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Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be

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Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be [#permalink] New post 04 Aug 2011, 17:14
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A
B
C
D
E

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95% (01:26) correct 5% (00:32) wrong based on 746 sessions
Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be lethal levels of body heat because they have a heat-exchange network which kept the brain from getting too hot.
a) which kept
b) that keeps
c) which has kept
d) that has been keeping
e) having kept
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by PiyushK on 10 Jul 2014, 14:33, edited 1 time in total.
Underlined the question.
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Re: Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be [#permalink] New post 04 Aug 2011, 18:16
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tracyyahoo wrote:
10. Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be lethal levels of body heat because they have a heat-exchange network which kept the brain from getting too hot.
a) which kept
b) that keeps
c) which has kept
d) that has been keeping
e) having kept

why c is not correct. I think C is more acceptable.


Hi Tracyyahoo,

Try to avoid use of Perfect tense unless we don't have any other option as correct answer.
For sake of understanding,
We use present perfect tense for two purpose
1. To show that any action is continuous from past and still in active status or if action is over at least its effect is there.
2. To show the sequence of events.
Here whatever is coming after "heat-exchange network" is describing/modifying only "heat-exchange network ". Now if we will use perfect tense then the sentence will be like below.
heat-exchange network which has kept the brain from getting too hot.
So here we don't have sequence of events, no action which should have completed till now or any effect" so use is wrong.

Anyway for regular thing we use simple tense, that is option B.

KISS = "Keep it simple Sir"


I hope my explanation helped, If indeed please give me kudos.
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Re: Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be [#permalink] New post 04 Aug 2011, 18:17
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Re: Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be [#permalink] New post 11 Jul 2012, 06:52
Can someone please explain what is wrong with (C) and D?
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Re: Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be [#permalink] New post 11 Jul 2012, 07:06
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A fundamental rule of grammar is that for eternal things, universal things, and for day-to-day activities, we must use simple present tense. Carnivores enduring heat is a universal, timeless affair that happened yesterday, happens today, and will happen tomorrow. Therefore, the simple present - that keeps - is the right tense. C and D use very wrong tenses each present perfect and present perfect progressive. Therefore, they are not to be considered
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Re: Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be [#permalink] New post 11 Jul 2012, 16:33
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A few things to watch out for:

Which vs. That

The sentence is describing a special 'heat-exchange network' not all 'heat-exchange networks.' In the latter case, we would use 'which.' A heat-exchange network, which is found in both nature and computing, has many practical advantages. However, in this sentence we are not describing all 'heat-exchange networks' only the one relating to carnivorous animals. Thus, we use 'that.'

Another tip off: there is no comma between 'which' and the noun it is modifying. Used in this manner 'which' must always be separated from the subject it is modifying by a comma. 'That', on other hand, does not take a comma.

Present Tense vs. Perfect Tense

The present tense is used to describe an unchanging characteristic of something:

1) Running several miles each day burns many calories vs. Running several miles each day is burning many calories.

2) The sloth is a mammal known to move with more deliberation than the most circumspect of snails vs. The sloth has been a mammal known to move with more deliberation than the most circumspect of snails.


Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be lethal levels of body heat because they have a heat-exchange network which kept the brain from getting too hot.
a) which kept
b) that keeps
c) which has kept
d) that has been keeping
e) having kept

Hope that helps :)
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Re: Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be [#permalink] New post 14 Sep 2012, 05:35
@ ChrisLele: please explain the which vs that point again. I remember something about using "that" for a restrictive clause and "which" for everything else. So "that" should be used for referring to something specific and removing the part of the sentence following "that" will change its meaning. However, "which" is used for an unrestrictive clause and can refer to anything in general and removing the phrase following "which" wont change the meaning. In a sense, "Which" is used to state qualities or qualifiers.
eg. Trips that take longer than 2 hours are discouraged by the office. Vs. Trips, which can take as long as ten hours, are discouraged by the office. Is this correct?
vs
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Re: Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be [#permalink] New post 16 Sep 2012, 10:00
iindi wrote:
@ ChrisLele: please explain the which vs that point again. I remember something about using "that" for a restrictive clause and "which" for everything else. So "that" should be used for referring to something specific and removing the part of the sentence following "that" will change its meaning. However, "which" is used for an unrestrictive clause and can refer to anything in general and removing the phrase following "which" wont change the meaning. In a sense, "Which" is used to state qualities or qualifiers.
eg. Trips that take longer than 2 hours are discouraged by the office. Vs. Trips, which can take as long as ten hours, are discouraged by the office. Is this correct?
vs


To my understanding, The basic difference b/w usage of "Which and that" is ,
Which is used with non essential Modifiers, for instance, This Car, which is painted red, is mine,

where as

That is used with a essential modifiers, for instance, The car that is painted red is mine.

Here in the question usage of That is justifiable based on the above mention rule.

Thanks :-D
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Re: Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be [#permalink] New post 17 Jul 2013, 04:03
GMAT Tips:
1.Almost always comma is placed before "which". if not then almost it is incorrect.
2.Comma is placed before "which" because which introduces non-restrictive clause..in laymen language---> after "which" extra information follows.
by applying this knowledge Option A & C is out since comma is not placed before "which"

since current situation is discussed so verb should in present tense.clearly verb keeping(in option D) and kept(in option E) are wrong.
hence this POE left with choice B as a correct answer!!
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Re: Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be [#permalink] New post 10 Aug 2013, 16:08
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Heat-exchange network - ask yourself: Is what follows a description that generally describes ALL heat-exchange networks or does it restrict the scope of heat-exchange networks and talk about a specific kind?

Let's look at the phrase: "a heat exchange network that/which keeps the brain from getting hot."


Do all heat exchange networks keep the brain from getting hot?

No.

Only a specific kind does - so in this case we use "that."

Therefore, the answer is (B) - "that keeps"
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Re: Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be [#permalink] New post 07 Jan 2014, 00:28
tracyyahoo wrote:
Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be lethal levels of body heat because they have a heat-exchange network which kept the brain from getting too hot.
a) which kept
b) that keeps
c) which has kept
d) that has been keeping
e) having kept

why c is not correct. I think C is more acceptable.



C is not correct because it uses has/had + past participle form. Focus on the tense in the text: "can.... have...." so logically, we need simple present. Only B uses simple present "keeps", A,C use past participle and D,E use present participle. Both are wrong.

That's why B is correct
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Re: Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be [#permalink] New post 10 Jul 2014, 04:37
In general which is preceded by comma , So eliminated all option with 'which'

Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be lethal levels of body heat because they have a heat-exchange network which kept the brain from getting too hot.
a) which kept (incorrect)
b) that keeps (Correct)
c) which has kept (Incorrect)
d) that has been keeping (incorrect)
e) having kept (wordy also not in same tense as non underlined part)

Hope that helps :)
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Re: Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be   [#permalink] 10 Jul 2014, 04:37
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