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New SC project - ask a question, get explanation and a kudo!

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New SC project - ask a question, get explanation and a kudo! [#permalink] New post 29 Mar 2014, 11:37
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A
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D
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Difficulty:

(N/A)

Question Stats:

100% (02:02) correct 0% (00:00) wrong based on 0 sessions

New Sentence Correction Project



I cannot stand the fact that I have not answered a GMAT verbal question on the forum in ages. So here is my attempt to refresh my verbal skills and answer some tough cookie questions while I am at it.


Here is what you have to submit

  • An SC question that you could not find satisfactory answers to in the forum.
  • Post the source and OA (official questions, as always are the top priority)
  • Add relevant notes such as, your way of thinking and logic.

I shall provide an explanation within 24 hours, give you a kudo and link the question in this post!

Hope people are interested to kick off the GMAT season for 2015/16 matriculation aspirants!

Let's do it!

P.S

Back in the day, here is how I used to analyse an SC problem

Rock samples taken from the remains of an asteroid about twice the size of the 6-mile-wide asteroid that eradicated the dinosaurs has been dated to be 3.47 billion years old and thus is evidence of the earliest known asteroid impact on Earth.

(A) has been dated to be 3.47 billion years old and thus is
(B) has been dated at 3.47 billion years old and thus
(C) have been dated to be 3.47 billion years old and thus are
(D) have been dated as being 3.47 billion years old and thus
(E) have been dated at 3.47 billion years old and thus are

Concept tested: Idioms, SV agreement
Difficulty Level: Moderate
Illustration: “Rock samples” is the subject for the verb “has been dated”. Rock samples must take a plural verb.
So A and B can be instantly eliminated.
Dated at is the correct idiomatic construction.
So C and D are also eliminated
E is the correct answer choice

Tip: Though “dated at” is preferred to “dated to be”, the same construction is not necessarily true for “estimated at” and “estimated to be” construction.
“Estimated at” should be followed by a noun because “at” is a preposition.
E.g: The molten iron is estimated at 1500 degrees Celsius.
“Estimated to be” generally follows phrases
E.g: The fossil is estimated to be 1000 years old.

This is NOT a specific English rule, but the way GMAT wants things to be
Support is given by:
In OG 12, Q 27 of SC, it says that the correct idiom is "estimated to be".
However this question appears in gmatprep
"With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Farenheit, Jupiter's moon Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, and with 60 square miles of water though to be frozen from top to bottom."


Really cool question #1
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Re: New SC project - ask a question, get explanation and a kudo! [#permalink] New post 29 Mar 2014, 11:49
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SC Question:

Because of skyrocketing land costs in recent times and as public transportation facilities in both private and public domains became vastly improved, many middle income people now switching to suburban localities, which are providing pollution free residential communities at affordable prices.

(A) Because of skyrocketing land costs in recent times and as public transportation facilities in both private and public domains became vastly improved, many middle income people

(B) Because land costs are skyrocketing in recent times and as public transportation facilities in both private and public domains are becoming vastly improved, many middle income people

(C) In recent times, because of land costs skyrocketing and as public transportation facilities in both private and public domains have become vastly improved, many middle income people

(D) While land costs have skyrocketed in recent times and public transportation facilities in both private and public domains have become vastly improved, many middle income people are

(E) With land costs skyrocketing since recent times and with public transportation facilities in both private and public domains becoming vastly improved, many middle income people are

Not sure what the source is. Found it here on GMATClub itself:
one-question-a-day-q-18-sc-169416.html
No one has been able to explain the OA yet.

I would rather wait for you to come up with an explanation and then explain my way of thinking. Makes sense?
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Re: New SC project - ask a question, get explanation and a kudo! [#permalink] New post 29 Mar 2014, 11:54
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The legal system of Kyrgyzstan after acquiring independence from the Soviet bloc includes features not only of the Russian legal system but also the French legal system.

