70. The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.
(A)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(B)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which differed
(C)which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(D)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
Answer is E
The only difference between choices D and E is differed/differing, and, as you've no doubt realized, the key issue
is making the choice that's most parallel
to 'determined' (from the first half of the modifier).
Here's the key: 'Determined' isn't a verb here. It's a PARTICIPLE: a verb form that functions as an adjective.
The local times were WEIRD (adjective).
The local times were DETERMINED (participle acting as adjective) by ...
So you need to pick the second half that's also 'participle acting as adjective'. Try them both:D) The local times were DIFFERED: uh oh, that doesn't work.
E) The local times were DIFFERING from city to city. That works. It's a 'present participle' rather than a 'past
participle', but it's the only one of the
two that's a participle at all.
In D and E, you can tell determined = participle, not verb, because (a) it immediately follows a comma and (b)
there's no subject you could match up with
determined in a normal subject-verb configuration. Even if you match determined with the noun "times" (to which
the clause is referring) "times, determined
by" is not proper subject-verb config.
The architecture exhibited in the Empire State Building and conveyed us an idea of the prevailingattitudes of the
day is important for the historical and cultural value it represents.
It's a bit tricky to answer these questions sometimes, but the main idea behind whether to choose the -ing form or
the -ed form this:
When we reduce a verb to its -ing or -ed form, we must look at one and only one thing: whether the noun that it will
modify is the subject or object of that verb.
The -ing form is used for DOING the action, which means SUBJECT, which means ACTIVE voice.
The -ed form is used for RECEIVING the action, which means OBJECT, which means PASSIVE voice.
Before I go further, let me offer two examples that will make things clearer as we go along:
• speaking person (the -ing form)
• spoken words (the -ed form)
In this type of question, we always have two elements:
• a particple, which is either in the -ing or -ed form
• a noun that is modified by this participle
So, using the previous examples, speaking modifies person and spoken modifies words.
The next step is to realize that these participles all come from verbs--speaking and spoken both come from the
Now, using these examples, and applying them to the rules I mentioned at the beginning, we will notice that if
we made a sentence, person would be the subject of the verb speak and wordswould be the object of the
verb speak. Using this procedure, we can figure out whether should use the -ing or -ed form of a participle that
modifies a noun. And that's it!!
Of course, this is easy when the vocab is easy, and we often get confused when we are using difficult vocab
because we sometimes don't know whether something is the subject or the object of the verb, but this procedure
that I have explained is the only sure way to get the right answer.
In our sentence here, which replaces times, and times is the object of determined, but it is the
subject of differed.
In other words, we have something like this:
...somebody determined times...
I know some of you have learned that we should only use the -ing form only for actions that are ongoing/in
progress in the present, but that's simply not true. We do occasionally use them correctly for past actions that
were ongoing/in progress.
Finally, everybody gets confused simply because the -ed form appears in the second one, making people think the
-ed form should appear again when it's reduced. We need to realize that there is truly no connection between the
two; it's pure coincidence that each has the -ed form in it!!!