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It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest

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It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 28 Aug 2018, 00:30
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A
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D
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It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

(A) It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers

(B) Although it is called a sea, actually the landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth, which covers

(C) Though called a sea, the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, covering

(D) Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers

(E) Despite being called a sea, the largest lake on Earth is actually the landlocked Caspian, covering

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Originally posted by ashdah on 29 Jul 2012, 08:28.
Last edited by hazelnut on 28 Aug 2018, 00:30, edited 5 times in total.
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Dec 2012, 08:39
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@Chris: You have actually reversed the reasons for C and D: It is C that holds good for succinctness: just an oversight, I suppose.

Quote:
GODSPEED wrote: Your observation is correct; this is a modifier for "landlocked Caspian". So, "it" is clearly referring to "landlocked Caspian", no errors there.....I zeroed down to C vs. D, only reason for elimination for D, I can think of is wordiness...

D is not bad just because of wordiness alone. There are other solid reasons for rejecting it , such as,

1. It is stylistically wrong because of using both -though and but –in the same sentence, which mean the same thing. It is the error of redundancy.
2. The first part (excluding the introductory phrase) and the second part, - both ICs- are just joined by a comma. So it is a run –on.
3. It errs on modification; the landlocked Caspian should be immediately placed after the comma.
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jul 2012, 08:37
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hi ashdah,

A. It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers
misplaced modifier-"which " is modifying earth -incorrect
B. Although it is called a sea, actually the landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth, which covers
misplaced modifier-"which " is modifying earth -incorrect
C. Though called a sea, the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, covering
covering is a verb+ing modifier which is modifying the full clause " actually......on earth"-correct
D. Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers
wordy and awkward
E. Despite being called a sea, the largest lake on Earth is actually the landlocked Caspian, covering
wordy and awkward

Hope this helps !
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jul 2012, 15:34
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Capricorn369 wrote:
dheerajv wrote:
@capricorn - All pronouns must refer back to a noun.
For example, consider the sentence "Lisa gave the coat to Phil." All three nouns in the sentence can be replaced by pronouns: "She gave it to him." If the coat, Lisa, and Phil have been previously mentioned, the listener can deduce what the pronouns she, it and him refer to and therefore understand the meaning of the sentence; however, if the sentence "She gave it to him." is the first presentation of the idea, none of the pronouns have antecedents, and each pronoun is therefore ambiguous.

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@dheerajv - I understand you explanation but "it" is refering to the subject of the second clause, the landlocked Caspian. The landlocked Caspian is a modifier and placed rightly. I don't think thats the reason for eliminating the option D.
Consider the below sentence, which is correct -
Because it had been cleaned prior to the guests' arrival, the old chest of drawers looked brand new.

Let me know what you think.
Cheers!

Hi Folks, I found the issue with option D and why it is not correct.

D. Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers
-> As you can see, "it" is actually referring and modifying "sea", not "landlocked Caspian" here because both (it & sea) are in the same clause.

Check the below example -
Although many new restaurants have recently been opened across the country and its sales increased dramatically, the restaurant company’s sales at restaurants open for more than a year have declined.
->This sentence is incorrect because of modifier issue. "its" is modifying "many new restaurants".
Link - although-the-restaurant-company-has-recently-added-many-new-83985.html

Questions, Please let me know. Cheers!
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Sep 2012, 01:49
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ChrisLele wrote:
I received a PM on this one, so I am replying (though it is a good one and I would have replied anyways had I seen it first :)).

In the original sentence, 'Earth' should not be modified by a phrase that is clearly intended to modify the Caspian Sea (I mean lake :)). Thus, we can get rid of (A) and (B). Get rid of 'E' because of the wordy 'being.'

Now, I can tackle the original question addressed in the PM: the difference between (C) and (D).

(C) is awkward because of the 'but it.' This awkwardness can also be attributed to the fact that we are separating 'though called a sea' and the Caspian by an intervening phrase that is itself awkward.

(D) on the other is succinct. What is commonly called a sea? The Caspian, which follows, 'though called a sea.' We no longer have the unnecessary 'it'. Typically, when an answer choice adds an 'it' this should clue you in that the answer choice is becoming less succinct, and thus likely to be favored on the GMAT.

Hope that helps :).




