It is an historical fact that only in conditions of profound : GMAT Critical Reasoning (CR)
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# It is an historical fact that only in conditions of profound

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Manager
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It is an historical fact that only in conditions of profound [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2011, 18:34
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It is an historical fact that only in conditions of profound societal instability are great works of literature produced. During the first century B.C., Rome experienced almost constant civil war accompanied by social upheaval. It wasn't until the ascension of Nerva to the throne in 96 A.D. that the situation stabilized. Throughout the second century A.D., Rome experienced a century of uninterrupted peace and stability.

If all of the statements in the passage are true, then which of the following must also be true?

a. During the first century B.C., great works of literature were produced in Rome.
b. Roman art of the first century B.C. was superior to Roman art of the second century A.D.
c. During the second century A.D., no great works of literature were produced in Rome.
d. Historically, great works of literature can stir emotions that find their expression in political action.
e. The first century A.D. was a time of decreased literary production in Rome.
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Re: CR 700 level Rome [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2011, 21:04
This is a fantastic assumption question that looks very easy on the surface....

Choice C is correct -- it's the only "logical certainty" among the choices!

1) Great works only during strife
2) 2nd century = peace
3) Therefore -- No great works during the 2nd century
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Re: CR 700 level Rome [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2011, 21:23
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a. During the first century B.C., great works of literature were produced in Rome. Not really "MUST" be true - the argument says that great works are produced ONLY in times of instability. But it does NOT say that in ALL times of instability great works are produced.
b. Roman art of the first century B.C. was superior to Roman art of the second century A.D. : Why generalise to art in the first place? literature is the only art being talked of here. secondly, we dont know whether any works of art were produced in the 1st or the second century!
c. During the second century A.D., no great works of literature were produced in Rome. If only in instability can great works be produced, and second century didnt have instability - then it didnt have the absolutely indispensable ingredient (instability) and hence no works must have got produced - how could they without instability?
d. Historically, great works of literature can stir emotions that find their expression in political action. Well that could be one of the many possible reasons of the correlation betwenn great works and instability - an interesting aside, but not a must be true option!
e. The first century A.D. was a time of decreased literary production in Rome.We dont know that, we cant even comment with certainty about great works (though it seems there should have been some!)..to talk of literary production overall is entirely out of scope of this argument!
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Re: CR 700 level Rome [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2011, 23:26
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Re: CR 700 level Rome [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2011, 01:02
Not sure! I will go with A. What is the OA?
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Re: CR 700 level Rome [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2011, 02:03
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profound societal instability is the necessary condition for great works of literature.
a)first century B.C. satisfies the condition hence IMO A.
b) we do not know anything about comparative superiority.
We do not know anything about when "no great works of literature were produced" (C)
and "decreased literary production in Rome" (E). What we know is just when great works can be produced and not when they cannot be produced.
D is irrelevant
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Re: CR 700 level Rome [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2011, 02:29
what is OA?
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15 Jul 2011, 12:17
IMO A.

A is direct and C is indirect.
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Re: CR 700 level Rome [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2011, 12:27
a. During the first century B.C., great works of literature were produced in Rome.
If great work get produced in times of stability, doesn't mean in all the times of instability. So NO to this.

b. Roman art of the first century B.C. was superior to Roman art of the second century A.D.
This look correct to me.

c. During the second century A.D., no great works of literature were produced in Rome.
absolutely NO.
d. Historically, great works of literature can stir emotions that find their expression in political action.
looks good. but nothing to support that in the argument.
e. The first century A.D. was a time of decreased literary production in Rome.
Well art,although not great, could still be produced at the same rate
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Re: CR 700 level Rome [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2011, 16:24
pankgarg - how can you compare the art from the two eras when there is no information given regard the quality of artwork?

Why do you say C is absolutely no? If only in conditions of profound societal instability are great works of literature produced, how can great artwork be produced in a period of uninterrupted peace and stability.
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Re: CR 700 level Rome [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2011, 18:05
I will go with C. Using conditional reasoning

Premise 1 : Great work of literature --> ~Stability(Great work of literature are not produced unless there is instability). Contrapositive of this is

Stability --> ~ Great work of literature ( If there is stability, great work of literature are not produced)
Premise 2 : 2nd Century AD was period of stability.

