The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC) - Page 2
Check GMAT Club Decision Tracker for the Latest School Decision Releases http://gmatclub.com/AppTrack

 It is currently 21 Jan 2017, 19:50

### GMAT Club Daily Prep

#### Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

# Events & Promotions

###### Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

# The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local

Author Message
TAGS:

### Hide Tags

Manager
Joined: 29 Jun 2011
Posts: 164
WE 1: Information Technology(Retail)
Followers: 3

Kudos [?]: 21 [0], given: 29

Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local [#permalink]

### Show Tags

02 Nov 2011, 03:53
E.
I too went for D first but its clear now why E is correct.
Agree with zulkfal explanation.
Manager
Joined: 26 Jan 2012
Posts: 78
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 22 [0], given: 14

Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local [#permalink]

### Show Tags

30 Dec 2012, 14:39
A –times is plural. Was is incorrect. Eliminate
B – same as A. Eliminate
C – Not parallel. Determined and differing. In this sentence the role of determined is a VERB. Hence, Determined Vs differing needs to be parallel. C says "which were determined by and differing" - those aren't parallel. Eliminate
D – Keep. See explanation See explanation of "start up user" in this thread. The role of determined is of a participle and not a verb. So we don’t do parallelism check of determined Vs Differing
E –See explanation of "start up user" in this thread. The role of determined is of a participle and not a verb. So we don’t do parallelism check of determined Vs Differing. Eliminate
Intern
Joined: 30 Apr 2015
Posts: 1
Concentration: Finance, General Management
WE: Information Technology (Computer Software)
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 0 [0], given: 0

Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local [#permalink]

### Show Tags

25 Jul 2015, 19:55
anita_083 wrote:
70. The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(B)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which differed
(C)which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(D)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing

Thanks!

Explanation:
The only difference between choices D and E is differed/differing, and, as you've no doubt realized, the key issue
is making the choice that's most parallel
to 'determined' (from the first half of the modifier).
Here's the key: 'Determined' isn't a verb here. It's a PARTICIPLE: a verb form that functions as an adjective.
The local times were WEIRD (adjective).
The local times were DETERMINED (participle acting as adjective) by ...
So you need to pick the second half that's also 'participle acting as adjective'. Try them both:
D) The local times were DIFFERED: uh oh, that doesn't work.
E) The local times were DIFFERING from city to city. That works. It's a 'present participle' rather than a 'past

participle', but it's the only one of the
two that's a participle at all.
In D and E, you can tell determined = participle, not verb, because (a) it immediately follows a comma and (b)
there's no subject you could match up with
determined in a normal subject-verb configuration. Even if you match determined with the noun "times" (to which
the clause is referring) "times, determined
by" is not proper subject-verb config.
The architecture exhibited in the Empire State Building and conveyed us an idea of the prevailingattitudes of the
day is important for the historical and cultural value it represents.
It's a bit tricky to answer these questions sometimes, but the main idea behind whether to choose the -ing form or
the -ed form this:
When we reduce a verb to its -ing or -ed form, we must look at one and only one thing: whether the noun that it will
modify is the subject or object of that verb.
The -ing form is used for DOING the action, which means SUBJECT, which means ACTIVE voice.
The -ed form is used for RECEIVING the action, which means OBJECT, which means PASSIVE voice.
Before I go further, let me offer two examples that will make things clearer as we go along:
• speaking person (the -ing form)
• spoken words (the -ed form)
In this type of question, we always have two elements:
• a particple, which is either in the -ing or -ed form
• a noun that is modified by this participle
So, using the previous examples, speaking modifies person and spoken modifies words.
The next step is to realize that these participles all come from verbs--speaking and spoken both come from the
5
verb speak.
Now, using these examples, and applying them to the rules I mentioned at the beginning, we will notice that if
we made a sentence, person would be the subject of the verb speak and wordswould be the object of the
verb speak. Using this procedure, we can figure out whether should use the -ing or -ed form of a participle that
modifies a noun. And that's it!!
Of course, this is easy when the vocab is easy, and we often get confused when we are using difficult vocab
because we sometimes don't know whether something is the subject or the object of the verb, but this procedure
that I have explained is the only sure way to get the right answer.
In our sentence here, which replaces times, and times is the object of determined, but it is the
subject of differed.
In other words, we have something like this:
...somebody determined times...
but
times differed...
I know some of you have learned that we should only use the -ing form only for actions that are ongoing/in
progress in the present, but that's simply not true. We do occasionally use them correctly for past actions that
were ongoing/in progress.
Finally, everybody gets confused simply because the -ed form appears in the second one, making people think the
-ed form should appear again when it's reduced. We need to realize that there is truly no connection between the
two; it's pure coincidence that each has the -ed form in it!!!
VP
Joined: 08 Jun 2010
Posts: 1401
Followers: 3

Kudos [?]: 114 [0], given: 813

Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local [#permalink]

### Show Tags

14 Dec 2016, 00:41
anita_083 wrote:
70. The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(B)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which differed
(C)which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(D)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing

Thanks!

C is not paralel because
were determined
are passive
were differing
are contiuouse tense

so, passive is not paralel to continous here. in E, both are adjective so E is better.
Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local   [#permalink] 14 Dec 2016, 00:41

Go to page   Previous    1   2   [ 24 posts ]

Similar topics Replies Last post
Similar
Topics:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local 7 01 Sep 2008, 18:00
1 The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local 4 02 Jul 2008, 16:38
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local 6 29 May 2007, 03:50
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local 5 24 May 2007, 16:26
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local 2 31 Mar 2007, 11:19
Display posts from previous: Sort by