It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.
A. It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers
B. Although it is called a sea, actually the landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth, which covers
C. Though called a sea, the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, covering
D. Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers
E. Despite being called a sea, the largest lake on Earth is actually the landlocked Caspian, covering


hey, thanks for your explanation.
I don't quite understand the reason to eliminate option B.
"X preposition Y, which .." - 'which' could refer to either of X or Y depending on which one of the two it logically and grammatically connects to.
Please help me understand why else should we strike out option B?

One more question around option C:
"Caspian is the largest lake on Earth, covering ..." -> Could ", covering ..." be modifying the lake or Earth just as ", which .." does?
OR, does ", covering .." only modify the subject?
Thank you.

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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Dec 2012, 20:23
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pankajjindal25 wrote:
It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers more
than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

(A) It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers
(B) Although it is called a sea, actually the landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth,which covers
(C) Though called a sea, the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, covering
(D) Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers
(E) Despite being called a sea, the largest lake on Earth is actually the landlocked Caspian, covering


( This option D cannot find an error with it :( ...)

Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

Please let me know your thoughts.

The logic of the sentence is :
even though caspian sea is called a sea, it is actually the largest landlocked lake on earth that bla bla bla.

The sentence needs a contrast, but the answer choice A doesn't shows it.

B uses a "contrast" word but has a modifier issue. The "although" clause expects a "landlocked caspian" just after a comma but instead it gets "actually".

C correctly uses "though", implying to show contrast.

The correct way "though" is used is:
Though [clause], [Independent clause].
D incorrectly uses without using a comma. Moreover it also uses SECOND CONTRAST word "BUT" which doesn't adds to the meaning.

E is wrong in that it changes the sequence of the sentence.
It should be" Despite being called a sea, the landlocked caspian is actually the largest lake on earth".

C sounds fine.
+1C
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jan 2013, 02:02
I am confused. This is #48 og13 and should be studied carefully.

pls read the following og explanation. Og explanation said that both "earth" and "the largest lake on Earth" can not be referent of "which covers..."

I do not understand why "the largest lake on Earth" can not be referent of "which covers..."

the folloing is og explanation of why A is wrong.

A The referent of which is unclear.
Grammatically, its antecedent cannot be the
landlocked Caspian, so it must be eitherEarth
or the largest lake on Earth. The latter is a
little odd, because the sentence has already
said that the lake in question is the Caspian,
so one wouldexpect and instead of which.
For these reasons and because Earth
immediatelyprecedes which, the sentence
appears to say, illogically, that Earth covers
more than four times the surface area of
Lake Superior.
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2013, 02:00
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GMAT prefers that the modifier touches the noun modified. However, This is not alway possible and

noun+modifer 1+modifier 2

is correct, though not prefered. (remember between modifier 2 and the noun, there must be another modifier of that noun. If the phrase inserted is not the noun modifier, the pattern is wrong)

because the pattern is correct but not prefered, we should choose C not A or B.

this is why in some sc problem, noun modifying the far noun is considered incorrect and in other sc problems, noun modifying the far noun appears in the official answers.

similarly, the gmat prefers that the object touches the verb but the objects far from its verb is acceptable. in some sc problem, the object far from verb is considered an error while in other sc problems, the object far the verb appear in the official answers.

I call this PREFERENCE, NOT GRAMMAR RULE.
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Aug 2014, 06:41
Hi,
I request the members to review below analysis and share their inputs.I appreciate the support on this.
Regards.

Question:
It is called a sea, but
the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth,
which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

I read the OG explanation for this but it's not very clear to me.

Q1) Is there any ambiguity in the usage of which in option A?
Here which link/modify Earth or the largest lake on Earth to compare it against "North America's Lake Superior".
IMO the latter, largest lake on Earth (which is Caspian), wld be the right choice as saying "Earth, which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's" wld be illogical.So usage of which is grammatically correct here without any ambiguity.

Now, if we look the argument we would see that it says "Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior."
So I believe an elegant/clean construction would be the one where "Caspian" is compared directly with NA's lake instead of the largest lake on earth.
1)the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth and covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.
OR,
2)the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, covering more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

Q2)Also what's wrong with option B apart from which issue similar to A. Is usage of actually correct here?
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2014, 10:20
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JarvisR wrote:
Hi,
I request the members to review below analysis and share their inputs.I appreciate the support on this.
Regards.

Question:
It is called a sea, but
the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth,
which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

I read the OG explanation for this but it's not very clear to me.