(A). The legal system of Kyrgyzstan after acquiring independence from the Soviet bloc includes features not only of the Russian legal system but also the French legal system

(B). The legal system of Kyrgyzstan after acquiring independence from the Soviet bloc includes features not only of the Russian legal system but of also the French legal system

(C). After acquiring independence from the Soviet bloc, the legal system of Kyrgyzstan includes features not only of the Russian legal system but also of the French legal system

(D). After acquiring independence from the Soviet bloc, the legal system of Kyrgyzstan includes features of not only the Russian legal system but also of the French legal system

(E). After acquiring independence from the Soviet bloc, Kyrgyzstan has a legal system that includes features not only of the Russian legal system but also of the French

Yet another thread in which people haven't yet come up with a satisfactory explanation.
one-question-a-day-q-9-sc-169252.html

PS - I'm not bombarding you with questions for kudos but you could post an expert explanation on the forum and help the crowd. : )
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Re: New SC project - ask a question, get explanation and a kudo! [#permalink] New post 29 Mar 2014, 19:03
The huge earthquake that occurred in Chile in 1960, had a magnitude of 9.5, believed to be the largest earthquake the world has ever seen.

(A) believed to be
(B) and that is believed to be
(C) and it is believed to have been
(D) which was, it is believed,
(E) which is believed to be

I've read a similar question in Aristotle SC Grail.
the-huge-earthquake-that-occurred-in-chile-in-1960-had-a-71238.html
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Re: New SC project - ask a question, get explanation and a kudo! [#permalink] New post 29 Mar 2014, 19:49
Presently the East African country is focussed on privatization of state-owned enterprises, expansion of democracy and political freedom, and de-escalation of interethnic conflicts and ousting corruption.

(A)Presently the East African country is focussed on privatization of state-owned enterprises, expansion of democracy and political freedom, and de-escalation of interethnic conflicts and ousting corruption.

(B)Presently the East African country is focussed on privatization of state-owned enterprises, expansion of democracy and political freedom, de-escalation of interethnic conflicts and ouster of corruption.

(C)Presently the East African country is focussed on privatization of state-owned enterprises, expansion of democracy and political freedom, and de-escalating interethnic conflicts and on ousting corruption.

(D)Presently the East African country is focussed on privatization of state-owned enterprises, on expansion of democracy and political freedom, and de-escalation of interethnic conflicts and on ousting of corruption.

(E)Presently the East African country is focussed on privatization of state-owned enterprises, expanding democracy and political freedom, and on de-escalation of interethnic conflicts and ousting corruption.

My thoughts were pinned to A. But OA is C.

one-question-a-day-q-23-sc-169444.html

Again one of the threads in which people are waiting for an explanation.
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Re: New SC project - ask a question, get explanation and a kudo! [#permalink] New post 30 Mar 2014, 08:30
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gauravkaushik8591 wrote:
SC Question:

Because of skyrocketing land costs in recent times and as public transportation facilities in both private and public domains became vastly improved, many middle income people now switching to suburban localities, which are providing pollution free residential communities at affordable prices.

(A) Because of skyrocketing land costs in recent times and as public transportation facilities in both private and public domains became vastly improved, many middle income people

(B) Because land costs are skyrocketing in recent times and as public transportation facilities in both private and public domains are becoming vastly improved, many middle income people

(C) In recent times, because of land costs skyrocketing and as public transportation facilities in both private and public domains have become vastly improved, many middle income people

(D) While land costs have skyrocketed in recent times and public transportation facilities in both private and public domains have become vastly improved, many middle income people are

(E) With land costs skyrocketing since recent times and with public transportation facilities in both private and public domains becoming vastly improved, many middle income people are

Not sure what the source is. Found it here on GMATClub itself:
one-question-a-day-q-18-sc-169416.html
No one has been able to explain the OA yet.

I would rather wait for you to come up with an explanation and then explain my way of thinking. Makes sense?



Because of skyrocketing land costs in recent times and as public transportation facilities in both private and public domains became vastly improved, many middle income people now switching to suburban localities, which are providing pollution free residential communities at affordable prices.

(A) Because of skyrocketing land costs in recent times and as public transportation facilities in both private and public domains became vastly improved, many middle income people No main verb.

