The technological conservatism of bicycle manaufacturers is : GMAT Critical Reasoning (CR)
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# The technological conservatism of bicycle manaufacturers is

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22 Jul 2011, 03:54
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The technological conservatism of bicycle manaufacturers is a reflection of the kinds of demand they are trying to meet. The only cyclist seriously interested in innovation and willing to pay for it are bicycle racers. Therefore, innovation in bicycle technology is limited by what authorities will accept as standard for purpose of competition in bicycle races.

Which of following is an assumption made in drawing the conclusion above?

a) The market for cheap, traditional bicycle cannnot expand unless the market for high-performance competition bicycles expands.

b) High-performance bicycles are likely to be improved more as a result of technological innovations developed in small workshops than as a result of technological innovations developed in major manufacturing concerns.

c) Bicycle racers do not generate a strong demand for innovations that fall outside what is officially recoginized as standard for purpose of competition.

d) The technology conservatism of bicycle manufacturers results primarily from their desire to manufacturer a product that can be sold without being altered to suit different national markets.

e) The authorities who set standards for high-performance bicycle racing do not keep informed about innovative bicycle design.

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Why is C, pls explain and pls also teach how to tackle assumption question since I am very weaken at this part. Thank you.
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22 Jul 2011, 06:39
C for me.

Breaking down the argument
Premise: bicycle racers are the only ones who are willing to support Innovation.
Conclusion: Innovation is limited by what the sport authorities will allow in bicycle races.

Clearly the assumption necessary to bridge the gap in premise and conclusion is :
bicycle racers only want innovations which will be permitted in races.... => C

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23 Jul 2011, 00:49
Conclusion: Therefore, innovation in bicycle technology is limited by what authorities will accept as standard for purpose of competition in bicycle races.

Only C links standard purpose of competition to bicycle racers. Thus the assumption.
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23 Jul 2011, 04:06
So it just means that racers only interested in innovation technology, right, other stuff that they are no interested, right?~~

crick20002002 wrote:
C for me.

Breaking down the argument
Premise: bicycle racers are the only ones who are willing to support Innovation.
Conclusion: Innovation is limited by what the sport authorities will allow in bicycle races.

Clearly the assumption necessary to bridge the gap in premise and conclusion is :
bicycle racers only want innovations which will be permitted in races.... => C

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23 Jul 2011, 11:16
Premise: The technological conservatism of bicycle manufacturers is a reflection of the kinds of demand they are trying to meet. The only cyclist seriously interested in innovation and willing to pay for it are bicycle racers.
Conclusion:Therefore, innovation in bicycle technology is limited by what authorities will accept as standard for purpose of competition in bicycle races.

According to the premise, since only bicycle racers are interested in innovations and are willing to pay for it, they are the sole drivers of innovation in bicycles. However, if the racers also led to innovations beyond those permitted by the authorities, it would weaken the conclusion.

Hence, our assumption is as given in C, that the racers dont lead to any other innovations.

Note: this is a classic case of using negation for assumption questions.
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23 Jul 2011, 11:22
tracyyahoo wrote:
So it just means that racers only interested in innovation technology, right, other stuff that they are no interested, right?~~

Actually the opposite:

Manufacturers think that since the racers use only "Type A" bikes for competition, the innovation will be needed only for "Type A" bikes. However, it may not be true because the racers may demand "Type B" bikes for other purposes than competition; maybe for mountain biking, to give gifts, to train others, for pleasure.
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11 Aug 2011, 12:33
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Assumption questions revolve around filling in the logic gap between the premise and the conclusion AND strengthening the conclusion thereby.
On a tie between two choices, negating the correct choice (assumption) will make the conclusion fall apart.

The answer here is C because
Premise: Tech conservatism of bicycle manufac is reflection of demand type.
Premise: Only racers are interested in and willing to pay for innovation
Conclusion: Innov is limited by what authorities accept as [u]standard for racing

What is the logic gap? Premises say that only racers are interested in innov. Conc says that hence, standards accepted by authorities will decide the innov.
The gap is the assumption, i.e., Racers' demands are limited by standards chalked out by authorities!

Hope this helps.
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18 Aug 2011, 03:13
Also choice E is a red herring choice. It might seem to support. However whether the authorities keep informed about innovation is out of scope. It may so happen that authorities do keep informed but do not accept the innovations as standards!
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29 Mar 2013, 22:28
The technological conservatism of bicycle manaufacturers is a reflection of the kinds of demand they are trying to meet. The only cyclist seriously interested in innovation and willing to pay for it are bicycle racers. Therefore, innovation in bicycle technology is limited by what authorities will accept as standard for purpose of competition in bicycle races.

Which of following is an assumption made in drawing the conclusion above?

a) The market for cheap, traditional bicycle cannnot expand unless the market for high-performance competition bicycles expands.

b) High-performance bicycles are likely to be improved more as a result of technological innovations developed in small workshops than as a result of technological innovations developed in major manufacturing concerns.

c) Bicycle racers do not generate a strong demand for innovations that fall outside what is officially recoginized as standard for purpose of competition.

d) The technology conservatism of bicycle manufacturers results primarily from their desire to manufacturer a product that can be sold without being altered to suit different national markets.

e) The authorities who set standards for high-performance bicycle racing do not keep informed about innovative bicycle design.