Q1) Is there any ambiguity in the usage of which in option A?
Here which link/modify Earth or the largest lake on Earth to compare it against "North America's Lake Superior".
IMO the latter, largest lake on Earth (which is Caspian), wld be the right choice as saying "Earth, which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's" wld be illogical.So usage of which is grammatically correct here without any ambiguity.

Now, if we look the argument we would see that it says "Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior."
So I believe an elegant/clean construction would be the one where "Caspian" is compared directly with NA's lake instead of the largest lake on earth.
1)the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth and covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.
OR,
2)the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, covering more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

Q2)Also what's wrong with option B apart from which issue similar to A. Is usage of actually correct here?


Hi JarvisaR,

Thanks for posting your doubt here. :-)

I completely agree with you that "which" in Choice A and B "logically" CAN ONLY refer to "the largest lake on Earth" and not just "Earth". However, the problem that we face in these choices is that both these entities "the largest lake" and "Earth" are singular noun entities and agree in number with the singular verb "covers". hence, usage of "which" leaves that little room for grammatical ambiguity as to what does "which" refer to.

Choice C completely does away with that little possible grammatical ambiguity by using "comma + verb-ing modifier covering". Now, there is no doubt that "covering" refers to Caspian.

Now regarding the usage of "actually" in choice B, is it incorrect? IMHO, it is not, but it is certainly not needed in the sentence.

hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2014, 19:43
JarvisR wrote:
Q1) Is there any ambiguity in the usage of which in option A?

In this OE, the OG actually goes to a great extent in mentioning that because Earth immediately precedes which, the sentence appears to say, illogically, that Earth covers more than four times the surface area of Lake Superior.

There are many other sentences in OG, that confirm GMAT's position in this regard:

#13, option E: The relative clause beginning with which apparently (but nonsensically) describes the closest nouns, mud or clay, rather than bricks

#105, option D: Versions of the sentence that use the relative pronoun which indicate that the telephone has become a mass medium.

p.s. Our book SC Nirvana discusses the relative pronoun which, their application and examples in significant detail. If you can PM you email, I can send you the corresponding section.
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2015, 10:22
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It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

Meaning : Though caspian is called a sea but it is largest lake on earth. Why it is called largest lake on earth because it covers more than four time XX
So we need the cause and effect relationship.

A. It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers
Two issues
1) What does which modify?
which can modify Earth or with exception Lake. In fact which should modify Caspian sea.
2) There is no cause and effect relationship


B. Although it is called a sea, actually the landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth, which covers
Same issue as option A)

C. Though called a sea, the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, covering ->
Here verb+ing modifier is modifying the previous clause describing why Caspian is largest lake on Earth - Correct

D. Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers
Though there is no problem grammatically but there is no cause and effect describing why it is called the largest Sea.

E. Despite being called a sea, the largest lake on Earth is actually the landlocked Caspian, covering
The usage of verb+ing modifier is wrong and it is modifying why largest lake is Caspian. It should be other way around.
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New post 26 Apr 2017, 21:16
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brightandamen wrote:
Can somebody explain why we use "covering" instead of "covers"?

Hi brightandamen, are you referring to option C?

In option C, if covers had been used, at the very least there should have been an and before covers. So, the structure of C in that case would have been:

the landlocked Caspian is.... and covers...

Parallelism is between two verbs: is and covers. While this would have been a grammatically correct sentence, it would have suggested that landlocked Caspian has two distinct properties (1. landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth. 2. landlocked Caspian covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size).

However, the ideal meaning is represented by option C. The fact that landlocked Caspian covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, is actually a description/manifestation of the fact that the landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth.

In such cases, present participles (covering....) are an ideal usage.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses Present participles, their application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2017, 02:51
It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

A. It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers - "which" incorrectly refers to "Earth"
B. Although it is called a sea, actually the landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth, which covers - "which" incorrectly refers to "Earth" + sounds a mess
C. Though called a sea, the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, covering - CORRECT, importantly "covering" is verb+ing that modifies the full clause preceding it + "landlocked caspian" placed correct after "called a sea"
D. Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers - "though" and "but" cannot be used together as they mean the same & therefore redundancy + "it" is referring to sea based on where it is placed, however "it" should refer to "the landlocked Caspian" + "landlocked caspian" should be placed right after "called a sea" as in Option C + 2 independent clauses separated by a comma is of course incorrect (lot going wrong here but a good learning)
E. Despite being called a sea, the largest lake on Earth is actually the landlocked Caspian, covering - "landlocked caspian" should be after "called a sea" + sounds very awkward & "being" almost always is in the wrong sentence
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Oct 2017, 16:54
can someone explain why "which" cannot modify "landlocked caspian"
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New post 03 Nov 2017, 12:49
santro789 wrote:
can someone explain why "which" cannot modify "landlocked caspian"