(B) Because land costs are skyrocketing in recent times and as public transportation facilities in both private and public domains are becoming vastly improved, many middle income people No main verb

(C) In recent times, because of land costs skyrocketing and as public transportation facilities in both private and public domains have become vastly improved, many middle income people No main verb

(D) While land costs have skyrocketed in recent times and public transportation facilities in both private and public domains have become vastly improved, many middle income people are Verb error repaired. However the use of "while" does not seem to ring true. Poorly framed answer choice.

(E) With land costs skyrocketing since recent times and with public transportation facilities in both private and public domains becoming vastly improved, many middle income people are The initial prepositional phrase does not provide information about "middle income people"
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Re: New SC project - ask a question, get explanation and a kudo! [#permalink] New post 30 Mar 2014, 08:35
Expert's post
gauravkaushik8591 wrote:
The legal system of Kyrgyzstan after acquiring independence from the Soviet bloc includes features not only of the Russian legal system but also the French legal system.

(A). The legal system of Kyrgyzstan after acquiring independence from the Soviet bloc includes features not only of the Russian legal system but also the French legal system

(B). The legal system of Kyrgyzstan after acquiring independence from the Soviet bloc includes features not only of the Russian legal system but of also the French legal system

(C). After acquiring independence from the Soviet bloc, the legal system of Kyrgyzstan includes features not only of the Russian legal system but also of the French legal system

(D). After acquiring independence from the Soviet bloc, the legal system of Kyrgyzstan includes features of not only the Russian legal system but also of the French legal system

(E). After acquiring independence from the Soviet bloc, Kyrgyzstan has a legal system that includes features not only of the Russian legal system but also of the French

Yet another thread in which people haven't yet come up with a satisfactory explanation.
one-question-a-day-q-9-sc-169252.html

PS - I'm not bombarding you with questions for kudos but you could post an expert explanation on the forum and help the crowd. : )


This has bad OA. I would avoid it. Here are my thoughts.

(A). The legal system of Kyrgyzstan after acquiring independence from the Soviet bloc includes features not only of the Russian legal system but also the French legal system Not only... and but also... are not parallel

(B). The legal system of Kyrgyzstan after acquiring independence from the Soviet bloc includes features not only of the Russian legal system but of also the French legal system The legal system did not acquire independence. Also same error persists for Not only and but also

(C). After acquiring independence from the Soviet bloc, the legal system of Kyrgyzstan includes features not only of the Russian legal system but also of the French legal system The legal system did not acquire independence.

(D). After acquiring independence from the Soviet bloc, the legal system of Kyrgyzstan includes features of not only the Russian legal system but also of the French legal system Same errors

(E). After acquiring independence from the Soviet bloc, Kyrgyzstan has a legal system that includes features not only of the Russian legal system but also of the French
I would pick this one as the answer. Russian legal system does not seem parallel to French, but it's a permissible ellipses.
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Re: New SC project - ask a question, get explanation and a kudo! [#permalink] New post 30 Mar 2014, 12:40
souvik101990 wrote:
gauravkaushik8591 wrote:
SC Question:

Because of skyrocketing land costs in recent times and as public transportation facilities in both private and public domains became vastly improved, many middle income people now switching to suburban localities, which are providing pollution free residential communities at affordable prices.

(A) Because of skyrocketing land costs in recent times and as public transportation facilities in both private and public domains became vastly improved, many middle income people

(B) Because land costs are skyrocketing in recent times and as public transportation facilities in both private and public domains are becoming vastly improved, many middle income people

(C) In recent times, because of land costs skyrocketing and as public transportation facilities in both private and public domains have become vastly improved, many middle income people

(D) While land costs have skyrocketed in recent times and public transportation facilities in both private and public domains have become vastly improved, many middle income people are

(E) With land costs skyrocketing since recent times and with public transportation facilities in both private and public domains becoming vastly improved, many middle income people are

Not sure what the source is. Found it here on GMATClub itself:
one-question-a-day-q-18-sc-169416.html
No one has been able to explain the OA yet.

I would rather wait for you to come up with an explanation and then explain my way of thinking. Makes sense?



Because of skyrocketing land costs in recent times and as public transportation facilities in both private and public domains became vastly improved, many middle income people now switching to suburban localities, which are providing pollution free residential communities at affordable prices.

(A) Because of skyrocketing land costs in recent times and as public transportation facilities in both private and public domains became vastly improved, many middle income people No main verb.

