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In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Lea

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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Lea  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Sep 2018, 14:06
Hareesh2992 wrote:
Doesn't the absence of a noun to which her refers to make the options D & E incorrect ?
Please reply .

Hi Hareesh2992,

As AjiteshArun said, "her" is a possessive pronoun here, acting like an adjective, not a noun. For example, in: "Her socks are great". "Her" is a possessive pronoun; it doesn't need to "refer" to anything.

Does that make sense? :-)
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Lea  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Nov 2018, 02:21
I have a doubt regarding the option D. Isn't it Mary Leakey a singular nonun....shouldn't the verb be includes??

Someone please clarify.
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Lea  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Nov 2018, 17:09
prav04 wrote:
I have a doubt regarding the option D. Isn't it Mary Leakey a singular nonun....shouldn't the verb be includes??

Someone please clarify.

Here's (D) again, with the subject and verb in bold:

Quote:
(D) Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of

Mary Leakey isn't the subject of the clause; Mary Leakey's contributions is the subject, and that's a plural noun. So the correct form of the verb is "includes."

I hope this helps!
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Lea  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Aug 2019, 04:11
sondenso wrote:
In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting East African cave paintings.


(A) Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting

(B) Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting

(C) Leakey was a contributor to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of

(D) Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of

(E) Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of



In (E), I thought discovering is parallel with painstaking.

Why these two are not parallel? How to avoid this kind of trap? generis

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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Lea  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Feb 2020, 22:29
GMATNinja wrote:
This is a sneaky, sneaky question. The most important part of the sentence comes right at the beginning: “in addition to her work…” It’s not quite a comparison, but imagine what would happen if this said “in contrast to her work…” You’d want to follow the comma with something that can be logically compared with “her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record”, right? And that would be “Leakey’s contributions…” not “Leakey” herself.

The same is true with the “in addition to.” It’s not ideal to say “in addition to her work…, Leakey…” (A), (B), and (C) are all flawed for that reason, but some of them have other issues, too.

Quote:
A. Leakey contributed to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstakingly documenting

(A) also has a parallelism error. After the parallelism trigger “and”, we have “painstakingly documenting.” So we need something in the same format, and I just don’t see any options. “Her discovery” would be the closest thing, but that’s still not structurally parallel to “painstakingly documenting.” (A) is gone.

Quote:
B. Leakey contributed to archaeology by her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and by painstakingly documenting

The biggest problem with this is probably the “in addition to her work…, Leakey” thing we discussed at the top. But I also think it’s wrong to say “Leakey contributed… by her discovery…” You could talk me into “with her discovery” or “by documenting” – but not “by her discovery. Ditch (B).

Quote:
C. Leakey was a contributor to archaeology with her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and with her painstaking documentation of

“Leakey was a contributor to archaeology” is a very odd way to say that she “contributed to archaeology”, but I’m not 100% certain that it’s wrong. But we still have the same “in addition to her work…, Leakey” thing that we discussed at the beginning. (C) is out.

Quote:
D. Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation of

The beginning makes much more sense now: “in addition to her work…, Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include…” That’s great, both because it’s parallel (two possessive nouns) and because it makes a whole lot of sense. The parallelism is better, too: “Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovery of the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and her painstaking documentation…” Can’t ask for much better. Keep (D).

Quote:
E. Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation of

This isn’t horrible, but it’s not as good as (D). First, “include her discovering” is pretty crappy – it makes much more sense to put the possessive “her” in front of the common noun “discovery” instead of the gerund “discovering.” The parallelism is also a little bit off: “Leakey’s contributions to archaeology include her discovering the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and painstaking documentation…” It’s weird to have the possessive + gerund in the first part, and then a nice noun in the second part of the parallel list.

Again, (E) isn’t a total disaster, but it’s clearly a weaker answer than (D).


Hi, GMATNinja

I understood your deep & great explanation except the part explained in option E .
gerund and noun form can be parallel to each other .

You have mentioned 's + gerund ll to NOUN form is not allowed .Could you elaborate a bit about this as I don't see such format in opt E or may be my brain isn't able to catch what you are saying for opt E .
Leakey’s (apostrophe S format )contributions to archaeology include HER
1) discovering(GERUND ) the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and
2) painstaking documentation (NOUN) of

I am assuming here HER can act as common for both parallel things ... (i.e gerund & noun can share HER right? )
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Lea  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Mar 2020, 09:08
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gmatway wrote:
GMATNinja[/url]

I understood your deep & great explanation except the part explained in option E .
gerund and noun form can be parallel to each other .

You have mentioned 's + gerund ll to NOUN form is not allowed .Could you elaborate a bit about this as I don't see such format in opt E or may be my brain isn't able to catch what you are saying for opt E .
Leakey’s (apostrophe S format )contributions to archaeology include HER
1) discovering(GERUND ) the earliest direct evidence of hominid activity and
2) painstaking documentation (NOUN) of

I am assuming here HER can act as common for both parallel things ... (i.e gerund & noun can share HER right? )

First off, I want to clarify that I did not say that (E) uses a structure that is "not allowed" :). As I say over and over again, there are very few concrete "rules" that you can apply to GMAT SC. You have to examine each answer choice, think about the meaning, and determine which choice is the best out of the five choices in THAT problem.

Back to your question... yes, the "her" could be applied to both items in the parallel list. But we could also only apply "her" to the first item in the list. In choice (E), the reader has to make that choice. Choice (D), however, is not open to interpretation, so that's one vote in favor of (D) over (E).

And is having a gerund parallel to a regular noun wrong or "not allowed"? No, but the parallelism in choice (D) is cleaner (two regular nouns). That's another vote in favor of (D) over (E).

Like I said in my original explanation, (E) isn’t a total disaster -- it's just weaker than choice (D).

I hope that helps!
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Re: In addition to her work on the Miocene hominid fossil record, Mary Lea   [#permalink] 08 Mar 2020, 09:08

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