It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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# It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually

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It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2012, 08:28
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It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

A. It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers
B. Although it is called a sea, actually the landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth, which covers
C. Though called a sea, the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, covering
D. Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers
E. Despite being called a sea, the largest lake on Earth is actually the landlocked Caspian, covering

Please explain C & D along with the preference with reasons thanks in advance
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2012, 08:37
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hi ashdah,

A. It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers
misplaced modifier-"which " is modifying earth -incorrect
B. Although it is called a sea, actually the landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth, which covers
misplaced modifier-"which " is modifying earth -incorrect
C. Though called a sea, the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, covering
covering is a verb+ing modifier which is modifying the full clause " actually......on earth"-correct
D. Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers
wordy and awkward
E. Despite being called a sea, the largest lake on Earth is actually the landlocked Caspian, covering
wordy and awkward

Hope this helps !
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2012, 09:14
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Hi,
To add to the explanation given by TheVenus, D is also incorrect because it has a pronoun "it" without an antecedent. Hope it helps.
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2012, 23:07
dheerajv wrote:
Hi,
To add to the explanation given by TheVenus, D is also incorrect because it has a pronoun "it" without an antecedent. Hope it helps.

@dheerajv - Can you pls illustrate you explanation about - pronoun "it" without an antecedent.? Thx.
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2012, 23:36
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@capricorn - All pronouns must refer back to a noun.
For example, consider the sentence "Lisa gave the coat to Phil." All three nouns in the sentence can be replaced by pronouns: "She gave it to him." If the coat, Lisa, and Phil have been previously mentioned, the listener can deduce what the pronouns she, it and him refer to and therefore understand the meaning of the sentence; however, if the sentence "She gave it to him." is the first presentation of the idea, none of the pronouns have antecedents, and each pronoun is therefore ambiguous.

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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2012, 00:10
dheerajv wrote:
@capricorn - All pronouns must refer back to a noun.
For example, consider the sentence "Lisa gave the coat to Phil." All three nouns in the sentence can be replaced by pronouns: "She gave it to him." If the coat, Lisa, and Phil have been previously mentioned, the listener can deduce what the pronouns she, it and him refer to and therefore understand the meaning of the sentence; however, if the sentence "She gave it to him." is the first presentation of the idea, none of the pronouns have antecedents, and each pronoun is therefore ambiguous.

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@dheerajv - I understand you explanation but "it" is refering to the subject of the second clause, the landlocked Caspian. The landlocked Caspian is a modifier and placed rightly. I don't think thats the reason for eliminating the option D.
Consider the below sentence, which is correct -
Because it had been cleaned prior to the guests' arrival, the old chest of drawers looked brand new.

Let me know what you think.
Cheers!
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2012, 00:39
Capricorn369 wrote:
dheerajv wrote:
@capricorn - All pronouns must refer back to a noun.
For example, consider the sentence "Lisa gave the coat to Phil." All three nouns in the sentence can be replaced by pronouns: "She gave it to him." If the coat, Lisa, and Phil have been previously mentioned, the listener can deduce what the pronouns she, it and him refer to and therefore understand the meaning of the sentence; however, if the sentence "She gave it to him." is the first presentation of the idea, none of the pronouns have antecedents, and each pronoun is therefore ambiguous.

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@dheerajv - I understand you explanation but "it" is refering to the subject of the second clause, the landlocked Caspian. The landlocked Caspian is a modifier and placed rightly. I don't think thats the reason for eliminating the option D.
Consider the below sentence, which is correct -
Because it had been cleaned prior to the guests' arrival, the old chest of drawers looked brand new.

Let me know what you think.
Cheers!

Hi,

Your observation is correct, this is a modifier for "landlocked Caspian". So, "it" is clearly referring to "landlocked Caspian", no errors there.....I zeroed down to C vs. D, only reason for elimination for D, i can think of is wordiness...

Also, sharing an example on the same lines, using pronoun prior to the noun it modifies....for OA to this, search on the forum

Cheers
GODSPEED

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The first detailed study of magpie attacks in Australia indicates that by the time they had reached adulthood. 98 cercent of men and 75 percent of women born in the cc’unby have been attacked by the birds.

A by the time they had reached adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women born in the country have been attacked by the birds
B. by the time they reach adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women, who were born in the country, had been attacked by the birds
C. by the time they reached adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women born in the country had been attacked by the birds
D. 98 percent of men ard 75 percent of women that were born in the country were attacked by the birds by the time they reach adulthood
E. 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women who were born in the country, by the time they reached adulthood had been attacked by the birds
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2012, 00:51
The first detailed study of magpie attacks in Australia indicates that by the time they had reached adulthood. 98 cercent of men and 75 percent of women born in the cc’unby have been attacked by the birds.