(B) Because land costs are skyrocketing in recent times and as public transportation facilities in both private and public domains are becoming vastly improved, many middle income people No main verb

(C) In recent times, because of land costs skyrocketing and as public transportation facilities in both private and public domains have become vastly improved, many middle income people No main verb

(D) While land costs have skyrocketed in recent times and public transportation facilities in both private and public domains have become vastly improved, many middle income people are Verb error repaired. However the use of "while" does not seem to ring true. Poorly framed answer choice.

(E) With land costs skyrocketing since recent times and with public transportation facilities in both private and public domains becoming vastly improved, many middle income people are The initial prepositional phrase does not provide information about "middle income people"


I didn't get it Souvik. The opening modifier in option 'D' isn't providing any information about the middle income people either.
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Re: New SC project - ask a question, get explanation and a kudo! [#permalink] New post 31 Mar 2014, 11:18
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Quote:
I didn't get it Souvik. The opening modifier in option 'D' isn't providing any information about the middle income people either.


In option D, it is a prepositional phrase which provides extra information but not necessarily modify directly.

For example,
With little help, I finished my homework. (Here the phrase is providing more info about the finishing of my homework but not modifying "I", which is the main subject)
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Re: New SC project - ask a question, get explanation and a kudo! [#permalink] New post 31 Mar 2014, 15:54
Thanks a lot Souvik. Would you wanna take at stab at the other two questions too?
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Re: New SC project - ask a question, get explanation and a kudo! [#permalink] New post 01 Apr 2014, 19:41
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

Link : a-1972-agreement-between-canada-and-the-united-states-reduce-82589.html

No one has come up with a satisfactory explanation yet.

What are your thoughts about it?
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Re: New SC project - ask a question, get explanation and a kudo! [#permalink] New post 04 Apr 2014, 03:35
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The huge earthquake that occurred in Chile in 1960, had a magnitude of 9.5, believed to be the largest earthquake the world has ever seen.

(A) believed to be
(B) and that is believed to be
(C) and it is believed to have been
(D) which was, it is believed,
(E) which is believed to be

A) Sentence fragment.
B) Sentence fragment.

C) Correct.
D) which was - it is believed, - Wrong verb tense. VERY awkward construction.
E) "Which" needs to touch the noun that it modifies.

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Re: New SC project - ask a question, get explanation and a kudo! [#permalink] New post 04 Apr 2014, 04:19
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A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

Really, REALLY great question. Here are my thoughts on the cruz of the question.

Fact The 1972 agreement reduced the amount of phosphate allowed to dump.

Now, since the agreement is in the past, I cannot use a present tense verb. So "reduces" does not work at all. Eliminate C and E.

Now let's think about tenses.
If I use past perfect, what does it mean really? It means that the agreement reduced something that happened before the passage of the agreement. SO I cannot use the perfect past tense. Eliminate A and B.

D is the correct answer
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Re: New SC project - ask a question, get explanation and a kudo! [#permalink] New post 20 Apr 2014, 23:35
Found the below SC question in one of the more recent threads but with unclear OA and explanations.



Until 2010, a state tax regulation known as the “80-20 rule” required that condominium associations receive at least 80 percent of their gross income from their tenant-shareholders, and no more than 20 percent from other sources, like ground-floor rent for restaurants.

A. Until 2010, a state tax regulation known as the “80-20 rule” required that condominium associations receive at least 80 percent of their gross income from their tenant-shareholders, and no more than 20 percent from other sources, like ground-floor rent for restaurants.

B. Until 2010, a state tax regulation known as the “80-20 rule” requiring that condominium associations receive at least 80 percent of their gross income from their tenant-shareholders, and have no more than 20 percent from other sources, such as ground-floor rent for restaurants.

C. Until 2010, a state tax regulation known as the “80-20 rule” required condominium associations to receive at least 80 percent of their gross income from their tenant-shareholders, and have no more than 20 percent from other sources, such as ground-floor rent for restaurants.

D. Until 2010, a state tax regulation known as the “80-20 rule” required that condominium associations receive at least 80 percent of their gross income from their tenant-shareholders, and have no more than 20 percent from other sources, such as ground-floor rent for restaurants.

