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First thing to note is Neandethals is a common subject of compound statement separated by and.
A. those is plural which is referring to singular antecedent vocal tract. B. Subject Neandethals remains common to both part of compound statement. OA C, D, and E has vocal tracts as subject of 2nd part of compound statement (i.e and so were probably without language) which is incorrect. Also, C, D and E uses plural vocal tracts when singular is needed.
My dad once said to me: Son, nothing succeeds like success.
Ok you can rule out all but b based on used of the word resembled. The vocal tracts stil resembles that of an ape hence resembled is incorrect. just another point of view , I also agree with the comments above. Excellent observation for noting subject change in the other explanations.
Excellent discussion on the post thus far. Pronoun replacement is a nice tool for solving problems like this. You just replace the pronoun - in this case the very commonly tested "they" - with the antecedant to see if the result is logical.
...explain why the vocal tracts were supplanted by our own species - illogical. ...explain why the Neanterthals were supplanted by our own species - logical.
You may want to use pronoun replacement whenever you see shifts in the subject (notice they are both plural so it's not a subject/verb question) with a commonly tested pronoun (it, its, they, them, their).