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Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec

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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec [#permalink]

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New post 09 Dec 2010, 14:08
A - there was no increase because pple in the area already had RDS equipped radio already, but did not have providers.
Trick to assumption questions - try to link words and derive a assumption. Of course the negation technique is always there to back-up!

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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec [#permalink]

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New post 09 Dec 2010, 15:13
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good question.....made me think

I missed the biggest clue for this one "since the number of RDS-equipped radios in Verdland was about the same in 1996 as in 1994," the number stayed the same...Given
so basically lets take the case no one in Verland upgraded to RDS....so option A furthers this idea and says that few if any of RDS stations broadcast to other towns in hopes of an increase in RDS numbers also.....hence it stayed the same.

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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec [#permalink]

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New post 09 Dec 2010, 15:28
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piyushagarwal wrote:
I am not at all able to make out what A want to say.. :(


Since this questions seems to have confused people, let's try to break it down.

Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology broadcast special program information that only radios with an RDS feature can receive. Between 1994 and 1996, the number of RDS radio stations in Verdland increased from 250 to 600. However, since the number of RDS-equipped radios in Verdland was about the same in 1996 as in 1994, the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

a. Few if any of the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations.
b. In 1996 most Verdlanders who lived within the listening area of an RDS station already had a radio equipped to receive RDS.
c. Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not decrease the station's listening area.
d. In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not receive any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994.
e. The RDS radio stations in Verdland in 1996 did not all offer the same type of programming.

Assumption question: Find the conclusion. Find out which answer option is essential for the condition to be true.

Premises:
-Only radios with RDS feature can receive programs of Radio stations with RDS technology
-Between 1994 and 1996, the number of RDS radio stations in Verdland increased from 250 to 600.
- the number of RDS-equipped radios in Verdland was about the same in 1996 as in 1994


Conclusion:the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly.


Even though new RDS radio stations have been set up, since the number of radios with RDS feature is same in 1996 as in 1994, the author is concluding that the same number of people are receiving RDS programs.

a. Few if any of the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations.

What if the new RDS radio stations were set in areas which did not receive RDS programs before.. (say, if that particular frequency was not available in remote areas but when new radio stations were set, these areas starting receiving RDS prgrams.) There might be people in these areas who already had RDS equipped radio. These people would have started receiving RDS programs (e.g. Initially FM had limited reach and though many radios had FM capability, they could not receive it. After FM became common, even though people didn't buy new radios, more people started receiving FM)
So for his conclusion to be true, the author is assuming that RDS radio stations that began after 1994 did not broadcast to people who were unreachable previously. Hence answer A.

None of the other choices qualify as an assumption.
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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec [#permalink]

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New post 11 Dec 2010, 00:43
a. Few if any of the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations.

Thanks for the explanation. I also have trouble understanding the wording in answer choice A.

Can "Few if any" equal to "there maybe some"?

If there are some RDS radio stations that did broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations, doesn't it weaken this answer choice?

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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec [#permalink]

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Samwong wrote:
a. Few if any of the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations.

Thanks for the explanation. I also have trouble understanding the wording in answer choice A.

Can "Few if any" equal to "there maybe some"?

If there are some RDS radio stations that did broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations, doesn't it weaken this answer choice?


There is a distinction between:
Few - Very few
A few - Some
Few of my friends will go to the dance. (means very few or almost none of them will go)
A few of my friends will go to the dance. (means some of my friends will go)

So I would consider 'Few if any' to mean 1 or 2 if any at all... That number may not have enough impact to make a difference.
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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2011, 09:49
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
Samwong wrote:
a. Few if any of the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations.

Thanks for the explanation. I also have trouble understanding the wording in answer choice A.

Can "Few if any" equal to "there maybe some"?

If there are some RDS radio stations that did broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations, doesn't it weaken this answer choice?