E. Until 2010, a state tax regulation known as the “80-20 rule” required condominium associations to receive at least 80 percent of their gross income from their tenant-shareholders, and to have no more than 20 percent from other sources, like ground-floor rent for restaurants.
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Re: New SC project - ask a question, get explanation and a kudo! [#permalink] New post 24 Apr 2014, 20:02
darkhorse19 wrote:
Found the below SC question in one of the more recent threads but with unclear OA and explanations.



Until 2010, a state tax regulation known as the “80-20 rule” required that condominium associations receive at least 80 percent of their gross income from their tenant-shareholders, and no more than 20 percent from other sources, like ground-floor rent for restaurants.

A. Until 2010, a state tax regulation known as the “80-20 rule” required that condominium associations receive at least 80 percent of their gross income from their tenant-shareholders, and no more than 20 percent from other sources, like ground-floor rent for restaurants.

B. Until 2010, a state tax regulation known as the “80-20 rule” requiring that condominium associations receive at least 80 percent of their gross income from their tenant-shareholders, and have no more than 20 percent from other sources, such as ground-floor rent for restaurants.

C. Until 2010, a state tax regulation known as the “80-20 rule” required condominium associations to receive at least 80 percent of their gross income from their tenant-shareholders, and have no more than 20 percent from other sources, such as ground-floor rent for restaurants.

D. Until 2010, a state tax regulation known as the “80-20 rule” required that condominium associations receive at least 80 percent of their gross income from their tenant-shareholders, and have no more than 20 percent from other sources, such as ground-floor rent for restaurants.

E. Until 2010, a state tax regulation known as the “80-20 rule” required condominium associations to receive at least 80 percent of their gross income from their tenant-shareholders, and to have no more than 20 percent from other sources, like ground-floor rent for restaurants.


Well, I did this question last year on GC forum and the status for this question says not sure for my previous attempt

To begin with we can see a split between "Such as and Like". Such as is normally used to show examples where as like is never used for the same but to compare nouns. (Check out the post on usage here....as-vs-like-correct-and-incorrect-usages-133950.html)

Also there are other reasons to rule out these options

In B, helping verb is missing for the subject " A state tax regulation........requiring(verb)
In Option C, let's break the sentence and see what we get

Until 2010, a state tax regulation known as the “80-20 rule” required (verb 1)condominium associations to receive at least 80 percent of their gross income from their tenant-shareholders, and have no more than (verb 2) 20 percent from other sources, such as ground-floor rent for restaurants.

We will need a" that" after required here because otherwise the subject of the sentence remains " A state tax regulation" which is singular...

in Option D, Such as is the main culprit and we need to rule it out for that reason


So we can rule out option B,C and D. We are left with A and E. I had tough time making a choice on these 2 options but then again Option E and had same issue as option C

Ans is A...
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Re: New SC project - ask a question, get explanation and a kudo! [#permalink] New post 24 Apr 2014, 21:23
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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached
the observer’s meridian and differing
from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

A. which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
B. which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
C. which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
D. determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
E. determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

OA

[Reveal] Spoiler:
E


found this question in one of the file uploaded on the forum. couldn't really get the explanation for this.
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Re: New SC project - ask a question, get explanation and a kudo! [#permalink] New post 25 Apr 2014, 00:21
revelationsgmat wrote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached
the observer’s meridian and differing
from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

A. which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
B. which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
C. which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
D. determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
E. determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

OA

[Reveal] Spoiler:
E


found this question in one of the file uploaded on the forum. couldn't really get the explanation for this.



Helloz,

Let's break down the sentence and see what we have got

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached
the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city,
and to the establishment of regional times.

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times and to the establishment of regional times.


In option A which stands for Local times ( which is plural) and hence verb should be plural as well. Therefore option A and B can be ruled out

Option C: which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

again which(the subject- local times) were determined (verb 1) is correct but the second part after "and" differing (acts as a verbing modifer and not a verb) is missing a helping verb and hence the sentence is not correct.

Option D : determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by(verb-ed modifier)
when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and
differed from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.
(Note :The above sentence in red means that sun differed from city to city which is not the case as it was local times which differed from city to city.)

