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Neanderthals had a vocal tract that resembled those of the apes and so

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Neanderthals had a vocal tract that resembled those of the apes and so  [#permalink]

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Neanderthals had a vocal tract that resembled those of the apes and so were probably without language, a shortcoming that may explain why they were supplanted by our own species.

(A) Neanderthals had a vocal tract that resembled those of the apes
(B) Neanderthals had a vocal tract resembling an ape’s
(C) The vocal tracts of Neanderthals resembled an ape’s
(D) The Neanderthal’s vocal tracts resembled the apes’
(E) The vocal tracts of the Neanderthals resembled those of the apes

Originally posted by reply2spg on 09 Feb 2009, 20:17.
Last edited by hazelnut on 02 Sep 2017, 08:24, edited 4 times in total.
Reformatted the question.
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Re: Neanderthals had a vocal tract that resembled those of the apes and so  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Sep 2013, 03:32
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reply2spg wrote:
Neanderthals had a vocal tract that resembled those of the apes and so were probably without language, a shortcoming that may explain why they were supplanted by our own species.
(A) Neanderthals had a vocal tract that resembled those of the apes
(B) Neanderthals had a vocal tract resembling an ape’s
(C) The vocal tracts of Neanderthals resembled an ape’s
(D) The Neanderthal’s vocal tracts resembled the apes’
(E) The vocal tracts of the Neanderthals resembled those of the apes


Answer = B

Two Independent clauses connected by co-ordinating conjunction ('AND' in this case) should have a parallel structure.

Clause 1 :- Neanderthals had a vocal tract that resembled those of apes ------> Subject - InTransitive Verb - Predicate
Clause 2 :- so were probably without language --------> Subject - InTransitive Verb - Predicate

The logical antecedent of 'So', which is the Subject of second clause, is 'Neanderthals'. Hence 'Neanderthals' should be a subject of the First clause.

Only Choice A and B have their subject as 'The Neanderthal'. So C, D, E are out.

In Choice A has the Pronoun Agreement Error. 'Those of Apes'(plural) can not refer to the 'Vocal Tract of Neanderthals'(Singular)

Choice B Wins.
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Re: Neanderthals had a vocal tract that resembled those of the apes and so  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Feb 2009, 20:41
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reply2spg wrote:
Neanderthals had a vocal tract that resembled those of the apes and so were probably without language, a shortcoming that may explain why they were supplanted by our own species.

(A) Neanderthals had a vocal tract that resembled those of the apes
(B) Neanderthals had a vocal tract resembling an ape’s
(C) The vocal tracts of Neanderthals resembled an ape’s
(D) The Neanderthal’s vocal tracts resembled the apes’
(E) The vocal tracts of the Neanderthals resembled those of the apes

Can someone explain this one?


C,D,E out.. vocal tracts.. were probably without language.. --> completely wrong.. Neanderthals were without language is correct.

A -- we are comparing vocal tract with "those" (vocal tracts) of apes.. Wrong comparision.

B is perfect.

Neanderthals had a vocal tract resembling an ape’s [vocal tract] ...
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Re: Neanderthals had a vocal tract that resembled those of the apes and so  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Feb 2009, 06:23
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Should it not be Neanderthals had vocal tracts (plural)?

by having plural 'vocal tracts', we are decribing the inherent nature of the vocal tracts (of the Neanderthals) in general, which I think what the sentence is all about.

From the OA, Neanderthals had a vocal tract... seems to refer to a single vocal tract 'shared' by all Neanderthals which I find illogical.

Correct me if I am wrong, but my thinking is that the vocal tracts(plural) of Neanderthals should be compared to the apes' vocal tracts (plural).

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Re: Neanderthals had a vocal tract that resembled those of the apes and so  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Sep 2009, 06:08
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Neanderthals had a vocal tract that resembled those of the apes and so were probably without language, a shortcoming that may explain why they were supplanted by our own species.
IN THIS QUESTION,WE NEED TO LOOK AT THE CLUES PROVIDED BY THE LATER PART OF THE SENTENCE.CONCENTARTE ON THE PARTS "AND SO WERE" AND "WHY THEY WERE"..WHAT DO THESE PLURAL FORM SUGGEST;THAT THERE HAS TO BE A VERY CEAR PLURAL SUBJECT PRESENT IN THE EARLIER HALF OF THE SENTENCE..AND ALSO THAT THESE SUBJECTS SHOULD BE CERTAIN LIVING BEINGS WHO POSSESED THESE CHARACTERISTICS.LETS LOOK AT THE OPTIONS
(A) Neanderthals had a vocal tract that resembled those of the apes
YES,THIS SENTENCE HAS SUBJECTS BUT 2 OF THEM NEANDERHALS/APES..WHICH ONES
IS THE LATER HALF REFERRING TO? A LITTLE CONFUSION..RIGHT!!! SUSPECT..LETS SEE OTHERS