There is a distinction between:
Few - Very few
A few - Some
Few of my friends will go to the dance. (means very few or almost none of them will go)
A few of my friends will go to the dance. (means some of my friends will go)

So I would consider 'Few if any' to mean 1 or 2 if any at all... That number may not have enough impact to make a difference.

hi Karishma,
I am confused between A and D. I chose D because i thought about the case that people who dont have the RDS-equipped radios still can have chance to listen to programs brocasted by RDS radio stations (maybe through other people's RDS equipped radios), the situation which weaken the conclusion that "the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly. "
Please kindly explain where i made mistake. Many thanks
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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2011, 12:15
Hi Karishma / All others,
Code:
d. In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not receive any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994.

I chose D because otherwise people could just get a programming and their radios will start receiving RDS, thus increasing the number of people getting the special program. That way, the entire argument breaks down.

Please tell me if there is a glitch in my reasoning.
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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2011, 19:47
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MICKEYXITIN wrote:
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
Samwong wrote:
a. Few if any of the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations.

Thanks for the explanation. I also have trouble understanding the wording in answer choice A.

Can "Few if any" equal to "there maybe some"?

If there are some RDS radio stations that did broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations, doesn't it weaken this answer choice?


There is a distinction between:
Few - Very few
A few - Some
Few of my friends will go to the dance. (means very few or almost none of them will go)
A few of my friends will go to the dance. (means some of my friends will go)

So I would consider 'Few if any' to mean 1 or 2 if any at all... That number may not have enough impact to make a difference.

hi Karishma,
I am confused between A and D. I chose D because i thought about the case that people who dont have the RDS-equipped radios still can have chance to listen to programs brocasted by RDS radio stations (maybe through other people's RDS equipped radios), the situation which weaken the conclusion that "the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly. "
Please kindly explain where i made mistake. Many thanks


The question asks for an assumption. (i.e. what is necessarily true to make the conclusion true?)
The gist of the argument is that since no. of radios is about the same, number of people receiving the RDS programming is also the same.

Option D - In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not receive any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994.

- Even if people without RDS equipped radios could access RDS programming (say on neighbor's RDS radio) in 1996, they could have done the same in 1994 as well. They could have received RDS programs from existing radio stations (using neighbors radio). The number of people receiving the programming then may not have changed. So the argument could still hold even if option (D) is false. It is not necessary for it to be true for the argument to be true. Then option (D) is not an assumption.

(At Veritas, we call this method Assumption Negation Technique (ANT). Assumption is something which needs to be true for the conclusion to be true. That is why it is called an assumption. If an option is negated and the conclusion could still hold, it is not an assumption)

On the other hand, if we negate option (A) and say that some RDS radio stations started broadcasting in areas which were not previously reached by RDS but where people owned RDS equipped radios, then the number of people receiving RDS increases in 1996 and the conclusion does not hold. Hence option (A) is the assumption.
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Last edited by VeritasPrepKarishma on 09 Jan 2011, 19:53, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2011, 19:51
maddy2u wrote:
Hi Karishma / All others,
Code:
d. In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not receive any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994.

I chose D because otherwise people could just get a programming and their radios will start receiving RDS, thus increasing the number of people getting the special program. That way, the entire argument breaks down.

Please tell me if there is a glitch in my reasoning.


I am sorry maddy2u but I am not very sure what you mean. If the radios are not equipped with RDS, how could they get RDS programming? Do you mean using someone else's radio? Then my explanation above may help. If you mean that they could kind of install a software that supports reception of RDS on their radios (just taking a shot here!) or something, they could have done the same in 1994. How do you prove that the number of people receiving RDS programming has changed from 1994 to 1996? Only if you do that can you break the argument.
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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2011, 22:31
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VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
MICKEYXITIN wrote:
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:

The question asks for an assumption. (i.e. what is necessarily true to make the conclusion true?)
The gist of the argument is that since no. of radios is about the same, number of people receiving the RDS programming is also the same.

Option D - In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not receive any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994.

- Even if people without RDS equipped radios could access RDS programming (say on neighbor's RDS radio) in 1996, they could have done the same in 1994 as well. They could have received RDS programs from existing radio stations (using neighbors radio). The number of people receiving the programming then may not have changed. So the argument could still hold even if option (D) is false. It is not necessary for it to be true for the argument to be true. Then option (D) is not an assumption.

