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The technological conservatism of bicycle manufacturers is a reflectio

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The technological conservatism of bicycle manufacturers is a reflectio  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 08 Apr 2019, 04:10
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The technological conservatism of bicycle manufacturers is a reflection of the kinds of demand they are trying to meet. The only cyclist seriously interested in innovation and willing to pay for it are bicycle racers. Therefore, innovation in bicycle technology is limited by what authorities will accept as standard for purpose of competition in bicycle races.

Which of following is an assumption made in drawing the conclusion above?


(A) The market for cheap, traditional bicycle cannot expand unless the market for high-performance competition bicycles expands.

(B) High-performance bicycles are likely to be improved more as a result of technological innovations developed in small workshops than as a result of technological innovations developed in major manufacturing concerns.

(C) Bicycle racers do not generate a strong demand for innovations that fall outside what is officially recognized as standard for purpose of competition.

(D) The technology conservatism of bicycle manufacturers results primarily from their desire to manufacturer a product that can be sold without being altered to suit different national markets.

(E) The authorities who set standards for high-performance bicycle racing do not keep informed about innovative bicycle design.


OG2012 CR28 P493

Why is C, pls explain and pls also teach how to tackle assumption question since I am very weaken at this part. Thank you.

Originally posted by tracyyahoo on 22 Jul 2011, 04:54.
Last edited by Bunuel on 08 Apr 2019, 04:10, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: The technological conservatism of bicycle manufacturers is a reflectio  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jul 2011, 07:39
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C for me.

Breaking down the argument
Premise: bicycle racers are the only ones who are willing to support Innovation.
Conclusion: Innovation is limited by what the sport authorities will allow in bicycle races.

Clearly the assumption necessary to bridge the gap in premise and conclusion is :
bicycle racers only want innovations which will be permitted in races.... => C

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New post 23 Jul 2011, 05:06
So it just means that racers only interested in innovation technology, right, other stuff that they are no interested, right?~~

crick20002002 wrote:
C for me.

Breaking down the argument
Premise: bicycle racers are the only ones who are willing to support Innovation.
Conclusion: Innovation is limited by what the sport authorities will allow in bicycle races.

Clearly the assumption necessary to bridge the gap in premise and conclusion is :
bicycle racers only want innovations which will be permitted in races.... => C

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New post 23 Jul 2011, 12:22
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tracyyahoo wrote:
So it just means that racers only interested in innovation technology, right, other stuff that they are no interested, right?~~


Actually the opposite:

Manufacturers think that since the racers use only "Type A" bikes for competition, the innovation will be needed only for "Type A" bikes. However, it may not be true because the racers may demand "Type B" bikes for other purposes than competition; maybe for mountain biking, to give gifts, to train others, for pleasure.
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Re: The technological conservatism of bicycle manufacturers is a reflectio  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Aug 2011, 13:33
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Assumption questions revolve around filling in the logic gap between the premise and the conclusion AND strengthening the conclusion thereby.
On a tie between two choices, negating the correct choice (assumption) will make the conclusion fall apart.

The answer here is C because
Premise: Tech conservatism of bicycle manufac is reflection of demand type.
Premise: Only racers are interested in and willing to pay for innovation
Conclusion: Innov is limited by what authorities accept as [u]standard for racing


What is the logic gap? Premises say that only racers are interested in innov. Conc says that hence, standards accepted by authorities will decide the innov.
The gap is the assumption, i.e., Racers' demands are limited by standards chalked out by authorities!

Hope this helps.
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New post 30 Mar 2013, 04:22
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Hi Mun :)

You for Cr have to follow my strategy (indeed is the strategy to tackle CR is not my invention)

Break the argument, step by step , sentence by sentence. Otherwise YOU will not pick the right one NEVER.

The technological conservatism of bicycle manaufacturers is a reflection of the kinds of demand they are trying to meet.