There is a meaning change and hence option D is ruled out

OptionE : determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

Again determined by is verb-ed modifier modifying the subject local times and the latter part of the sentence "differing" acts as a verb-ing modifier modifying Local times.

Option E is the best
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New SC project - ask a question, get explanation and a kudo! [#permalink] New post 23 Jun 2014, 22:22
gauravkaushik8591 wrote:
Presently the East African country is focussed on privatization of state-owned enterprises, expansion of democracy and political freedom, and de-escalation of interethnic conflicts and ousting corruption.

(A)Presently the East African country is focussed on privatization of state-owned enterprises, expansion of democracy and political freedom, and de-escalation of interethnic conflicts and ousting corruption.

(B)Presently the East African country is focussed on privatization of state-owned enterprises, expansion of democracy and political freedom, de-escalation of interethnic conflicts and ouster of corruption.

(C)Presently the East African country is focussed on privatization of state-owned enterprises, expansion of democracy and political freedom, and de-escalating interethnic conflicts and on ousting corruption.

(D)Presently the East African country is focussed on privatization of state-owned enterprises, on expansion of democracy and political freedom, and de-escalation of interethnic conflicts and on ousting of corruption.

(E)Presently the East African country is focussed on privatization of state-owned enterprises, expanding democracy and political freedom, and on de-escalation of interethnic conflicts and ousting corruption.

My thoughts were pinned to A. But OA is C.

one-question-a-day-q-23-sc-169444.html

Again one of the threads in which people are waiting for an explanation.



Presently the East African country is focussed on privatization of state-owned enterprises, expansion of democracy and political freedom, and de-escalation of interethnic conflicts and ousting corruption.

" , and" before de-escalation shows end of the list, and hence, end of the parallel element.
Thus, underline words should be in parallel while "ousting corruption" need not be. However, "ousting corruption" is still another issue East African country is focused ON. As a rule of grammar, the preposition should be repeated before ousting corruption to avoid any confusion.

Now let us analyse various options:

(A) Privatization, expansion, and de-escalation are in parallel no preposition before ousting corruption

(B) same as (A)

(C) correct usage

(D) Prefer Verb > Adjective > Noun , if everything else is similar in two options (here C and D). Prefer direct usage "ousting corruption" over noun form "on ousting of corruption" which is awkward.

Privatization, expansion, and de-escalation are in parallel usage "on ousting of corruption" is inferior to - "ousting corruption"

(E)Privatization, expanding , and de-escalation are not in parallel... and no preposition before ousting corruption


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Re: New SC project - ask a question, get explanation and a kudo! [#permalink] New post 23 Jun 2014, 22:46
souvik101990 wrote:
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

Really, REALLY great question. Here are my thoughts on the cruz of the question.

Fact The 1972 agreement reduced the amount of phosphate allowed to dump.

Now, since the agreement is in the past, I cannot use a present tense verb. So "reduces" does not work at all. Eliminate C and E.

Now let's think about tenses.
If I use past perfect, what does it mean really? It means that the agreement reduced something that happened before the passage of the agreement. SO I cannot use the perfect past tense. Eliminate A and B.

D is the correct answer


Agreement did not reduce something. Rather reduced the allowance. I think that ' reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had dumped' would be wrong because you cannot reduce something that happened before the passage. But here you are reducing the allowance.
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Re: New SC project - ask a question, get explanation and a kudo! [#permalink] New post 23 Jun 2014, 23:08
souvik101990 wrote:
The huge earthquake that occurred in Chile in 1960, had a magnitude of 9.5, believed to be the largest earthquake the world has ever seen.

(A) believed to be
(B) and that is believed to be
(C) and it is believed to have been
(D) which was, it is believed,
(E) which is believed to be

A) Sentence fragment.
B) Sentence fragment.

C) Correct.
D) which was - it is believed, - Wrong verb tense. VERY awkward construction.
E) "Which" needs to touch the noun that it modifies.



Why is B a Sentence fragment ? Is it because this starts with a THAT and can't stand on it's own ?
Re: New SC project - ask a question, get explanation and a kudo!   [#permalink] 23 Jun 2014, 23:08
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