(At Veritas, we call this method Assumption Negation Technique (ANT). Assumption is something which needs to be true for the conclusion to be true. That is why it is called an assumption. If an option is negated and the conclusion could still hold, it is not an assumption)

On the other hand, if we negate option (A) and say that some RDS radio stations started broadcasting in areas which were not previously reached by RDS but where people owned RDS equipped radios, then the number of people receiving RDS increases in 1996 and the conclusion does not hold. Hence option (A) is the assumption.


Thank you very much Karishma. Your explanation is convincing. Now i understand why D is inccorect now. hope i can learn the way you reason to eliminate incorrect answers of other assumption questions should any chance ever rise.
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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jul 2011, 07:23
pdarun wrote:
I chose B, am still battling to understand why not B.
As explained in an earlier post if B is not true, then the conclusion in the passage falls apart. Reason enough to select B!



I think B is incorrect because of the date. It says that in 1996, Verdlanders who lived within the listening area of an RDS station already had a radio equipped to receive RDS.

Even if this is true, it can still mean that from 1994 to 1996, Verdlanders with RDS radios moved in large numbers from an area that was not within range of stations to an area that was. This would obviously greatly increase the number of people receiving the special programming.

Only A can be correct here. It's all about the radio stations. It basically says that the stations never reached many more customers. That's exactly what the conclusion is.

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New post 24 Jul 2011, 00:40
TallJTinChina wrote:
At first I picked E, but now I understand why A is correct.

Based on the question we know RDS-reception requires 3 things:
1) Station must send RDS info with signal
2) Receiving radio must be able to decode RDS information

Also we know:
the number of stations grew from 250 to 600
the number of receivers stayed the same

The conclusion is "..the number of verdlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly. "

In this problem we must support this conclusion (in my opinion a poor one) with a key assumption.

Choice A is basically saying the additional RDS stations are in the same broadcast area as the previous RDS stations.

I have a diagram to illustrate a situation without assumption A.

Attachment:
Verdland.JPG


As you can see in the drawing, an additional station in a different area of Verdland could increase the number of people receiving the RDS information.

For anyone wondering why the broadcast area for the blue station is not a circle, the broadcast tower is in a deep valley.



Can someone explain this using POE?? Also, what does A actually mean and what is it trying to say first of all?? I am having diffculty understanding this...

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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jul 2011, 03:05
siddhans wrote:
Can someone explain this using POE?? Also, what does A actually mean and what is it trying to say first of all?? I am having diffculty understanding this...



In 1994:
250 Stations
1 Million RDS equipments in total 100 Areas within Verdland
Radio broadcasts in only: 10 areas(Approx 100K equipments receive the broadcast- 900K equipments idle)

In 1996:
600 Stations
1 Million RDS equipments in total 100 Areas within Verdland
Radio broadcasts STILL in only: 10 areas(Approx 100K equipments receive the broadcast- 900K equipments idle)

Argument says: "the number of verdlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly"; Means the additional 350 stations are still broadcasting to only 10 areas. (A says just that)

If 350 additional stations broadcast to more areas, then:


In 1996:
600 Stations
1 Million RDS equipments in total 100 Areas within Verdland
Radio broadcasts in : ALL 100 areas(All 1 Million equipments receive the broadcast)-- This is against the argument.

Ans: "A"
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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jul 2011, 11:12
fluke wrote:
siddhans wrote:
Can someone explain this using POE?? Also, what does A actually mean and what is it trying to say first of all?? I am having diffculty understanding this...



In 1994:
250 Stations
1 Million RDS equipments in total 100 Areas within Verdland
Radio broadcasts in only: 10 areas(Approx 100K equipments receive the broadcast- 900K equipments idle)

In 1996:
600 Stations
1 Million RDS equipments in total 100 Areas within Verdland
Radio broadcasts STILL in only: 10 areas(Approx 100K equipments receive the broadcast- 900K equipments idle)

Argument says: "the number of verdlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly"; Means the additional 350 stations are still broadcasting to only 10 areas. (A says just that)

If 350 additional stations broadcast to more areas, then:


In 1996:
600 Stations
1 Million RDS equipments in total 100 Areas within Verdland
Radio broadcasts in : ALL 100 areas(All 1 Million equipments receive the broadcast)-- This is against the argument.