Hence it follows that Great work of literature were not produced.

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Re: CR 700 level Rome [#permalink]

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16 Jul 2011, 13:27
IMO the correct answer should be C.

Explanation:

If all of the statements in the passage are true, then which of the following must also be true?

a. During the first century B.C., great works of literature were produced in Rome.[Incorrect]
No where in the question stem has it been mentioned that during all unstable times great work in literature has to be produced. The fact is that great works are produced during unstable times but doesn't have to happen compulsarily.Hence, can't be assumed.

b. Roman art of the first century B.C. was superior to Roman art of the second century A.D.[Incorrect]
Nowhere is the comparison of arts mentioned. Don't assume and don't draw interpretations.

c. During the second century A.D., no great works of literature were produced in Rome.
A ==> B ==> C hence A==>C....quite clear

d. Historically, great works of literature can stir emotions that find their expression in political action. [Incorrect]
Again interpretations are drawn and new entity is being discussed 'politics'

e. The first century A.D. was a time of decreased literary production in Rome.[Incorrect]
This negates the fact. Hence, this is not logically correct anyways.
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Re: CR 700 level Rome [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2011, 11:09
IMO C

Instability is a prerequisite to produce great work, but that doesn't mean that great art was indeed produced
in 1stcentury BC
Whereas in 2nd century BC, there was no period of instability so we can certainly conclude no great works of art were produced
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Re: CR 700 level Rome [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2011, 12:43
bschool83 wrote:
pankgarg - how can you compare the art from the two eras when there is no information given regard the quality of artwork?

Why do you say C is absolutely no? If only in conditions of profound societal instability are great works of literature produced, how can great artwork be produced in a period of uninterrupted peace and stability.

I stand corrected here. I think i missed the "only" in the original CR. so C should be correct.
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17 Jul 2011, 12:44
@bschool83 ..can you please post the OA
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Re: CR 700 level Rome [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2011, 13:04
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bschool83 wrote:
It is an historical fact that only in conditions of profound societal instability are great works of literature produced. During the first century B.C., Rome experienced almost constant civil war accompanied by social upheaval. It wasn't until the ascension of Nerva to the throne in 96 A.D. that the situation stabilized. Throughout the second century A.D., Rome experienced a century of uninterrupted peace and stability.

If all of the statements in the passage are true, then which of the following must also be true?

a. During the first century B.C., great works of literature were produced in Rome.
b. Roman art of the first century B.C. was superior to Roman art of the second century A.D.
c. During the second century A.D., no great works of literature were produced in Rome.
d. Historically, great works of literature can stir emotions that find their expression in political action.
e. The first century A.D. was a time of decreased literary production in Rome.

"Only in great instability are great works of literature produced."

If there is a great work of Lit, it must have been produced during extreme instability.

Reverse may not be true;
If there is great instability, then great works must be created.

If Rome experienced profound instability during all odd centuries, 1st century, 3rd century, 5th, 7th, 9th...
And it was prosperous and stable during even centuries: 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th...

There are two 2 great epics/works. These two epics must have been produced during odd centuries. Maybe 5th and 7th. But, there is no guarantee that whenever there was instability, great artwork was created, OR we'd have had at least 10 works till date.

Also when it is said that the great artwork is created ONLY during bad periods, it is equivalent to saying great artwork is NEVER created during good periods. And we know 2nd century was a period of stability for Rome.

Ans: "C"
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Re: CR 700 level Rome [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2011, 14:24
very good question..
i went with A but from the explanations its quite clear the answer is C
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Re: CR 700 level Rome [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2011, 16:51
Let me try and summarize this:
Option A: A leads to B
Option B: Not B leads to Not A.
Question asks for Which must also be true.

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Re: CR 700 level Rome [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2011, 18:41
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C is correct

Last edited by bschool83 on 26 Jul 2011, 12:41, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: CR 700 level Rome [#permalink]

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20 Jul 2011, 02:45
i think the answer has to be C. Read the word 'only' very carefully.
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Re: CR 700 level Rome   [#permalink] 20 Jul 2011, 02:45

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