RDS programming was not available before but people still had RDS equipped radios. If this were not true, people with RDS equipped radios would have started receiving RDS programming and the author's conclusion would be violated.

This argument has a parallel in the real world. In 1980s and early 1990s, most cities in India did not have FM channels but most radios came with FM because it became a standard feature - so that people living in cities with FM channels can access them.
Then in 1990s, many new FM channels came up in many cities. Did many more people buy FM equipped radios? Perhaps no. But did many *new* people start receiving FM channels? Sure. They already had FM equipped radios and FM broadcasting started in their cities so they started receiving it.

So when we say that since many new radios with RDS were not bought so people getting RDS did not increase, we are assuming that RDS programming did not start in areas which did not have it before but where people had RDS equipped radios.



VeritasKarishma

Say there are 100 people with RDS feature enabled Radios. In 1994 say only 50 out of 100 were able to receive the special program information. But in 1996 the radio stations with RDS technology increased.

According to option A these new stations didn't cover areas that weren't reached by radio stations in 1994. As the premise tells "number of RDS-equipped radios in Verdland was about the same in 1996 as in 1994". Therefore even in 1996 only around 50 received the special program info.

If we consider this
"Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not increase the station's listening area."

If we negate this ""Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does increase the station's listening area." So now the stations will get more coverage and OUT of 100 more people will have access to these special program info. (i.e 50 +few more because the coverage is increased) .

Why is this answer choice wrong?

Thank You
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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Mar 2019, 02:25
mallya12 wrote:
VeritasKarishma wrote:
pleezy wrote:

I was wondering. If C instead said:
Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not increase the station's listening area.

This would be a valid assumption too right?


No, that wouldn't be an assumption either.

Note that the point is not how far the RDS stations can transmit. Even if they transmit everywhere now, it is worthless if people do not have RDS equipped radios. Since no of people with RDS equipped radios has stayed the same, the author is saying that number of people receiving RDS programming is the same as before even if RDS stations cover more area now. So even if RDS tech increases the listening area, still number of people receiving the RDS programming could be the same since number of RDS equipped radios is the same. Hence the modified statement is not an assumption.
The assumption is that the new stations are not broadcasting in areas where RDS programming was not available before but people still had RDS equipped radios. If this were not true, people with RDS equipped radios would have started receiving RDS programming and the author's conclusion would be violated.

This argument has a parallel in the real world. In 1980s and early 1990s, most cities in India did not have FM channels but most radios came with FM because it became a standard feature - so that people living in cities with FM channels can access them.
Then in 1990s, many new FM channels came up in many cities. Did many more people buy FM equipped radios? Perhaps no. But did many *new* people start receiving FM channels? Sure. They already had FM equipped radios and FM broadcasting started in their cities so they started receiving it.

So when we say that since many new radios with RDS were not bought so people getting RDS did not increase, we are assuming that RDS programming did not start in areas which did not have it before but where people had RDS equipped radios.



VeritasKarishma

Say there are 100 people with RDS feature enabled Radios. In 1994 say only 50 out of 100 were able to receive the special program information. But in 1996 the radio stations with RDS technology increased.

According to option A these new stations didn't cover areas that weren't reached by radio stations in 1994. As the premise tells "number of RDS-equipped radios in Verdland was about the same in 1996 as in 1994". Therefore even in 1996 only around 50 received the special program info.

If we consider this
"Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not increase the station's listening area."

If we negate this ""Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does increase the station's listening area." So now the stations will get more coverage and OUT of 100 more people will have access to these special program info. (i.e 50 +few more because the coverage is increased) .

Why is this answer choice wrong?

Thank You


I think you are talking about option (C) and why it cannot be the answer.
Do note that it is "Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not decrease the station's listening area."
and hence its negation will be "Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does decrease the station's listening area."

Does this help bat out this option?
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Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Mar 2019, 20:42
VeritasKarishma

No i do understand option choice C . But if there was an answer choice "Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not increase the station's listening area."

Would this be valid?

My Reasoning:

Say there are 100 people with RDS feature enabled Radios. In 1994 say only 50 out of 100 were able to receive the special program information. But in 1996 the radio stations with RDS technology increased.

According to option A these new stations didn't cover areas that weren't reached by radio stations in 1994. As the premise tells "number of RDS-equipped radios in Verdland was about the same in 1996 as in 1994". Therefore even in 1996 only around 50 received the special program info.

If we consider this

"Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not increase the station's listening area."

If we negate this ""Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does increase the station's listening area." So now the stations will get more coverage and OUT of 100 more people will have access to these special program info. (i.e 50 +few more because the coverage is increased) .
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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Mar 2019, 23:19
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mallya12 wrote:
VeritasKarishma

No i do understand option choice C . But if there was an answer choice "Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not increase the station's listening area."

Would this be valid?

My Reasoning:

Say there are 100 people with RDS feature enabled Radios. In 1994 say only 50 out of 100 were able to receive the special program information. But in 1996 the radio stations with RDS technology increased.

According to option A these new stations didn't cover areas that weren't reached by radio stations in 1994. As the premise tells "number of RDS-equipped radios in Verdland was about the same in 1996 as in 1994". Therefore even in 1996 only around 50 received the special program info.

If we consider this

"Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not increase the station's listening area."

If we negate this ""Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does increase the station's listening area." So now the stations will get more coverage and OUT of 100 more people will have access to these special program info. (i.e 50 +few more because the coverage is increased) .


Ok, I understand your question. The answer is No and here is why:

"Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not increase the station's listening area."
is not a valid assumption. If the listening area DOES increase, it doesn't impact our conclusion. It is still possible that "the number of Verdlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly"

Note that "the listening area DOES increase" is not much different from what the premise says already "No of radio stations has increased". So presumably, the area RDS signal covers has increased.

But our conclusion is that number of Verdlanders receiving special program did not increase significantly based on "no of RDS equipped radios have not increased".
What we need to say in an assumption is this: this "increased area" does not cover people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations.
This is what option (A) is.

Does this help?
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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec   [#permalink] 19 Mar 2019, 23:19

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