So this sentence says: the manufatures do not produce innovative bycicles because nobody asks them. Try to personalise the argument: you want a bycicle hyper fast, hyper light that is not cheap: it cost even 1 million of $ (is true, it exists)......no you do no really care: you need a standard bycicle. that's it. From now at the top of your head suddenly jumps what, for instance: the vast majority of people want a standard thing.........and so on


The only cyclist seriously interested in innovation and willing to pay for it are bicycle racers.

This stat for me is obviously clear and straight


Therefore, innovation in bicycle technology is limited by what authorities will accept as standard for purpose of competition in bicycle races.


Conclusion: from the premises follow what we already in somehow know: who purchase the top notch are the racers


Which of following is an assumption made in drawing the conclusion above?

a) The market for cheap, traditional bicycle cannnot expand unless the market for high-performance competition bicycles expands.

Is false. we do not know the size of the market share of cheap bycicles but for sure if the vast majority of the people BUY the cheap one or so because the argument says that the high performance b are not purchesed. basically



b) High-performance bicycles are likely to be improved more as a result of technological innovations developed in small workshops than as a result of technological innovations developed in major manufacturing concerns.


what accour in small workshop is completely unrelated to our scope



c) Bicycle racers do not generate a strong demand for innovations that fall outside what is officially recoginized as standard for purpose of competition.

This perfectly fit the bill. Is clear and try to make always in your words: I do not buy a new one unless I'm a racer but I am one in a million, so is impossible that I or other 10 people generate a strong demand for high performance bycicles

d) The technology conservatism of bicycle manufacturers results primarily from their desire to manufacturer a product that can be sold without being altered to suit different national markets.

Weird as response but I'm quite sure that in the argument nothing is said about national market and so on............nope



e) The authorities who set standards for high-performance bicycle racing do not keep informed about innovative bicycle design.

Design.........mmmmmm no I re-read the argument and I didn't find clues about........nope



Let me know if all is clear for you

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Re: The technological conservatism of bicycle manufacturers is a reflectio  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Apr 2014, 16:44
Which of following is an assumption made in drawing the conclusion above?

a) The market for cheap, traditional bicycle cannnot expand unless the market for high-performance competition bicycles expands.

Wrong:
Argument is not about expanding market or even that of traditional bikes.

b) High-performance bicycles are likely to be improved more as a result of technological innovations developed in small workshops than as a result of technological innovations developed in major manufacturing concerns.

Wrong:
How high-tech bikes are developed is out of scope.

c) Bicycle racers do not generate a strong demand for innovations that fall outside what is officially recoginized as standard for purpose of competition.

Correct (at the very least, it is the best answer):

Negating this kills the argument, because the negation would show that innovation would not be limited by the standards set by the authorities.

d) The technology conservatism of bicycle manufacturers results primarily from their desire to manufacturer a product that can be sold without being altered to suit different national markets.

Wrong: Different national markets is out of scope.

e) The authorities who set standards for high-performance bicycle racing do not keep informed about innovative bicycle design.

Wrong: being informed about high-tech bikes is irrelevant
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Re: The technological conservatism of bicycle manufacturers is a reflectio  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jul 2017, 00:51
Innovation = Type of demand. Innovation = bicycle Racers Bicycle racers = Standards So: Innovation = Standards

The technological conservatism of bicycle manufacturers is a reflection of the kinds of demand they are trying to meet. The only cyclist seriously interested in innovation and willing to pay for it are bicycle racers. Therefore, innovation in bicycle technology is limited by what authorities will accept as standard for purpose of competition in bicycle races.

Which of following is an assumption made in drawing the conclusion above?

(A) The market for cheap, traditional bicycle cannot expand unless the market for high-performance competition bicycles expands.
Out of context. We are not talking about cheap market for a bicycle or anything. Here the topic is about innovations adhering to the standards. Probably those innovations might not even come to mass market because they are specifically designed for the professionals.

(B) High-performance bicycles are likely to be improved more as a result of technological innovations developed in small workshops than as a result of technological innovations developed in major manufacturing concerns.
Out of context. We are not even concerned about the manufacturing site for innovation. We are concerned about the type of innovation.