Why is C, pls explain ................

Last edited by mun23 on 30 Mar 2013, 09:05, edited 1 time in total.
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30 Mar 2013, 03:22
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Hi Mun

You for Cr have to follow my strategy (indeed is the strategy to tackle CR is not my invention)

Break the argument, step by step , sentence by sentence. Otherwise YOU will not pick the right one NEVER.

The technological conservatism of bicycle manaufacturers is a reflection of the kinds of demand they are trying to meet.

So this sentence says: the manufatures do not produce innovative bycicles because nobody asks them. Try to personalise the argument: you want a bycicle hyper fast, hyper light that is not cheap: it cost even 1 million of \$ (is true, it exists)......no you do no really care: you need a standard bycicle. that's it. From now at the top of your head suddenly jumps what, for instance: the vast majority of people want a standard thing.........and so on

The only cyclist seriously interested in innovation and willing to pay for it are bicycle racers.

This stat for me is obviously clear and straight

Therefore, innovation in bicycle technology is limited by what authorities will accept as standard for purpose of competition in bicycle races.

Conclusion: from the premises follow what we already in somehow know: who purchase the top notch are the racers

Which of following is an assumption made in drawing the conclusion above?

a) The market for cheap, traditional bicycle cannnot expand unless the market for high-performance competition bicycles expands.

Is false. we do not know the size of the market share of cheap bycicles but for sure if the vast majority of the people BUY the cheap one or so because the argument says that the high performance b are not purchesed. basically

b) High-performance bicycles are likely to be improved more as a result of technological innovations developed in small workshops than as a result of technological innovations developed in major manufacturing concerns.

what accour in small workshop is completely unrelated to our scope

c) Bicycle racers do not generate a strong demand for innovations that fall outside what is officially recoginized as standard for purpose of competition.

This perfectly fit the bill. Is clear and try to make always in your words: I do not buy a new one unless I'm a racer but I am one in a million, so is impossible that I or other 10 people generate a strong demand for high performance bycicles

d) The technology conservatism of bicycle manufacturers results primarily from their desire to manufacturer a product that can be sold without being altered to suit different national markets.

Weird as response but I'm quite sure that in the argument nothing is said about national market and so on............nope

e) The authorities who set standards for high-performance bicycle racing do not keep informed about innovative bicycle design.

Design.........mmmmmm no I re-read the argument and I didn't find clues about........nope

Let me know if all is clear for you

Regards
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30 Mar 2013, 03:24
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Changed the tag. this is not a sub 600 level question.
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31 Mar 2013, 15:11
plumber250 wrote:
carcass wrote:
Otherwise YOU will not pick the right one NEVER.

Good thing this isn't a Sentence Correction passage

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23 Apr 2013, 21:30
All duplicate threads on this topic have been merged.

Please check and follow the Guidelines for Posting in Verbal GMAT forum before posting anything.
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13 Jun 2013, 08:34
though answer is clearly "C"
I dint understood sentence structure of option "D"
what it is trying to convey?

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15 Apr 2014, 15:44
Which of following is an assumption made in drawing the conclusion above?

a) The market for cheap, traditional bicycle cannnot expand unless the market for high-performance competition bicycles expands.

Wrong:
Argument is not about expanding market or even that of traditional bikes.

b) High-performance bicycles are likely to be improved more as a result of technological innovations developed in small workshops than as a result of technological innovations developed in major manufacturing concerns.

Wrong:
How high-tech bikes are developed is out of scope.

c) Bicycle racers do not generate a strong demand for innovations that fall outside what is officially recoginized as standard for purpose of competition.

Correct (at the very least, it is the best answer):

Negating this kills the argument, because the negation would show that innovation would not be limited by the standards set by the authorities.

d) The technology conservatism of bicycle manufacturers results primarily from their desire to manufacturer a product that can be sold without being altered to suit different national markets.

Wrong: Different national markets is out of scope.

e) The authorities who set standards for high-performance bicycle racing do not keep informed about innovative bicycle design.

Wrong: being informed about high-tech bikes is irrelevant
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31 May 2015, 04:10
I seriously struggle with CR, but have found that really personalizing the passage can help A LOT.

What I mean is that I break it down to a really simple level.

For this question, this is kinda what went through my mind when I read the passage:

Bicyle store guy: We'll only manufacture standard bikes, because that's whats gonna sell.

Racer: Dude, no.. I'll buy a pro bike, I really need a high-tech bike.

Bicole store guy: Okay, we'll produce a high-tech bike. You race right? We'll produce a bike that racers use in official competitions. Trust us, we got you covered bro. The bike you need will DEF be in our store.

Racer (here goes the assumption): Well, dude.. how do you know what type of bike I need?

This might seem a little childish and weird, but seriously, it can really help you grasp what is actually going on in the passage. Try it out. Simplify as much possible.
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31 May 2015, 07:12
C
Conclusion - innovation in bicycle technology is limited by what authorities will accept as standard for purpose of competition in bicycle races
Premises - Only bicycle racers are interested in innovative bicycles
Assumption - bicycle racers are interested only for standard for purpose of competition in bicycle races
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