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Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec

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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec [#permalink]

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New post 15 Nov 2012, 16:38
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ashdah wrote:
Jp27 wrote:
Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology broadcast special program information that only radios with an RDS feature can receive. Between 1994 and 1996, the number of RDS radio stations in Verdland increased from 250 to 600. However, since the number of RDS-equipped radios in Verdland was about the same in 1996 as in 1994, the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. few if any of the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations.

B. In 1996 most Verdlanders who lived within the listening area of an RDS station already had a radio equipped to receive RDS.

C. Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not decrease the station’s listening area.

D. In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not receive any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994.

E. The RDS radio stations in Verdland in 1996 did not all offer the same type of programming.

Cheers

OA after some discussion.



OA is C Since that is the assumption central to the conclusion given in the question


In order to find on which assumption the conclusion lies, you need to find which answer, if turned around, weakens the argument.
Answer C, if turned around, says " Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not decrease the station’s listening area."
If it decreases the listening area, it means that fewer people will be able to listen and of course the number of listeners will would not change significantly. Actually, answer C, turned around, supports the argument, does not weaken it.

If we turn around the meaning of A, though, "few if any of the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations." to " most of the radio stations .......broadcast to people with RDS equipped radios living in areas not previously reached", this suggests that most of the new stations broadcast to other areas with RDS radios, so they reach new people and the people who can listen it increases. This statement weakens the argument, so it is the answer.

A

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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec [#permalink]

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New post 15 Nov 2012, 19:11
Conclusion: the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly.

If we negate the options we get:-
A) most of the radio stations .......broadcast to people with RDS equipped radios living in areas not previously reached.
It implies that it is reaching newer members such as listeners of a nearby area, who were not reached earlier, etc. Had the option been "most of the radio stations .......broadcast to people with RDS equipped radios living in areas OF VERNLAND not previously reached" ,then it could have been a strong contender. But for now, just eliminate it.
B. In 1996 most Verdlanders who lived within the listening area of an RDS station already had a radio equipped to receive RDS.------> Its not an assumption, but rather a restatement of the premise.
C. Equipping a radio station with RDS technology doesnotdecreases the station’s listening area.-----> It can be clearly observed how negating this option clearly cancels the reverse happening. Absolutely correct. No doubt about that.
D. In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not receive any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994.-----> Sorry not an assumption.Eliminate it.
E. The RDS radio stations in Verdland in 1996 did not all offer the same type of programming. ----> We are not concerned about the type of programming.

Answer must be C.
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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec [#permalink]

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New post 15 Nov 2012, 19:35
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Jp27 wrote:
Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology broadcast special program information that only radios with an RDS feature can receive. Between 1994 and 1996, the number of RDS radio stations in Verdland increased from 250 to 600. However, since the number of RDS-equipped radios in Verdland was about the same in 1996 as in 1994, the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. few if any of the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations.

B. In 1996 most Verdlanders who lived within the listening area of an RDS station already had a radio equipped to receive RDS.

C. Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not decrease the station's listening area.

D. In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not receive any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994.

E. The RDS radio stations in Verdland in 1996 did not all offer the same type of programming.

Cheers

OA after some discussion.


Assumption question: Find the conclusion. Find out which answer option is essential for the condition to be true.

Premises:
-Only radios with RDS feature can receive programs of Radio stations with RDS technology
-Between 1994 and 1996, the number of RDS radio stations in Verdland increased from 250 to 600.
- the number of RDS-equipped radios in Verdland was about the same in 1996 as in 1994


Conclusion:the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly.

Even though new RDS radio stations have been set up, since the number of radios with RDS feature is same in 1996 as in 1994, the author is concluding that the same number of people are receiving RDS programs.

a. Few if any of the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations.

What if the new RDS radio stations were set in areas which did not receive RDS programs before.. (say, if that particular frequency was not available in remote areas but when new radio stations were set, these areas starting receiving RDS prgrams.) There might be people in these areas who already had RDS equipped radio. These people would have started receiving RDS programs (e.g. Initially FM had limited reach and though many radios had FM capability, they could not receive it. After FM became common, even though people didn't buy new radios, more people started receiving FM)
So for his conclusion to be true, the author is assuming that RDS radio stations that began after 1994 did not broadcast to people who were unreachable previously. Hence answer A.