(C) Bicycle racers do not generate a strong demand for innovations that fall outside what is officially recognized as standard for purpose of competition.
This answer came through POE because this is not the best assumption according to me. So we have assumed that bikers don't create a good demand for outside the policy and so therefore the company has to follow the guidelines.

(D) The technology conservatism of bicycle manufacturers results primarily from their desire to manufacturer a product that can be sold without being altered to suit different national markets.
National market: No talks about it. This statement goes against the conclusion. Like a negation test.

(E) The authorities who set standards for high-performance bicycle racing do not keep informed about innovative bicycle design.
This is a tempting answer. But it's actually a premise and not an assumption. It is one of the reason as to why there aren't any new innovation... because of communication gap. But this is not an assumption.
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Re: The technological conservatism of bicycle manufacturers is a reflectio  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Oct 2018, 23:33
GMAC official explanation:

Argument Construction

Situation Bicycle racers are the only consumers willing to pay for innovations in bicycle technology. Manufacturers therefore limit innovation to the standards established for competitive bicycle racing.
Reasoning What is being assumed in this argument? This argument implies a connection between what bicycle racers want and what bicycle manufacturers make. The passage states that only racers are interested in innovation and willing to pay for it. Bicycle manufacturers have determined it is not worthwhile to produce innovative bicycles that do not meet official standards. What is the implied interaction? It is reasonable to assume that racers must not be interested in buying models that, while innovative, do not meet official standards for racing; they will pay only for those innovations that are acceptable in competition.
A The argument concerns innovation in bicycle technology. It is not about the entire market for all bicycles, so no assumption is made about traditional bicycles.
B The passage does not discuss where the best innovations are likely to be created, so no assumption about small workshops versus large manufacturers is made.
C Correct. This statement properly identifies the conclusion’s underlying assumption that bicycle racers do not buy bicycles they cannot use for racing.
D The passage does not discuss different national markets; no assumption can be made about them.
E The passage does not indicate what the authorities do or do not know; this statement is extraneous to the passage and cannot be assumed.
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Re: The technological conservatism of bicycle manufacturers is a reflectio  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Oct 2018, 05:21
[quote="tracyyahoo"]The technological conservatism of bicycle manufacturers is a reflection of the kinds of demand they are trying to meet. The only cyclist seriously interested in innovation and willing to pay for it are bicycle racers. Therefore, innovation in bicycle technology is limited by what authorities will accept as standard for purpose of competition in bicycle races.

Which of following is an assumption made in drawing the conclusion above?

(A) The market for cheap, traditional bicycle cannot expand unless the market for high-performance competition bicycles expands.

(B) High-performance bicycles are likely to be improved more as a result of technological innovations developed in small workshops than as a result of technological innovations developed in major manufacturing concerns.

(C) Bicycle racers do not generate a strong demand for innovations that fall outside what is officially recognized as standard for purpose of competition.

(D) The technology conservatism of bicycle manufacturers results primarily from their desire to manufacturer a product that can be sold without being altered to suit different national markets.

(E) The authorities who set standards for high-performance bicycle racing do not keep informed about innovative bicycle design.

OG2012 CR28 P493
How negation technique works here ? I can't understand how the argument fails when I negate choice (C). Please help GMATinsight
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Re: The technological conservatism of bicycle manufacturers is a reflectio  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Oct 2018, 08:50
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rashedBhai wrote:
tracyyahoo wrote:
The technological conservatism of bicycle manufacturers is a reflection of the kinds of demand they are trying to meet. The only cyclist seriously interested in innovation and willing to pay for it are bicycle racers. Therefore, innovation in bicycle technology is limited by what authorities will accept as standard for purpose of competition in bicycle races.

Which of following is an assumption made in drawing the conclusion above?

(A) The market for cheap, traditional bicycle cannot expand unless the market for high-performance competition bicycles expands.