A by the time they had reached adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women born in the country have been attacked by the birds
B. by the time they reach adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women, who were born in the country, had been attacked by the birds
C. by the time they reached adulthood, 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women born in the country had been attacked by the birds
D. 98 percent of men ard 75 percent of women that were born in the country were attacked by the birds by the time they reach adulthood
E. 98 percent of men and 75 percent of women who were born in the country, by the time they reached adulthood had been attacked by the birds
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Thx for sharing this SC. My answer for above is C.
Your example fits perfectly here..."they" is refering to "98 percent of men and 75 percent of women".

Btw, I'm stilll not sure why "D" is not OA. D has better construction than C and it's not wordier either (Not much!).
Cheers!
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2012, 15:34
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Capricorn369 wrote:
dheerajv wrote:
@capricorn - All pronouns must refer back to a noun.
For example, consider the sentence "Lisa gave the coat to Phil." All three nouns in the sentence can be replaced by pronouns: "She gave it to him." If the coat, Lisa, and Phil have been previously mentioned, the listener can deduce what the pronouns she, it and him refer to and therefore understand the meaning of the sentence; however, if the sentence "She gave it to him." is the first presentation of the idea, none of the pronouns have antecedents, and each pronoun is therefore ambiguous.

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@dheerajv - I understand you explanation but "it" is refering to the subject of the second clause, the landlocked Caspian. The landlocked Caspian is a modifier and placed rightly. I don't think thats the reason for eliminating the option D.
Consider the below sentence, which is correct -
Because it had been cleaned prior to the guests' arrival, the old chest of drawers looked brand new.

Let me know what you think.
Cheers!

Hi Folks, I found the issue with option D and why it is not correct.

D. Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers
-> As you can see, "it" is actually referring and modifying "sea", not "landlocked Caspian" here because both (it & sea) are in the same clause.

Check the below example -
Although many new restaurants have recently been opened across the country and its sales increased dramatically, the restaurant company’s sales at restaurants open for more than a year have declined.
->This sentence is incorrect because of modifier issue. "its" is modifying "many new restaurants".

Questions, Please let me know. Cheers!
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2012, 21:49
C is the most clear and concise choice
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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01 Aug 2012, 17:32
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I received a PM on this one, so I am replying (though it is a good one and I would have replied anyways had I seen it first ).

In the original sentence, 'Earth' should not be modified by a phrase that is clearly intended to modify the Caspian Sea (I mean lake ). Thus, we can get rid of (A) and (B). Get rid of 'E' because of the wordy 'being.'

Now, I can tackle the original question addressed in the PM: the difference between (C) and (D).

(C) is awkward because of the 'but it.' This awkwardness can also be attributed to the fact that we are separating 'though called a sea' and the Caspian by an intervening phrase that is itself awkward.

(D) on the other is succinct. What is commonly called a sea? The Caspian, which follows, 'though called a sea.' We no longer have the unnecessary 'it'. Typically, when an answer choice adds an 'it' this should clue you in that the answer choice is becoming less succinct, and thus likely to be favored on the GMAT.

Hope that helps .
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2012, 04:55
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1. IMO, it is not necessary for a pronoun to always follow its referent. It can precede too. But a standalone pronoun without the referent is an error.
2. D. Though called a sea but it -, D is wrong because of although and but- This is redundant. In C the modification - Though called sea, the landlocked Caspian – is ok.
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2012, 13:22
D: Though called a sea...the landlocked Caspian covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size.
Though implies contrast. That the Caspian is called a sea and that it covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival are not contrasting ideas: both statements serve to indicate the vastness of the Caspian. Thus, the use of though here is incorrect. Eliminate D.
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2012, 09:26
In A and B, which seems to refer to Earth, but it is not the Earth but the CASPIAN that covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival. Eliminate A and B.

Though serves to indicate CONTRAST. In D, though called a sea and covers more than four times the surface area are not contrasting ideas. Eliminate D.

In E, called seems to refer to lake, but the intention here is to say that the landlocked CASPIAN is called a sea. Eliminate E.

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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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23 Sep 2012, 01:49
ChrisLele wrote:
I received a PM on this one, so I am replying (though it is a good one and I would have replied anyways had I seen it first ).

In the original sentence, 'Earth' should not be modified by a phrase that is clearly intended to modify the Caspian Sea (I mean lake ). Thus, we can get rid of (A) and (B). Get rid of 'E' because of the wordy 'being.'

Now, I can tackle the original question addressed in the PM: the difference between (C) and (D).

(C) is awkward because of the 'but it.' This awkwardness can also be attributed to the fact that we are separating 'though called a sea' and the Caspian by an intervening phrase that is itself awkward.

(D) on the other is succinct. What is commonly called a sea? The Caspian, which follows, 'though called a sea.' We no longer have the unnecessary 'it'. Typically, when an answer choice adds an 'it' this should clue you in that the answer choice is becoming less succinct, and thus likely to be favored on the GMAT.

Hope that helps .