(C). Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not decrease the station's listening area.
This is not an assumption the author is making. The conclusion says ' the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly' based on the fact that the number of RDS equipped radios is the same.
To understand this, try to negate the assumption: Equipping a radio station with RDS technology decreases the station's listening area. Can our conclusion "the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly." still hold true? Most certainly. In fact, it is more likely that our conclusion is true. Since our conclusion can hold even if the supposed assumption is negated, it is not an assumption at all.
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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec [#permalink]

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Conclusion: the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly.

If we negate the options we get:-
A) most of the radio stations .......broadcast to people with RDS equipped radios living in areas not previously reached.
It implies that it is reaching newer members such as listeners of a nearby area, who were not reached earlier, etc. Had the option been "most of the radio stations .......broadcast to people with RDS equipped radios living in areas OF VERNLAND not previously reached" ,then it could have been a strong contender. But for now, just eliminate it.
B. In 1996 most Verdlanders who lived within the listening area of an RDS station already had a radio equipped to receive RDS.------> Its not an assumption, but rather a restatement of the premise.
C. Equipping a radio station with RDS technology doesnotdecreases the station’s listening area.-----> It can be clearly observed how negating this option clearly cancels the reverse happening. Absolutely correct. No doubt about that.
D. In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not receive any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994.-----> Sorry not an assumption.Eliminate it.
E. The RDS radio stations in Verdland in 1996 did not all offer the same type of programming. ----> We are not concerned about the type of programming.

Answer must be C.


I disagree with C. Answer must be A - This choices ensures that the coverage has not increased. That means though nos of radio stations is increased it did not cover those areas where there was no coverage. For example Let say there are total 1000 radios and in 1994 only 600 were under the coverage. Now they have increased the radio station from 250 -600 but in the area pertaining to 600 radios. They have not installed many radio stations in the area where 400 radios were existing (may be very few in those areas). So the out of 400 lets say 20 or 30 radios are now getting the special program. So now the scenario is stations have increased from 250-600 but transmission only improved from 600 to 620/630. ie not a significant increase. And option A correctly address this issue of non-uniform geographical increase of radio stations.
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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec [#permalink]

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New post 18 Nov 2012, 11:22
milan14kar wrote:
Nicely explained Karishma..
I have a doubt, "Few if any" means "hardly any".


Yes, that's right. "Few if any" means "Very few or none"
What seems to be the problem?
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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec [#permalink]

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New post 07 Dec 2012, 11:57
Dear Karishma ,

I will ask why D is wrong. D clearly states that if the owners have no way to get RDS information without RDS radios, then the conlusion is clear. What if there are other ways to obtain this information. I also choose A ,however I am little confused about that choice.

Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology broadcast special program information that only radios with an RDS feature can receive. Between 1994 and 1996, the number of RDS radio stations in Verdland increased from 250 to 600. However, since the number of RDS-equipped radios in Verdland was about the same in 1996 as in 1994, the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. few if any of the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations.

B. In 1996 most Verdlanders who lived within the listening area of an RDS station already had a radio equipped to receive RDS.

C. Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not decrease the station’s listening area.

D. In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not receive any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994.

E. The RDS radio stations in Verdland in 1996 did not all offer the same type of programming.

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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec [#permalink]

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Dear Karishma ,

I will ask why D is wrong. D clearly states that if the owners have no way to get RDS information without RDS radios, then the conlusion is clear. What if there are other ways to obtain this information. I also choose A ,however I am little confused about that choice.



Gist of what D says: No RDS enabled radio meant no RDS program reception from later radio stations.
Conclusion of the argument: Number of people receiving RDS program did not increase significantly in 1996.

We have to consider whether D is an assumption. An assumption is a necessary missing premise. If the assumption is not true, the conclusion cannot be true. Let's negate the assumption. Then we will whether the conclusion can still hold.

