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# A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce

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Manager
Joined: 18 Jun 2004
Posts: 100
Location: san jose , CA

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Updated on: 30 Aug 2017, 18:37
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Edit: The discussion is locked. Go HERE for further discussion.

A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities

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[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Originally posted by rahul on 01 Sep 2004, 00:51.
Last edited by broall on 30 Aug 2017, 18:37, edited 3 times in total.
Too many pages for this topic. Do not try to unlock this post again!
Manager
Joined: 28 Jul 2004
Posts: 177
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2004, 04:30
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A looks fine to me. The reduction in the 'amount of phosphates' from what it was allowed before the agreement.

A talks clear that the amount which was allowed before the agreement was reduced in the agreement.
Manager
Joined: 02 Apr 2004
Posts: 221
Location: Utrecht
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2004, 12:27
I choose A.

Before the agreement companies were dumping already and this will continue after the agreement. Not sure what tense to call this: past perfect??

Correct me if I am wrong.

Regards,

Alex
Director
Joined: 05 May 2004
Posts: 573
Location: San Jose, CA
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2004, 12:49
Will go with A
there are 2 time buckets
1. 1972
1972 is past, hence reduced is correct
2. before 1972
municipalities' dumping procedure before 1972 requires past perfect
Senior Manager
Joined: 25 Jul 2004
Posts: 271
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2004, 15:58
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I don't believe past perfect is right in this case. I'll go for D.
GMAT Club Legend
Joined: 07 Jul 2004
Posts: 4983
Location: Singapore
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2004, 18:00
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(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
- Had been allowed means before this agreemet municpalities were dumping, after the agreement reduced the amount that are dumped.

(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
- Had been dumping is the wrong tense. It means it happened in the past and still happening at the point after the agreement (even though it may not be happening now)

(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
- reduces is the wrong tense

(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
- This statement did nothing to suggest that municapalilties were dumping anything and if so, the point of the agreement was more of a early kill (reduce the amount in case municipalities decided to start dumping waste)

(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities
- reduces is the wrong tense

(A) is a better choice
VP
Joined: 13 Jun 2004
Posts: 1105
Location: London, UK
Schools: Tuck'08
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2004, 22:52
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A for me.

However I understand people who chose D, but I am not sure this is the best way in ETS rules, I think it's better to stick with tense concordance...even if the answer D sounds ok for my ears.
VP
Joined: 18 Nov 2004
Posts: 1406
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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10 Mar 2005, 09:41
4. A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities
Senior Manager
Joined: 07 Nov 2004
Posts: 443
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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10 Mar 2005, 10:34
A it is. municipals were dumping until 1972, so past perfect tense is correct.
Intern
Joined: 17 Feb 2005
Posts: 28
Location: SE Michigan
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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10 Mar 2005, 13:25
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I picked D as it better follows the intent of the sentence...

"agreement reduced the amount that the municipalities are allowed to dump"....that the agreement refers to dumping that is ongoing is best expressed here.

"agreement reduced the amount that the municipalities had been allowed to dump" the agreement could not really have reduced the amount that had already been dumped, right?
Director
Joined: 29 Oct 2004
Posts: 826
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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10 Mar 2005, 14:11
I go for (A)

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
past perfect mean "more past", so "allow" was happened before"reduce"

(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
"that municipalities had been dumping" needs to modify "phosphate", not "amount". They dont dump "amount", but they dump the chemical.

(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
same as above

(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
"are" in present while the sentence is in past tense.

(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities
allow to is idiomatic
SVP
Joined: 03 Jan 2005
Posts: 2186
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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10 Mar 2005, 14:25
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C and E are easily eliminated because 1972 is in the past. "the phosphate amount" in B is wrong. Also nobody can reduce the amount that somebody has already been dumping. Allowed to dump is another matter.