It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.
A. It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers
B. Although it is called a sea, actually the landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth, which covers
C. Though called a sea, the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, covering
D. Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers
E. Despite being called a sea, the largest lake on Earth is actually the landlocked Caspian, covering

I don't quite understand the reason to eliminate option B.
"X preposition Y, which .." - 'which' could refer to either of X or Y depending on which one of the two it logically and grammatically connects to.

One more question around option C:
"Caspian is the largest lake on Earth, covering ..." -> Could ", covering ..." be modifying the lake or Earth just as ", which .." does?
OR, does ", covering .." only modify the subject?
Thank you.

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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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07 Dec 2012, 02:09
ChrisLele wrote:
I received a PM on this one, so I am replying (though it is a good one and I would have replied anyways had I seen it first ).

In the original sentence, 'Earth' should not be modified by a phrase that is clearly intended to modify the Caspian Sea (I mean lake ). Thus, we can get rid of (A) and (B). Get rid of 'E' because of the wordy 'being.'

Now, I can tackle the original question addressed in the PM: the difference between (C) and (D).

(C) is awkward because of the 'but it.' This awkwardness can also be attributed to the fact that we are separating 'though called a sea' and the Caspian by an intervening phrase that is itself awkward.

(D) on the other is succinct. What is commonly called a sea? The Caspian, which follows, 'though called a sea.' We no longer have the unnecessary 'it'. Typically, when an answer choice adds an 'it' this should clue you in that the answer choice is becoming less succinct, and thus likely to be favored on the GMAT.

Hope that helps .

whay A and B are wrong?

"which relative clause " can modify slightly far noun. e gmat write an article on this point. so, A and B are correct

for the article

noun-modifiers-can-modify-slightly-far-away-noun-135868.html

the use of 'which clause" is legitimate but is NOT PREFERED.

is that right? pls help
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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07 Dec 2012, 08:39
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@Chris: You have actually reversed the reasons for C and D: It is C that holds good for succinctness: just an oversight, I suppose.

Quote:
GODSPEED wrote: Your observation is correct; this is a modifier for "landlocked Caspian". So, "it" is clearly referring to "landlocked Caspian", no errors there.....I zeroed down to C vs. D, only reason for elimination for D, I can think of is wordiness...

D is not bad just because of wordiness alone. There are other solid reasons for rejecting it , such as,

1. It is stylistically wrong because of using both -though and but –in the same sentence, which mean the same thing. It is the error of redundancy.
2. The first part (excluding the introductory phrase) and the second part, - both ICs- are just joined by a comma. So it is a run –on.
3. It errs on modification; the landlocked Caspian should be immediately placed after the comma.
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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08 Dec 2012, 21:57
It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.
A. It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers which wrongly modifies Earth
B. Although it is called a sea, actually the landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth, which covers Same as A
C. Though called a sea, the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, covering Covering wrongly modies Earth, it should modify Caspian lake
D. Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers It refers to sea when it should refer to the lake
E. Despite being called a sea, the largest lake on Earth is actually the landlocked Caspian, covering Correct!!!
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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12 Jan 2013, 02:02
I am confused. This is #48 og13 and should be studied carefully.

pls read the following og explanation. Og explanation said that both "earth" and "the largest lake on Earth" can not be referent of "which covers..."

I do not understand why "the largest lake on Earth" can not be referent of "which covers..."

the folloing is og explanation of why A is wrong.

A The referent of which is unclear.
Grammatically, its antecedent cannot be the
landlocked Caspian, so it must be eitherEarth
or the largest lake on Earth. The latter is a
little odd, because the sentence has already
said that the lake in question is the Caspian,
so one wouldexpect and instead of which.
For these reasons and because Earth
immediatelyprecedes which, the sentence
appears to say, illogically, that Earth covers
more than four times the surface area of
Lake Superior.
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually [#permalink]

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12 Jan 2013, 10:26
daagh wrote:
@Chris: You have actually reversed the reasons for C and D: It is C that holds good for succinctness: just an oversight, I suppose.

Quote:
GODSPEED wrote: Your observation is correct; this is a modifier for "landlocked Caspian". So, "it" is clearly referring to "landlocked Caspian", no errors there.....I zeroed down to C vs. D, only reason for elimination for D, I can think of is wordiness...

D is not bad just because of wordiness alone. There are other solid reasons for rejecting it , such as,

1. It is stylistically wrong because of using both -though and but –in the same sentence, which mean the same thing. It is the error of redundancy.
2. The first part (excluding the introductory phrase) and the second part, - both ICs- are just joined by a comma. So it is a run –on.
3. It errs on modification; the landlocked Caspian should be immediately placed after the comma.

Daagh,

First two reasons are very clear. Could you please explain the third reason you mentioned.? From what I see the landlocked Caspian is placed immediately after the comma.
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually   [#permalink] 12 Jan 2013, 10:26

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