Negated D: Even without RDS enabled radios, people could receive RDS programs from later radio stations.
Can the conclusion still hold true? Sure. If people can receive RDS programs without an RDS radio (e.g. at friends/neighbors etc) from later stations, these people could have received RDS programs in the same way before 1996 too. So number of people receiving RDS programs could have stayed the same. Since the conclusion can still hold even if D is negated, D is not an assumption.
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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec [#permalink]

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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jan 2013, 07:58
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Can we have more discussion on this question?




Hello Marcab,

For sure, but can u shed some light about the discrepancy in the stem :shock: :
the number of RDS radio stations in Verdland increased from 250 to 600 // the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly.
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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec [#permalink]

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IMO,

Conclusion: The number of receivers didn't increase as the radios in 94=radios in 96.

It may be the case that there were some receivers in 94 which were unable to reach RDS ,but they are now able to reach RDS in 96.

This is rephrased in Option (A).
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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec [#permalink]

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Source : GMATPrep

Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology broadcast special program information that only radios with an RDS feature can receive. Between 1994 and 1996, the number of RDS radio stations in Verdland increased from 250 to 600. However, since the number of RDS-equipped radios in Verdland was about the same in 1996 as in 1994, the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. few if any of the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations.

B. In 1996 most Verdlanders who lived within the listening area of an RDS station already had a radio equipped to receive RDS.

C. Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not decrease the station’s listening area.

D. In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not receive any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994.

E. The RDS radio stations in Verdland in 1996 did not all offer the same type of programming.



It says that , the number of RDS radios were the same and number of radio stations increased .. But since num of radio's were the same , there was no SIGNIFICANT increase in number of verlanders receiving the program info. Since there wasnt a SIGNIFICANT increase , the author assumes that there MIGHT be a slight/negligible increase . That's precisely what option A says - "FEW IF ANY of stations began broadcasting it to people in areas that were not previously broadcasted" . "Few if any" would explain why there was only a minimal change in the number of receivers of that station.

Hope that helps
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Can anyone speak more on why D is wrong? How does it make difference between special program and any program?

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Can anyone speak more on why D is wrong? How does it make difference between special program and any program?



In my opinion , it is irrelevant , cos in the whole argument , there is no mention of ANY Program . He only talks about special program that RDS Station broadcasts and RDS Radios receive.
D talks about NON RDS radios , not receiving ANY programs .
But we are asked to figure out why did the num of verlanders (with RDS radios) receiving special program that this RDS station broadcast, not increase significantly . what happens to people with Non-RDS radios regarding ANY program is irrelevant.
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umeshpatil wrote:
Can anyone speak more on why D is wrong? How does it make difference between special program and any program?


The choice "few if any " is equivalent to almost none at all. Given that, it is saying that the radio stations did not broadcast in areas other than the coverage which existed. So, the radio stations did not increase their footprint. The number of RDS radios also was about the same from 94 to 96. This proves the argument..

D reiterates that without RDS radio you cannot receive RDS programs.

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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jul 2013, 15:03
Here is my explanation for why B is not a good option - Option B states "In 1996 Verdlanders who lived within the listening area of an RDS station already had a radio equipped to receive RDS".

This option talks nothing about the passage of time. If the option read 1994 instead of 1996 it could have been a plausible assumption/solution.

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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jul 2013, 02:32
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
piyushagarwal wrote:
I am not at all able to make out what A want to say.. :(


Since this questions seems to have confused people, let's try to break it down.

Radio stations with radio data system (RDS) technology broadcast special program information that only radios with an RDS feature can receive. Between 1994 and 1996, the number of RDS radio stations in Verdland increased from 250 to 600. However, since the number of RDS-equipped radios in Verdland was about the same in 1996 as in 1994, the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly.



None of the other choices qualify as an assumption.


Hi Karishma,

I have a doubt and need clarity...

"the number of Verlanders receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly".

"increase significantly".. Does it mean that the "the number of Verlanders receiving program information were same in 1996 as in 1994" or "there was an increase, but not to the same percentage/level as that of RDS radio stations(250 to 600)".
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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec [#permalink]

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I did this question too at 3 AM and damn it: it was really tough and ackward. I' d expect these sort of question during the exam. nasty

At the end of the day: if the number of radio increased and the receiving programs more or less are the same, then the same programs do not reach the entire number of radios.