Ans: "A"


Hi Fluke,


Thanks for the detailed explanation...

What about D & E ??? How can we eliminate this ??

D Says: In 1996 Verdlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994. ---Is this choice eliminated because of reasons(see below)?

1) The choice says that people who did not own radios equipped with RDS could not receive any programming.... Is this eliminated because of "any" since they could still receive some programs only not the special ones....

Or

2)Is this eliminated since it is out of scope ...since we arer only talking about special programs here and other kind of programs are not important?

Or

3) Is this eliminated since this is an assumption question and its repeating already what we know??(Lately i saw these reason from people but I thought we always use this kind of reasons to make argument stronger or weaker and assumption questions kind of fills the logical gap to make it strong or weak so it should be correct?? Please clarify)






(E) The RDS radio stations in Verdland in 1996 did not all offer the same type of programming. --- Is this eliminated because this is too generic and we are talking about Radio stations equipped with RDS and special programs and this doesnt relate in any way with the conclusion???

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New post 24 Jul 2011, 15:29
siddhans wrote:
fluke wrote:
siddhans wrote:
Can someone explain this using POE?? Also, what does A actually mean and what is it trying to say first of all?? I am having diffculty understanding this...



In 1994:
250 Stations
1 Million RDS equipments in total 100 Areas within Verdland
Radio broadcasts in only: 10 areas(Approx 100K equipments receive the broadcast- 900K equipments idle)

In 1996:
600 Stations
1 Million RDS equipments in total 100 Areas within Verdland
Radio broadcasts STILL in only: 10 areas(Approx 100K equipments receive the broadcast- 900K equipments idle)

Argument says: "the number of verdlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly"; Means the additional 350 stations are still broadcasting to only 10 areas. (A says just that)

If 350 additional stations broadcast to more areas, then:


In 1996:
600 Stations
1 Million RDS equipments in total 100 Areas within Verdland
Radio broadcasts in : ALL 100 areas(All 1 Million equipments receive the broadcast)-- This is against the argument.

Ans: "A"


Hi Fluke,


Thanks for the detailed explanation...

What about D & E ??? How can we eliminate this ??

D Says: In 1996 Verdlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994. ---Is this choice eliminated because of reasons(see below)?

1) The choice says that people who did not own radios equipped with RDS could not receive any programming.... Is this eliminated because of "any" since they could still receive some programs only not the special ones....

Or

2)Is this eliminated since it is out of scope ...since we arer only talking about special programs here and other kind of programs are not important?

Or

3) Is this eliminated since this is an assumption question and its repeating already what we know??(Lately i saw these reason from people but I thought we always use this kind of reasons to make argument stronger or weaker and assumption questions kind of fills the logical gap to make it strong or weak so it should be correct?? Please clarify)



Well!! It is out of scope because it talks about the people who don't own RDS receiver. We are concerned about the people who owned RDS radio in 1994 and in 1996.


(E) The RDS radio stations in Verdland in 1996 did not all offer the same type of programming. --- Is this eliminated because this is too generic and we are talking about Radio stations equipped with RDS and special programs and this doesnt relate in any way with the conclusion???

Yeah!!! We are not concerned about what programming people received, but how many people who owned the radio received it.


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New post 18 Oct 2011, 06:07
I am confused btw A and c ...Please explain why not C?

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New post 16 Jan 2012, 06:54
ruturajp wrote:
I am confused btw A and c ...Please explain why not C?


If equipping a station with RDS makes the station's listening area less, obviously we need more no. of stations now. But as per C, it DOES NOT DECREASE, in that case there is no need for new stations.

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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2012, 00:35
This question has been discussed multiple times already. check the link below -
source-gmatprep-radio-stations-with-radio-data-system-71306.html
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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec [#permalink]

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New post 26 Sep 2012, 03:51
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+1 A

Conclusion – the number of Verdlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly.

Any option, which when negated destroys the conclusion is our answer. Option A does exactly that and is our answer.

:-D
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First Attempt 710 - http://gmatclub.com/forum/first-attempt-141273.html

Kudos [?]: 335 [1], given: 269

Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec   [#permalink] 26 Sep 2012, 03:51

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