(B) Neanderthals had a vocal tract resembling an ape’s
NEANDERTHALS ARE A CLEAR SUBJECT
APE'S (VOAL TRACTS) CANNOT BE A SUBJECT SINCE WE HAVE DECIDED EALRLIER THAT IT HAS TO BE A LIVING ENTITY ..SO IS BETTER THAN A...ELIMINATE A AND KEEP THIS
(C) The vocal tracts of Neanderthals resembled an ape’s
VOCAL TRACTS OF NEANDRTHALS IS THE SUBJECT.FIRST THIS IS SINGULAR AND SECOND
THIS IS NOT OUR APPROPRAITE CHOICE OF SUBJECT....THROW THIS OUT
(D) The Neanderthal’s vocal tracts resembled the apes’
BY NOW IM SURE WE CAN MAKE OUT THAT THIS ALSO LACKS A SUITABLE SUBJECT
(E) The vocal tracts of the Neanderthals resembled those of the apes
SAME AS ABOVE

HENCE B IS THE CREDITED OPTION.HOPE THAT HELPED
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Re: Neanderthals had a vocal tract that resembled those of the apes and so  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Sep 2009, 07:04
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tejal777 wrote:
This is a an important question and has not been discussed adequately.Keep getting it wrong..
I had straight away eliminated B,C,D because of "resembling an ape's.." resembling an ape's what?!which body part?hand,leg?!

The comparision is between the vocal tract of Neanderthals with the vocal tracts of ape's..
Please discuss



some possible comparisons:

- Netherlands' vocal tract <==> Apes' vocal tract
- vocal tract of Netherlands <==> vocal tract of Apes
- vocal tract of Netherlands <==> Apes' vocal tract.


Third one is used in case of B.

In cases of comparisons:

Unlike X of A, B's (X) is/are ... (here, X is implicit and is not necessary in the sentence)

HTH.
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Re: Neanderthals had a vocal tract that resembled those of the apes and so  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jan 2011, 05:25
1
(B)

(A) Neanderthals had a vocal tract that resembled those of the apes
(B) Neanderthals had a vocal tract resembling an ape’s
(C) The vocal tracts of Neanderthals resembled an ape’s
(D) The Neanderthal’s vocal tracts resembled the apes’
(E) The vocal tracts of the Neanderthals resembled those of the apes
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Vocal tract  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Apr 2011, 09:43
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I know the answer, give me the explanation!! :-D
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Re: Vocal tract  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Apr 2011, 14:42
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First thing to note is Neandethals is a common subject of compound statement separated by and.

A. those is plural which is referring to singular antecedent vocal tract.
B. Subject Neandethals remains common to both part of compound statement. OA
C, D, and E has vocal tracts as subject of 2nd part of compound statement (i.e and so were probably without language) which is incorrect.
Also, C, D and E uses plural vocal tracts when singular is needed.
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Re: Vocal tract  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Aug 2012, 11:46
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Excellent discussion on the post thus far. Pronoun replacement is a nice tool for solving problems like this. You just replace the pronoun - in this case the very commonly tested "they" - with the antecedant to see if the result is logical.

...explain why the vocal tracts were supplanted by our own species - illogical.
...explain why the Neanterthals were supplanted by our own species - logical.

You may want to use pronoun replacement whenever you see shifts in the subject (notice they are both plural so it's not a subject/verb question) with a commonly tested pronoun (it, its, they, them, their).

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Re: Neanderthals had a vocal tract that resembled those of the apes and so  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jan 2013, 06:16
Neanderthals had a vocal tract that resembled those of the apes and so were probably without language, a shortcoming that may explain why they were supplanted by our own species.
(A) Neanderthals had a vocal tract that resembled those of the apes - should be THAT
(B) Neanderthals had a vocal tract resembling an ape’s - It means that vocal tract is similar to Ape in appearance
(C) The vocal tracts of Neanderthals resembled an ape’s - It means that vocal tract is similar to Ape in appearance
(D) The Neanderthal’s vocal tracts resembled the apes’ - It means that vocal tract is similar to Ape in appearance
(E) The vocal tracts of the Neanderthals resembled those of the apes - CORRECT


Thus the answer has to be E

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Re: Neanderthals had a vocal tract that resembled those of the apes and so  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Dec 2014, 06:59
Interesting.

Neanderthals had a vocal tract that resembled those of the apes and so were probably without language

In the 2nd part of the sentence (so were) .. what does that refer to then. That should refer to Neanderthals so subject should be neanderthals.... Thats what my confusion is...

I still think that the subject is Neanderthals..not the vocal tract.. Correct me please if i am wrong...
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Re: Neanderthals had a vocal tract that resembled those of the apes and so  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Dec 2014, 08:06
govind440 wrote:
In the 2nd part of the sentence (so were) .. what does that refer to then. That should refer to Neanderthals so subject should be neanderthals....

Hi Govind, I am assuming you mean to ask what does that refer to in this part:

a shortcoming that may explain why they were supplanted by our own species.

that actually refers to a shortcoming.

The structure a shortcoming that may explain why they were supplanted by our own species is actually called an absolute modifier and is in fact quite frequently tested on GMAT (though it is not explicitly tested in this question, since the entire absolute modifier is in the non-underlined portion).