(B) High-performance bicycles are likely to be improved more as a result of technological innovations developed in small workshops than as a result of technological innovations developed in major manufacturing concerns.

(C) Bicycle racers do not generate a strong demand for innovations that fall outside what is officially recognized as standard for purpose of competition.

(D) The technology conservatism of bicycle manufacturers results primarily from their desire to manufacturer a product that can be sold without being altered to suit different national markets.

(E) The authorities who set standards for high-performance bicycle racing do not keep informed about innovative bicycle design.

OG2012 CR28 P493
How negation technique works here ? I can't understand how the argument fails when I negate choice (C). Please help GMATinsight


Negation of option (C) will be - Bicycle racers generate a strong demand for innovations that fall outside what is officially recognized as standard for purpose of competition.

Now if Cycle racers are interested in innovative cycles falling outside the officially recognized bycycles then it will act as an incentive for the manufactureres to manufacture such Cycles, thus Answer must be (C)
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Re: The technological conservatism of bicycle manufacturers is a reflectio  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 02 Nov 2018, 02:45
rashedBhai wrote:
tracyyahoo wrote:
The technological conservatism of bicycle manufacturers is a reflection of the kinds of demand they are trying to meet. The only cyclist seriously interested in innovation and willing to pay for it are bicycle racers. Therefore, innovation in bicycle technology is limited by what authorities will accept as standard for purpose of competition in bicycle races.

Which of following is an assumption made in drawing the conclusion above?

(A) The market for cheap, traditional bicycle cannot expand unless the market for high-performance competition bicycles expands.

(B) High-performance bicycles are likely to be improved more as a result of technological innovations developed in small workshops than as a result of technological innovations developed in major manufacturing concerns.

(C) Bicycle racers do not generate a strong demand for innovations that fall outside what is officially recognized as standard for purpose of competition.

(D) The technology conservatism of bicycle manufacturers results primarily from their desire to manufacturer a product that can be sold without being altered to suit different national markets.

(E) The authorities who set standards for high-performance bicycle racing do not keep informed about innovative bicycle design.

OG2012 CR28 P493
How negation technique works here ? I can't understand how the argument fails when I negate choice (C). Please help GMATinsight


rashedBhai

The Logic of Assumption is Simple : 2+3 = 5

The question states that the bicycle manufacturers are technological conservative because
1) They favour the market demand and produce accordingly

Which is clear indication that though Bicycle racers might want technological innovation but the demand is certainly not strong enough outside what authorities limit

therefore clear answer is Option C
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Originally posted by GMATinsight on 01 Nov 2018, 01:12.
Last edited by GMATinsight on 02 Nov 2018, 02:45, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The technological conservatism of bicycle manufacturers is a reflectio  [#permalink]

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New post 01 May 2019, 01:41
mallya12 wrote:
Why is option E wrong? negating E the authorities who set standards for a high-performance bicycle are informed about innovative bicycle design. Thus they may allow innovation in bicycle technology.

Is it because there is a "may" and not assurance about allowing innovation, option E is wrong??

The conclusion of the passage is that "innovation in bicycle technology is limited by what authorities will accept as standard for purpose of competition in bicycle races." To answer the question, we need to find an answer choice that "is an assumption made in drawing the conclusion."

Let's take a look at (E):
Quote:
(E) The authorities who set standards for high-performance bicycle racing do not keep informed about innovative bicycle design.

The conclusion states that bicycle technology is limited by what authorities will accept as standard for bicycle competitions. Does it matter whether these authorities actually keep informed about innovative designs?

Maybe they do keep informed about all of the latest and greatest innovations, and then accept as standard some portion of those innovations. Maybe they do not keep informed at all, and only accept older bicycle designs. In either case, the limiting factor is what the authorities accept as standard. The author's conclusion is valid regardless of how well informed the authorities who set standards are, so (E) is not an assumption made in drawing the conclusion.

I hope that helps!
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Re: The technological conservatism of bicycle manufacturers is a reflectio   [#permalink] 01 May 2019, 01:41
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