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In addition to her work on the miocene homicide fosiil

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In addition to her work on the miocene homicide fosiil [#permalink] New post 10 Feb 2013, 04:40
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In addition to her work on the miocene homicide fosiil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaelogy with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting East African paintings.

(A) Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting

(B) Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting

(C) Leakey was a contributor to archaelogy with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of

(D) Leakey's contributions to archaelogy include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of

(E) Leakey's contributions to archaelogy include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of

In this question, many websites have quoted D as the OA... but "in addition to her.." the her here is not Leakey's Contribution. This seems to me like a modifier error. Please help.

ALSO i tried the GMAT prep questions on this website, and my accuracy was 60-70%, which is very scary because i have worked very hard to improve this part. Should i expect this level of difficulty on the exam day as well? RC is my nemesis and CR not extremely friendly so... SC was supposed to be my savior and mind you, my GMAT is in 3 days!! :?
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Re: Modifier [#permalink] New post 10 Feb 2013, 05:04
Expert's post
psharma21 wrote:
In addition to her work on the miocene homicide fosiil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaelogy with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting East African paintings.

(A) Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting

(B) Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting

(C) Leakey was a contributor to archaelogy with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of

(D) Leakey's contributions to archaelogy include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of

(E) Leakey's contributions to archaelogy include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of

In this question, many websites have quoted D as the OA... but "in addition to her.." the her here is not Leakey's Contribution. This seems to me like a modifier error. Please help.

ALSO i tried the GMAT prep questions on this website, and my accuracy was 60-70%, which is very scary because i have worked very hard to improve this part. Should i expect this level of difficulty on the exam day as well? RC is my nemesis and CR not extremely friendly so... SC was supposed to be my savior and mind you, my GMAT is in 3 days!! :?


The GMAT itself helps you in solving the SC questions. Look at the not underlined part; it talks about something "in addition to her work on the miocene bla bla". You may ask yourself-what is in addition of the work. Obviously, it can't be Mary Leaky. Since Mary is also not underlined, then it is quite clear that we must be concerned about about Mary. ABC immediately out.
Here the use of discovery as verbing in E, eliminates the answer choice. We need a noun.
Hope that helps.
P.S.- I shall say, just relax. There is no such rule that you can GMAT take only twice in your entire lifetime. Just calm your mind and use logic. Everything will be sorted out.
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Re: Modifier [#permalink] New post 10 Feb 2013, 05:23
thanks marcab, that's a solid point you made there.

Marcab wrote:
I shall say, just relax. There is no such rule that you can GMAT take only twice in your entire lifetime. Just calm your mind and use logic. Everything will be sorted out.



well, yes true that there's no such rule; but i am applying for IIFT through the NRI quota and i need, i NEED to hit the 700 mark, any which way... or well all this preparation and missing college is for, well, nothing.

I am trying to relax, but looking at the level of difficulty in these gmat prep problems, i am spooked. don't know whether i should even bother to go on practicing or just let it be. i need to send in my score by 15th March, so well i can't postpone my date either. funny thing is, i did finish OG, manhattan and verbal guide of OG and yet, i am taking 1:30 minutes in solving the SC questions and averaging 60-70% accuracy.

i have no idea by what divine intervention i got a 740 on my gmat prep, but in there, all my RC answers were correct. that Never happens to me. And i don't know what i am doing wrong and i just do not feel confident.

what do i do now? :?
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Re: Modifier [#permalink] New post 10 Feb 2013, 05:29
In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology through her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and through her painstaking documentation of East African cave paintings.
A. Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology through her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and through her painstaking documentation of
B. Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting
C. Mary Leakey was a contributor to archaeology by discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of
D. Mary Leakey's contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting
E. Mary Leakey's contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of

this is a similar question witch different options and prep says that the OA here, is B.. why the difference?
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Re: Modifier [#permalink] New post 10 Feb 2013, 06:52
Expert's post
psharma21 wrote:
thanks marcab, that's a solid point you made there.

Marcab wrote:
I shall say, just relax. There is no such rule that you can GMAT take only twice in your entire lifetime. Just calm your mind and use logic. Everything will be sorted out.



well, yes true that there's no such rule; but i am applying for IIFT through the NRI quota and i need, i NEED to hit the 700 mark, any which way... or well all this preparation and missing college is for, well, nothing.

I am trying to relax, but looking at the level of difficulty in these gmat prep problems, i am spooked. don't know whether i should even bother to go on practicing or just let it be. i need to send in my score by 15th March, so well i can't postpone my date either. funny thing is, i did finish OG, manhattan and verbal guide of OG and yet, i am taking 1:30 minutes in solving the SC questions and averaging 60-70% accuracy.

i have no idea by what divine intervention i got a 740 on my gmat prep, but in there, all my RC answers were correct. that Never happens to me. And i don't know what i am doing wrong and i just do not feel confident.

what do i do now? :?