This is the gist of the argument. People are stressed out on words such as : few if any (clearly means 1 or zero, in a nutshell) losing focus on what really the argument is.


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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2013, 09:22
(Reference is made to explanation given by Karishma ). Further analysis of option 'A' & 'D'.

'A' can be proved wrong

Total no of RDS radio sets in Verdland= 100.Two counties X & Y in Verdland, where the no of RDS radio sets(no of people owing it) are 20 & 80 respectively. Only County 'X' people receive the RDS Broadcast. If people at 'Y' did not receive the RDS Broadcast earlier but now start receiving the Broadcast signal due to what option 'A' states, the increase in no(by 80) of people receiving RDS program is significant in contradiction to the conclusion.
We simply dont know how many RDS radio sets are available (out of the total in the town) at a place where there was no RDS Broadcast earlier.

Whereas option 'D' cannot be proved wrong. It has to be true even if it sounds too simplistic (Even after discounting any other modifications/ways of receiving RDS Broadcast)

The bottom line is :- No of people receiving the broadcast and not the No of programs received by people. The increase in the No of RDS Radio station broadcasting has no bearing on the no of people receiving the Broadcast, given the above scenario.

Therefore option 'D' seems more plausible.

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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec [#permalink]

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New post 24 Oct 2013, 19:39
Tricky/Wordy answer - If I paraphraed answer choice it might have made more sense such as

(A) Few if any of the No RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland (None of the 350 (600-25) new stations) after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations (no new areas).

Summarize: None of the 350 new stations that began broadcasting after 1994 broadcast to any new areas.

Therefore, if the number of resident with RDS equipment did not change, then the number of residents receiving the special program information probably did not increase significantly.

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Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec [#permalink]

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New post 18 Nov 2013, 08:07
I was slow on this (4 min), but the answer should be A.

1) ID question type: Find the Assumption.
2) Deconstruct the Argument:

- RDS is only received by special RDS radios.
- '94 to '96: RDS stations increase from 250 to 600.
- # of RDS radios in the the country same in '96 as '94.
- Conclusion: # of People in country who receive RDS signals did not increase.

Logic gaps in the argument: Just because someone owns an RDS radio doesn't mean he can receive the signal (maybe he's not in range of a station?). If he was out of range of a station in 1994 with an RDS radio living in the outback wilderness, but all of a sudden in 1996 a new station pops up on a mountain top nearby, then he would be able to listen. So we need to find something that assures us that all RDS owners in '94 had reception and can listen to RDS stations.

3) Remind yourself of the goal: Find the Assumption Question type.

4) Wrong from wrong to right (process of elimination):

a. Few if any of the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994 broadcast to people with RDS-equipped radios living in areas not previously reached by RDS stations.

- Here I'm thinking that this one could be good. It's saying that few NEW stations built after 1994 were built in NEW areas...so that means that RDS coverage remains about the same in the country. It answers our logic gap above. I'll leave this one and analyze my other choices.

b. In 1996 most Verdlanders who lived within the listening area of an RDS station already had a radio equipped to receive RDS.

- This isn't really providing us with any important information to bridge the logic gap. In 1996, people in range can listen. Whoopty-do. Eliminate B.

c. Equipping a radio station with RDS technology does not decrease the station's listening area.

- So range doesn't change when a station has RDS technology. This doesn't matter as we are trying to bullet-proof our argument against whether or not the NEW stations reached NEW listeners. It doesn't deal with the new stations being built. Eliminate C.

d. In 1996 Verlanders who did not own radios equipped to receive RDS could not receive any programming from the RDS radio stations that began broadcasting in Verdland after 1994.

- Is this really telling us anything new? We already know that people without special RDS radios can't receive RDS signals. Eliminate D.

e. The RDS radio stations in Verdland in 1996 did not all offer the same type of programming.
- Irrelevant. Who cares what they broadcast? It has nothing to do with reaching new listeners. Eliminate E.

Kudos [?]: 20 [0], given: 15

Re: Radio Stations with radio data system (RDS) technolodgy broadcast spec   [#permalink] 18 Nov 2013, 08:07

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