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses Absolute modifiers, their application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id, I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: Vocal tract  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Sep 2015, 23:51
Hi KyleWiddison

Multiple doubts

1) As far as I understood, sentence transition over here went in this way: "Neanderthals [past perfect] and [simple past], so were....[simple past]". Is my understanding correct? Can conjunction join two D/Cs in which one is past perfect and other is in simple past.

2) Do these are the two list items that and connects over here
Neanderthals has a vocal tract
a) resembling an ape's
b) so were without language

Isn't "Neanderthals has a vocal tract so were without language" sound awkward


KyleWiddison wrote:
Excellent discussion on the post thus far. Pronoun replacement is a nice tool for solving problems like this. You just replace the pronoun - in this case the very commonly tested "they" - with the antecedant to see if the result is logical.

...explain why the vocal tracts were supplanted by our own species - illogical.
...explain why the Neanterthals were supplanted by our own species - logical.

You may want to use pronoun replacement whenever you see shifts in the subject (notice they are both plural so it's not a subject/verb question) with a commonly tested pronoun (it, its, they, them, their).

KW

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Re: Vocal tract  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Sep 2015, 05:49
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Great questions here - I can see where the confusion comes in. This structure is a bit different than just "and" connecting clauses...you really have to look at the conjunction as "and so".

You are connecting these two clauses:
1)Neanderthals had a vocal tract resembling an ape's
and so
2 [Neanderthals] were probably without language...

Using "and so" make a special connection here because the "so" makes the 2nd clause the result of the first. That causal connection is what makes the past perfect legitimate in the first clause (poor vocal tract) because it had to come first and so the simple past is the result (no language).

KW

(notice the not coincidental use of "and so" in my explanation :) )
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Re: Vocal tract  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Sep 2015, 06:11
Hi KyleWiddison,

Thanks for the reply. A very nice point.

Now that I have studied for the GMAT little more, I am confused whether usage of "had" actually makes this clause past perfect. As I studied in some other forum (though that source might not be that reliable) is "Simple trick I use to differentiate (whether HAD is used as past perfect) is: If HAD is followed by a verb or been, then I conclude that Past Perfect is being used.
If HAD is followed by a noun/pronoun, then I conclude that Simple Past is being used."

Source: http://crackverbal.com/forum/threads/Ad ... hbnk2.dpuf

Can you please throw some thoughts on that.

Thanks
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Re: Vocal tract  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Sep 2015, 20:47
rohitmanglik wrote:
Hi KyleWiddison,

Thanks for the reply. A very nice point.

Now that I have studied for the GMAT little more, I am confused whether usage of "had" actually makes this clause past perfect. As I studied in some other forum (though that source might not be that reliable) is "Simple trick I use to differentiate (whether HAD is used as past perfect) is: If HAD is followed by a verb or been, then I conclude that Past Perfect is being used.
If HAD is followed by a noun/pronoun, then I conclude that Simple Past is being used."

What I use is that if "had" is used in the sense of "possession", then it is simple past. Here, Neandethals possessed a vocal tract and so, it should be simple past.
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Re: Vocal tract  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2015, 05:43
Very nice catch on the "had". In looking at the conjunction I didn't inspect the verb at all. This indeed is the possessive use of "have" in the simple past form. Interestingly as a side note, to make the past perfect of "have" you use the somewhat awkward "had had": I had had all I could stand of the unending rain when mercifully the sun came out.

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Re: Vocal tract  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2015, 02:16
C / D / E are our right away because of "they" in the underlined portion

A is out because of "apes," which can refer to "they" in the underlined portion

Look at B.. very sharp use of singular noun "vocal tract" as not to refer to "they" and use of possessive "ape's" as not to refer to pronoun "they"

One of the most beautiful questions I have ever seen.

I keep in mind that the correct answer choice in GMAT is the one that is air tight. Every pronoun has a clear referent. The moment you think twice the antecedent of the pronoun in the answer choice is the exact moment you should have doubts about it.

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Re: Vocal tract  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2015, 06:48
Now that I studied little more, I came to right answer in an easier way. Here goes my line of reasoning:

"so were probably without language": we need a subject over here.
In options we have only 2 choices: Vocal Tracts and Neanderthals.

Vocal Tracts can't be without language so subject must be Neanderthals. In C,D, and E subject is Vocal Tracts. So out.

A has plural number of issues
1) Those should be that
2) that is referring to vocal tracts. Makes sense.
Verbed (resembled) also refers to preceding noun. So usage of that is unnecessary.


This leaves us with option B. :)

rohitmanglik wrote:
Hi KyleWiddison,

Thanks for the reply. A very nice point.

Now that I have studied for the GMAT little more, I am confused whether usage of "had" actually makes this clause past perfect. As I studied in some other forum (though that source might not be that reliable) is "Simple trick I use to differentiate (whether HAD is used as past perfect) is: If HAD is followed by a verb or been, then I conclude that Past Perfect is being used.
If HAD is followed by a noun/pronoun, then I conclude that Simple Past is being used."

Source: http://crackverbal.com/forum/threads/Ad ... hbnk2.dpuf

Can you please throw some thoughts on that.

Thanks

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Re: Vocal tract &nbs [#permalink] 15 Oct 2015, 06:48

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