Well, if you got all your RC questions correct, then I wish I can emulate your performance on the real thing. Having said that, I shall again say don't worry at all. Calm mind is the first thing that you would wish for during the exam.
P.S. go and watch some movies to get rid of your stress.
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Re: Modifier [#permalink] New post 10 Feb 2013, 06:59
Expert's post
psharma21 wrote:
In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology through her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and through her painstaking documentation of East African cave paintings.
A. Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology through her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and through her painstaking documentation of
B. Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting
C. Mary Leakey was a contributor to archaeology by discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of
D. Mary Leakey's contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting
E. Mary Leakey's contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of

this is a similar question witch different options and prep says that the OA here, is B.. why the difference?


See here the difference is that Mary is underlined. So do watch that.
A. Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology through her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and through her painstaking documentation of Parallel. Seems fine. Hold that.

B. Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting No parallelism.

C has a modifier issue. Mary Leaky is not in addition to work. She may contribute in addition to her work.

On the same lines, D and E have major parallelism issue.
A is fine and correct.
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Re: Modifier [#permalink] New post 14 Sep 2013, 01:07
Marcab wrote:
psharma21 wrote:
In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology through her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and through her painstaking documentation of East African cave paintings.
A. Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology through her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and through her painstaking documentation of
B. Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting
C. Mary Leakey was a contributor to archaeology by discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of
D. Mary Leakey's contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting
E. Mary Leakey's contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of

this is a similar question witch different options and prep says that the OA here, is B.. why the difference?


See here the difference is that Mary is underlined. So do watch that.
A. Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology through her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and through her painstaking documentation of Parallel. Seems fine. Hold that.

B. Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting No parallelism.

C has a modifier issue. Mary Leaky is not in addition to work. She may contribute in addition to her work.

On the same lines, D and E have major parallelism issue.
A is fine and correct.


hey marcab ... I can understand why you eliminated B.C.D and E. but in A like the original question in this thread we can not add Mary to his work .. it should be mary's contributions after comma, but A is violating this .. why we not eliminating A like we did it in original question ?
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Re: In addition to her work on the miocene homicide fosiil [#permalink] New post 14 Sep 2013, 09:39
D,
Also her is in possessive case and therefore can refer to the possessive noun Mary Leakey's
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Re: Modifier [#permalink] New post 19 Sep 2013, 01:04
psharma21 wrote:
thanks marcab, that's a solid point you made there.

Marcab wrote:
I shall say, just relax. There is no such rule that you can GMAT take only twice in your entire lifetime. Just calm your mind and use logic. Everything will be sorted out.



well, yes true that there's no such rule; but i am applying for IIFT through the NRI quota and i need, i NEED to hit the 700 mark, any which way... or well all this preparation and missing college is for, well, nothing.

I am trying to relax, but looking at the level of difficulty in these gmat prep problems, i am spooked. don't know whether i should even bother to go on practicing or just let it be. i need to send in my score by 15th March, so well i can't postpone my date either. funny thing is, i did finish OG, manhattan and verbal guide of OG and yet, i am taking 1:30 minutes in solving the SC questions and averaging 60-70% accuracy.

i have no idea by what divine intervention i got a 740 on my gmat prep, but in there, all my RC answers were correct. that Never happens to me. And i don't know what i am doing wrong and i just do not feel confident.

what do i do now? :?


psharma - was trying to follow the story there, what finally happened with the GMAT.. 8-)
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Re: Modifier [#permalink] New post 26 Sep 2013, 10:42
In addition to her work on the Miocene homicide fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting East African paintings.

Possessive pronoun (her) can have a non-possessive noun (Mary Leaky) as its antecedent. So both Mary Leaky and Mary Leaky's are fine.

Parallelism: her work (noun), her discovery (noun) and her painstaking documentation (noun)

(A) Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting her work (noun), her discovery (noun) and painstakingly documenting (participle) - not parallel

(B) Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting Same as A

(C) Leakey was a contributor to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of was a contributor.. with is incorrect. It should be 'was a contributor through'

(D) Leakey's contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of correct

(E) Leakey's contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of her work (noun), her discovery (noun) and painstaking documentation (no her) - not parallel


In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology through her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and through her painstaking documentation of East African cave paintings.
A. Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology through her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and through her painstaking documentation of
B. Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting
C. Mary Leakey was a contributor to archaeology by discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of
D. Mary Leakey's contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting
E. Mary Leakey's contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of

Same reasons as for the 1st question. A is correct.
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In addition to her work on the miocene homicide fossil [#permalink] New post 29 Jan 2014, 20:57
In addition to her work on the miocene homicide fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaelogy with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting East African paintings.