It is hard to choose from A and D. In D it seems that the present tense is not consistent with the past tense in the main clause. However, in A the past perfect tense seems to imply that the agreement reduced the amount that were allowed before the agreement, which is not true. I would almost say that the correct way should be a simply past tense, but it is not included in the answers. I think D is the lesser evil since well municipalities are still allowed to dump today aren't they not?
Manager
Joined: 15 Feb 2005
Posts: 243
Location: Rockville
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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10 Mar 2005, 14:36
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I think it is D there was a similar sort of question on the forum two weeks back i shall look and post the link.
remember that the munciplaities dumping phosphates in the lake is not a thing of the past , nothing is explicit about it so assume it is still going on.
Maybe i am wrong
but on OA id have to choose D
VP
Joined: 18 Nov 2004
Posts: 1406
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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10 Mar 2005, 14:55
can't we take the sentence as "the municipalities are still not allowed" i.e. process still happens ? OA is "A"....no OE, but I am not convinced with the OA, can anyone expl why the above assumption is wrong ?
Director
Joined: 05 Jul 2004
Posts: 881
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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10 Mar 2005, 17:48
banerjeea_98 wrote:
can't we take the sentence as "the municipalities are still not allowed" i.e. process still happens ? OA is "A"....no OE, but I am not convinced with the OA, can anyone expl why the above assumption is wrong ?

It has to be (A). How can you tell that agreement is still valid today(present tense)?
Senior Manager
Joined: 07 Oct 2003
Posts: 349
Location: Manhattan
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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12 Mar 2005, 20:22
HongHu wrote:
C and E are easily eliminated because 1972 is in the past. "the phosphate amount" in B is wrong. Also nobody can reduce the amount that somebody has already been dumping. Allowed to dump is another matter.

It is hard to choose from A and D. In D it seems that the present tense is not consistent with the past tense in the main clause. However, in A the past perfect tense seems to imply that the agreement reduced the amount that were allowed before the agreement, which is not true. I would almost say that the correct way should be a simply past tense, but it is not included in the answers. I think D is the lesser evil since well municipalities are still allowed to dump today aren't they not?

Regardless of your point on D, 'municipalities are allowed to dump' in this context is wrong due to present tense. They had been allowed to dump x tonns of whatever. Now the amount is different. Therefore, the previous amount must have a verbal agreement that's in the past tense. I'm no verbal guru, but I think the right answer is A.
GMAT Club Legend
Joined: 07 Jul 2004
Posts: 4983
Location: Singapore
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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12 Mar 2005, 22:15
The agreement was made in the past, so past tense is required.
(C), (E) are out. We're left with (A), (B), and (D).
(B) is out. 'amount' should stick close to reduce since you can't reduce 'phosphate'
Between (A) and (D), (A) is the better chioce. In a time-line, 'agreement' comes later than 'had been allowed to dump'. You will need a past perfect tense in (A) to describe what the municipalities had been allowed, and the past tense to describe the new agreement.

A it is.
GMAT Club Legend
Joined: 07 Jul 2004
Posts: 4983
Location: Singapore
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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12 Mar 2005, 22:19
(D) is out. It's not so much a question of present tense vs past tense. You have to realise that you are dealing with two issues, occuring at different time.

When you have two such actions, the thing that should immediately come to your mind is perfect tense ! Only the perfect tense allow for the writer to clearly phrase which action comes first, and which action comes later.
Manager
Joined: 03 Nov 2004
Posts: 183
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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24 Apr 2005, 10:45
A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States (reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump) into the Great Lakes.

(A) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities had been allowed to dump
(B) reduced the phosphate amount that municipalities had been dumping
(C) reduces the phosphate amount municipalities have been allowed to dump
(D) reduced the amount of phosphates that municipalities are allowed to dump
(E) reduces the amount of phosphates allowed for dumping by municipalities
Director
Joined: 01 Feb 2003
Posts: 824
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce [#permalink]

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24 Apr 2005, 10:50
A it is

past tense - reduced => what the 1972 agreement did

past perfect - had been => what the situation was before the agreement
Re: A 1972 agreement between Canada and the United States reduce   [#permalink] 24 Apr 2005, 10:50

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