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# A recent study has found that within the past few years,

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Senior Manager
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07 Jul 2009, 14:54
First thing is the verb “have elected.” The un-underlined portion which says “rising costs” suggests that costs are currently rising, so “have elected” is better than “had elected.” A & B are out.

D is out b/c the structure is not parallel. “to retire … facing.” It should be “to retire … face”

That leaves C and E. After reading both possibilities, I will go with E, as I think the idiom is “elect to…”

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07 Jul 2009, 15:10
Also note that in my analysis, the "rather than" vs. "instead of" issue didn't even come up. I don't even know if it sounds better to use one or the other. They both seem like they could be used here.
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08 Jul 2009, 06:38
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WhyabloodyMBA wrote:
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.
(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

how do v decide upon usage of 'rather than' and 'instead of'..?

you use 'rather than' to compare clauses and 'instead of' to compare 'nouns/noun phrases'.

But also remember you can use 'rather than' to emphasize priority over something.

in this question to maintain parallelism with 'retire' you have to have 'face' verb. so obviously you go for 'rather than'.

Hope that helps.

Last edited by ugimba on 09 Jul 2009, 06:00, edited 1 time in total.
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08 Jul 2009, 08:27
ugimba wrote:
WhyabloodyMBA wrote:
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.
(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

how do v decide upon usage of 'rather than' and 'instead of'..?

you use 'rather than' to compare classes and 'instead of' to compare 'nouns/noun phrases'.

But also remember you can use 'rather than' to emphasize priority over something.

in this question to maintain parallelism with 'retire' you have to have 'face' verb. so obviously you go for 'rather than'.

Hope that helps.

if u keep parallelism, then option C also holds, nothin wrong in that then... nd then its betwn..C & E, 'instead of' & 'rather than'...??
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08 Jul 2009, 09:25
WhyabloodyMBA wrote:
ugimba wrote:
WhyabloodyMBA wrote:
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.
(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

how do v decide upon usage of 'rather than' and 'instead of'..?

you use 'rather than' to compare classes and 'instead of' to compare 'nouns/noun phrases'.

But also remember you can use 'rather than' to emphasize priority over something.

in this question to maintain parallelism with 'retire' you have to have 'face' verb. so obviously you go for 'rather than'.

Hope that helps.

if u keep parallelism, then option C also holds, nothin wrong in that then... nd then its betwn..C & E, 'instead of' & 'rather than'...??

yes you are right, but 'have elected retiring' is not idiomatic. 'have elected to retire' is better
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09 Jul 2009, 01:45
WhyabloodyMBA wrote:
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.
(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

how do v decide upon usage of 'rather than' and 'instead of'..?

In simple words
instead of --> used in cases of substituion
rather than--->used when you want to show preference
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09 Jul 2009, 04:22
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rather than shows a judgment. One choice is preferred over the other. It is better somehow.
instead of merely expresses a replacement of one thing for another.

I would rather have ice cream than apple pie because I like ice cream better.
But if there weren't very much ice cream left, and I wanted to save some for tomorrow, I might have apple pie instead of ice cream tonight.
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10 Jul 2009, 00:15
topher wrote:
First thing is the verb “have elected.” The un-underlined portion which says “rising costs” suggests that costs are currently rising, so “have elected” is better than “had elected.” A & B are out.

D is out b/c the structure is not parallel. “to retire … facing.” It should be “to retire … face”

That leaves C and E. After reading both possibilities, I will go with E, as I think the idiom is “elect to…”

About parallelism, can u tell me why 'rising' can't be to rise

thanks
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04 Sep 2009, 04:36
GUys between C and E i chose C..not choosing E because of the hidden "to".
In "C" retiring and facing are parallel so why is it wrong??
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04 Sep 2009, 11:05
Hi pals, I am not gmat master yet, but I agree with tejal777

here is the idea

A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.
Bold words should be || (parallel to)

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face (past perfect? what for? retirement not || face)
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing (all three ||)
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing (to retire not || facing)
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face (to retire, face not || rising)

do you agree?
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04 Sep 2009, 14:35
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No, I don't agree. C uses "retiring" incorrectly. While the words with -ing are parallel, the sentence still has incorrect grammar. Remember on the GMAT that more often than not, use an infinite "to [plus verb]"

Ayrish wrote:
Hi pals, I am not gmat master yet, but I agree with tejal777

here is the idea

A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.
Bold words should be || (parallel to)

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face (past perfect? what for? retirement not || face)
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing (all three ||)
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing (to retire not || facing)
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face (to retire, face not || rising)

do you agree?