(A) Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting

(B) Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting

(C) Leakey was a contributor to archaelogy with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of

(D) Leakey's contributions to archaelogy include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of

(E) Leakey's contributions to archaelogy include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of

Hi.

in choice C, apart from the incorrect use of idiom --"Leakey was a contributor to archaeology with" -- is another error the subject "Mary Leakey"? I mean does whether "Leakey's contributions" or "Mary Leakey" is the subject of the sentence matter?
---

I think that "in addition to X" introduces something else similar to X, so the thing should be important part of the main sentence, not part of a modifier as it is in choice C. Please explain more about the use of "in addition to".
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Re: In addition to her work on the miocene homicide fossil [#permalink] New post 29 Jan 2014, 21:49
C) Leakey was a contributor to archaelogy with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of

Wordiness disguised as parallelism.

I picked (D). OA please?
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Re: In addition to her work on the miocene homicide fossil [#permalink] New post 30 Jan 2014, 01:16
phammanhhiep wrote:
In addition to her work on the miocene homicide fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaelogy with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting East African paintings.

(A) Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting

(B) Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting

(C) Leakey was a contributor to archaelogy with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of

(D) Leakey's contributions to archaelogy include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of

(E) Leakey's contributions to archaelogy include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of

Hi.

in choice C, apart from the incorrect use of idiom --"Leakey was a contributor to archaeology with" -- is another error the subject "Mary Leakey"? I mean does whether "Leakey's contributions" or "Mary Leakey" is the subject of the sentence matter?
---

I think that "in addition to X" introduces something else similar to X, so the thing should be important part of the main sentence, not part of a modifier as it is in choice C. Please explain more about the use of "in addition to".


Yes it does matter. C is not wrong because it's wordy as the previous poster suggested, but rather because it is combining two dissimilar things. It is combining Mary Leakey's work on the miocene fossil record and Mary Leakey herself. Thus, you can eliminate ABC. Eliminating E from the remaining choices is easy as it doesn't maintain parallelism... "her discovering" vs "documentation".
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Re: In addition to her work on the miocene homicide fosiil [#permalink] New post 01 Feb 2014, 11:19
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psharma21 wrote:
In addition to her work on the miocene homicide fosiil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaelogy with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting East African paintings.

(A) Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting

(B) Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting

(C) Leakey was a contributor to archaelogy with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of

(D) Leakey's contributions to archaelogy include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of

(E) Leakey's contributions to archaelogy include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of

In this question, many websites have quoted D as the OA... but "in addition to her.." the her here is not Leakey's Contribution. This seems to me like a modifier error. Please help.

ALSO i tried the GMAT prep questions on this website, and my accuracy was 60-70%, which is very scary because i have worked very hard to improve this part. Should i expect this level of difficulty on the exam day as well? RC is my nemesis and CR not extremely friendly so... SC was supposed to be my savior and mind you, my GMAT is in 3 days!! :?


Can I ask where this question was sourced from? Want to make sure I respond appropriately.
Thanks.
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Re: In addition to her work on the miocene homicide fosiil [#permalink] New post 02 Feb 2014, 01:28
MARCAB,


MARY BEING UNDERLINED OR NOT WONT MAKE A DIFFERENCE AS WHAT MATTERS.... ie Leakey...... IS UNDERLINED IN BOTH THE TWO VERSIONS OF QUESTION HERE.....
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Re: Modifier [#permalink] New post 02 Feb 2014, 03:51
Can a pronoun take a possessive antecedent? If choice D were correct, then 'her' would refer to "Mary Leaky's" . Isn't it erroneous?

Marcab wrote:
psharma21 wrote:
In addition to her work on the miocene homicide fosiil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaelogy with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting East African paintings.

(A) Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting

(B) Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting

(C) Leakey was a contributor to archaelogy with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of

(D) Leakey's contributions to archaelogy include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of

(E) Leakey's contributions to archaelogy include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of

In this question, many websites have quoted D as the OA... but "in addition to her.." the her here is not Leakey's Contribution. This seems to me like a modifier error. Please help.

ALSO i tried the GMAT prep questions on this website, and my accuracy was 60-70%, which is very scary because i have worked very hard to improve this part. Should i expect this level of difficulty on the exam day as well? RC is my nemesis and CR not extremely friendly so... SC was supposed to be my savior and mind you, my GMAT is in 3 days!! :?