Hello santro789,

I will be glad to help you out with this one. :-)

I analyze the original sentence in two ways:

1. We can rewrite the sentence as on Earth, the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake. Hence, the modifier on Earth is an action modifier and modifies the verb is. It does not modify the noun the landlocked Caspian.

Hence, which cannot jump over this modifier to refer to the slightly far-away noun the landlocked Caspian.



2. The noun modifier which is followed by the singular verb covers that agrees in number with both the landlocked Caspian and on Earth. Hence, there is a slight scope of confusion whether which refers to singular Earth and the landlocked Caspian.



Hope this helps. :-)
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New post 13 Mar 2018, 12:26
It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

A. It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers
B. Although it is called a sea, actually the landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth, which covers
C. Though called a sea, the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, covering
D. Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers
E. Despite being called a sea, the largest lake on Earth is actually the landlocked Caspian, covering

Hello I have a question about the use of though
As I learned before, we use Though/ although/ even though with a clause (Subject + Verb).
1 – If I see though/even though/although, MUST they be followed by a Subject, a Verb, or a Subject and a verb (Both)?
2- In case we need both a Subject and a Verb. How is the form of the verb that you consider a clause? The verb should be conjugated? Not in the Ving or V3(participle)?
If this is the case that though/even though/although MUST be followed by a subject and a verb, and this verb must be conjugated (unconjugated forms such as participle or Ving are wrong), then, can anyone explain me why “Though called a sea” is correct? Because for me called is a participle form (V3) and no subject. I believe that if I had seen “although called a sea” probably it would have been incorrect and someone would have said that is missing the subject and a conjugated verb. So what is the rule for Though? As the answer choice C is correct, where can I find this rule for “though”?

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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Mar 2018, 20:10
jdrury wrote:
I believe that if I had seen “although called a sea” probably it would have been incorrect and someone would have said that is missing the subject and a conjugated verb. So what is the rule for Though? As the answer choice C is correct, where can I find this rule for “though”?

Hi jdrury, you're correct. Though is a subordinating conjunction and marks the start of a Dependent clause.

Option C however, represents a case that many people refer to as verbless clause. Basically the verb is implied.

So, C actually implies: Though (the landlocked Caspian is) called a sea,....

where is is the verb.
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jul 2018, 09:30
It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America's Lake Superior.

(A) It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers

(B) Although it is called a sea, actually the landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth, which covers

(C) Though called a sea, the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, covering

(D) Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers

(E) Despite being called a sea, the largest lake on Earth is actually the landlocked Caspian, covering


Answer C


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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Sep 2018, 20:35
Quote:
It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers more than four times the surface area of its closest rival in size, North America’s Lake Superior.

This sentence referent to which is ambiguous, as logically which here may refer to either EARTH or LARGEST LAKE ON EARTH. The singular verb covers also supports both of the referents as both are singular.
Because of the ambiguity we need to look for a better option than A.
B also has the same ambiguity as A.
Quote:
(A) It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, which covers
(B) Although it is called a sea, actually the landlocked Caspian is the largest lake on Earth, which covers

Two Independent clauses joined by a comma. Hence a run on...
Quote:
(C) Though called a sea, the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest lake on Earth, covering

This option eliminates the ambiguity.
Quote:
(D) Though called a sea but it actually is the largest lake on Earth, the landlocked Caspian covers

It is redundant to mention though and but together in the same sentence. Both show contrast.
Two Independent clause joined with a comma.
Option D goes out.
Quote:
(E) Despite being called a sea, the largest lake on Earth is actually the landlocked Caspian, covering

Misplaced modifier, this should have been: "Despite being called a sea, the landlocked Caspian......"
E goes out.
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Re: It is called a sea, but the landlocked Caspian is actually the largest &nbs [#permalink] 06 Sep 2018, 20:35

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