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**I'm pretty sure I'm right, but then again, I'm just a guy with his head up his a$$. GMAT Club Premium Membership - big benefits and savings Manager Joined: 07 Jul 2009 Posts: 230 Followers: 3 Kudos [?]: 88 [1] , given: 13 Re: SC [#permalink] ### Show Tags 04 Sep 2009, 15:23 1 This post received KUDOS Ayrish wrote: Hi pals, I am not gmat master yet, but I agree with tejal777 here is the idea A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance. Bold words should be || (parallel to) (A) had elected early retirement rather than face (past perfect? what for? retirement not || face) (B) had elected early retirement instead of facing (like a) (C) have elected retiring early instead of facing (all three ||) (D) have elected to retire early rather than facing (to retire not || facing) (E) have elected to retire early rather than face (to retire, face not || rising) do you agree? rising is not parallel to retiring and facing. Elected to .....rather than .... face is way better than elected retiring early instead of facing... rather than is preferred over instead of In this sentence infinitive is better than ing. Director Joined: 25 Oct 2008 Posts: 607 Location: Kolkata,India Followers: 11 Kudos [?]: 697 [0], given: 100 Re: SC [#permalink] ### Show Tags 04 Sep 2009, 19:01 So guys just to clarify.. C has nothihg wrong with it and neither has E but since we prefer the infinitive form in the GMAT we'll go with E?? Is that what you guys are saying?? How does C have incoorect grammar jallenmorris? _________________ http://gmatclub.com/forum/countdown-beginshas-ended-85483-40.html#p649902 SVP Joined: 30 Apr 2008 Posts: 1888 Location: Oklahoma City Schools: Hard Knocks Followers: 40 Kudos [?]: 549 [2] , given: 32 Re: SC [#permalink] ### Show Tags 04 Sep 2009, 19:17 2 This post received KUDOS No, I'm saying there is something wrong with C. If it were correct, the words ending in -ing are parallel. There are different parts of speech: infinitives and gerunds. When you're talking about an action and not a noun, then you need the infinitive. Examples: 1) He prefers to go to the movies rather than to go ice skating. 2) He prefers skiing over sleding. #2 is uses a noun form of the actions. I don't think #2 is wrong, but it would be better to say "He prefers to go skiing instead of sleding." tejal777 wrote: So guys just to clarify.. C has nothihg wrong with it and neither has E but since we prefer the infinitive form in the GMAT we'll go with E?? Is that what you guys are saying?? How does C have incoorect grammar jallenmorris? _________________ ------------------------------------ J Allen Morris **I'm pretty sure I'm right, but then again, I'm just a guy with his head up his a$$.

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04 Sep 2009, 23:42
2
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asthanap wrote:
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

I could reach to final two: D & E. Not able to find out which one is correct and why.

Can someone please throw some light?

1. Whenever you have a choice between "instead of" and "rather than" in gmat, select "rather than". That rules out B and C.
2. A is out for wrong tense "had ....." for a recent activity...
3. D is out for not being parallel "retire ... and facing....".

So E remains...
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07 Sep 2009, 09:39
HI everyone,
I have got viewpoints and agree on 100%.

esp. thanx to GMAT TIGER for the new for me rather than/instead of rool. I see it first time.
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07 Sep 2009, 09:54
a point :rather than is used to show preference of one over another...
eg...
i enjoy playing tennis rather than football...
i was playing games instead of studying,,(Here its not preference but activities)
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07 Sep 2009, 10:14
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.
(A) had elected early retirement rather than face-- use of past perfect is wrong

(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing -- 'instead of' can only be used as a preposition --- say can be used to show relationship between two nouns

(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing-- use of rather than correct but not parallel

(E) have elected to retire early rather than face-- correct...'to face' elypsis
IMO E
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07 Sep 2009, 17:53
Thanks jallenmorris and GT..U guys are the best KUDOS!!
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17 Oct 2009, 23:02
A recent study has found that within the past few years, many doctors had elected early retirement rather than face the threats of lawsuits and the rising costs of malpractice insurance.

(A) had elected early retirement rather than face
(C) have elected retiring early instead of facing
(D) have elected to retire early rather than facing
(E) have elected to retire early rather than face

In the above question, can the use of 'had' in A and B be ruled out because of subject verb agreement? If yes, then what is the plural form of had?

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