The GMAT itself helps you in solving the SC questions. Look at the not underlined part; it talks about something "in addition to her work on the miocene bla bla". You may ask yourself-what is in addition of the work. Obviously, it can't be Mary Leaky. Since Mary is also not underlined, then it is quite clear that we must be concerned about about Mary. ABC immediately out.
Here the use of discovery as verbing in E, eliminates the answer choice. We need a noun.
Hope that helps.
P.S.- I shall say, just relax. There is no such rule that you can GMAT take only twice in your entire lifetime. Just calm your mind and use logic. Everything will be sorted out.
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Re: In addition to her work on the miocene homicide fosiil [#permalink] New post 04 Feb 2014, 08:23
brianlange77 wrote:
psharma21 wrote:
In addition to her work on the miocene homicide fosiil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaelogy with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting East African paintings.

(A) Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting

(B) Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting

(C) Leakey was a contributor to archaelogy with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of

(D) Leakey's contributions to archaelogy include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of

(E) Leakey's contributions to archaelogy include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of

In this question, many websites have quoted D as the OA... but "in addition to her.." the her here is not Leakey's Contribution. This seems to me like a modifier error. Please help.

ALSO i tried the GMAT prep questions on this website, and my accuracy was 60-70%, which is very scary because i have worked very hard to improve this part. Should i expect this level of difficulty on the exam day as well? RC is my nemesis and CR not extremely friendly so... SC was supposed to be my savior and mind you, my GMAT is in 3 days!! :?


Can I ask where this question was sourced from? Want to make sure I respond appropriately.
Thanks.
-Brian


Brian, would be nice if you could explain why is D the correct answer choice. I'm a little bit concerned about how Leakey's contributions fit there and how we refer to 'her' where there isn't a noun that serves as a proper antecedent (in this case it should be Mary Leaky herself I assume). Well anyways, some doubts on possessive, would be nice if someone could explain

And of course I'll be rewarding good answer choices with Kudos
Cheers
J
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Re: In addition to her work on the miocene homicide fosiil [#permalink] New post 15 Mar 2014, 08:47
jlgdr wrote:
brianlange77 wrote:
psharma21 wrote:
In addition to her work on the miocene homicide fosiil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaelogy with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting East African paintings.

(A) Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting

(B) Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting

(C) Leakey was a contributor to archaelogy with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of

(D) Leakey's contributions to archaelogy include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of

(E) Leakey's contributions to archaelogy include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of

In this question, many websites have quoted D as the OA... but "in addition to her.." the her here is not Leakey's Contribution. This seems to me like a modifier error. Please help.

ALSO i tried the GMAT prep questions on this website, and my accuracy was 60-70%, which is very scary because i have worked very hard to improve this part. Should i expect this level of difficulty on the exam day as well? RC is my nemesis and CR not extremely friendly so... SC was supposed to be my savior and mind you, my GMAT is in 3 days!! :?


Can I ask where this question was sourced from? Want to make sure I respond appropriately.
Thanks.
-Brian


Brian, would be nice if you could explain why is D the correct answer choice. I'm a little bit concerned about how Leakey's contributions fit there and how we refer to 'her' where there isn't a noun that serves as a proper antecedent (in this case it should be Mary Leaky herself I assume). Well anyways, some doubts on possessive, would be nice if someone could explain

And of course I'll be rewarding good answer choices with Kudos
Cheers
J


I hope you are aware that possessive pronoun can refer back to possessive noun.

his/ her are possessive pronoun:

Ram's salary is higher than his status. < in this example his is a possessive pronoun such reference to noun is allowed, you can search forum to get article on this.
Long back I saw one article by Ron on possessive pronouns.
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Re: In addition to her work on the miocene homicide fosiil [#permalink] New post 04 Jul 2014, 11:27
If the OA of the problem here is D, then what is the antecedent of her. Can someone please help. I am not really convinced with the OA
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Re: In addition to her work on the miocene homicide fosiil [#permalink] New post 04 Jul 2014, 12:46
ankurgupta03 wrote:
If the OA of the problem here is D, then what is the antecedent of her. Can someone please help. I am not really convinced with the OA


It was best explained by Ron here : http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/in- ... 99-15.html
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Our greatest weakness lies in giving up. The most certain way to succeed is to try just one more time. ― Thomas A. Edison
Don't forget to press--> Kudos :)
My Articles: 1. WOULD: when to use? | 2. All GMATPrep RCs (New)
Tip: Before exam a week earlier don't forget to exhaust all gmatprep problems specially for "sentence correction".

Re: In addition to her work on the miocene homicide fosiil   [#permalink] 04 Jul 2014, 12:46
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