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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which

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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by mau5 on 18 Aug 2013, 12:31, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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My take is E.

One imp point to note is - participles(both present and past) and adjectives can be made parallel as long as they modify the same noun.

(D)[determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian] and [differed]
(E)[determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian] and [differing]

Here both the above statements are adj of local times(local times are determined by when the sun....and local times are differeing from city to city.

Differed from city to city is not correct. So you are left with E.

In A,B,C time zones cannot be modified by a relative pronoun - which.

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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by
when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the
establishment of regional times.
(A)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and
differing
SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT
LOCAL TIMES should be "were"...out
(B)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which
differed
SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT
LOCAL TIMES should be "were"
(C)which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and
differing
THOGH "WERE" USAGE IS CORRECT,"WHICH WERE DETERMINED" should be parralel to
"WHICH WERE DIFFERING or WHICH DIFFERED"
(D)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
HERE THE ELEMENTS ARE PARALLEL BUT IF YOU NOTICE CLOSELY DIFFERED USAGE IS
INCORRECT because THE SENTECNE IS TALKING ABOUT 2 PIECES ABOUT LOCAL TIME
A) DETERMINED BY ....
B) DIFFERING FROM CITY TO CITY
DIFFERED here is incorrect usage
(E)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
CORRECT

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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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topmbaseeker wrote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by
when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
from city to city, and to the
establishment of regional times.
(A)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and
differing
(B)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which
differed
(C)which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and
differing
(D)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing


Answer E

The sentence goes like this:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times and to the establishment of regional times.

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, Modifier 1 and Modifier 2, and to the establishment of regional times.

Modifier 1 = determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian
Modifier 2 = differing from city to city

Sentence with modifier 1 only:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian, and to the establishment of regional times.

Sentence with modifier 2 only:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

Complete sentence:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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It is very much logical let me try to explain it logically.
we have to determine the time and it is determined by the position of Sun. Sun's position will always change let me say it is relative at every place....therefore we can not say differed from place to place.....position is differing from place to place is correct therefore E is correct.

Hope this will help.

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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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here, You need to consider the action, similar to active and passive.

why determined and not determining?
Local times are not determining sun position or ....., but they are getting determined by (action performed by some other agent)
==> In this case we use past participle [determined]

differing vs. differed ==> differing is present property of the subject (local times). [*No other agent of action]
==>we use present participle.
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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New post 23 Sep 2009, 12:23
I have another problem with D and E.
The word determined has no clear referant. What is being determined, growth of railroads, or times?

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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2009, 09:37
mendelay wrote:
I have another problem with D and E.
The word determined has no clear referant. What is being determined, growth of railroads, or times?


In general what I have noticed:

<clause>, participle modifier, <clause>.

In such cases, participle modifier modifies the immediate noun in the preceding clause. If the participle modifier, then only it in general can modify the preeding clause.
Note: It is not a rule but an observation. There could be exception, but in this case it is referring to (local times).
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2009, 12:36
sudeep wrote:
mendelay wrote:
I have another problem with D and E.
The word determined has no clear referant. What is being determined, growth of railroads, or times?


In general what I have noticed:

<clause>, participle modifier, <clause>.

In such cases, participle modifier modifies the immediate noun in the preceding clause. If the participle modifier, then only it in general can modify the preeding clause.
Note: It is not a rule but an observation. There could be exception, but in this case it is referring to (local times).


If it modifies the preceding clause then we still don't know which noun determined refers to.

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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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New post 24 Sep 2009, 22:41
mendelay wrote:
sudeep wrote:
mendelay wrote:
I have another problem with D and E.
The word determined has no clear referant. What is being determined, growth of railroads, or times?


In general what I have noticed:

<clause>, participle modifier, <clause>.

In such cases, participle modifier modifies the immediate noun in the preceding clause. If the participle modifier, then only it in general can modify the preeding clause.
Note: It is not a rule but an observation. There could be exception, but in this case it is referring to (local times).


If it modifies the preceding clause then we still don't know which noun determined refers to.


I misquote in hurry, what I meant is that when the participle modifier is in the last, then only it can, in general, modify the preceding clause.
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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I found the discussion about this qsn in manhattan and find the reason for E:
This is a toughie - it looks like you've realized that the key to the problem is parallelism, but you've been tricked by the rather weird form of

parallelism exhibited here.

The only difference between choices D and E is differed/differing, and, as you've no doubt realized, the key issue is making the choice that's most parallel

to 'determined' (from the first half of the modifier).

Here's the key: 'Determined' isn't a verb here. It's a PARTICIPLE: a verb form that functions as an adjective.
The local times were WEIRD (adjective).
The local times were DETERMINED (participle acting as adjective) by ...

So you need to pick the second half that's also 'participle acting as adjective'. Try them both:
D) The local times were DIFFERED: uh oh, that doesn't work.
E) The local times were DIFFERING from city to city. That works. It's a 'present participle' rather than a 'past participle', but it's the only one of the

two that's a participle at all.
In D and E, you can tell determined = participle, not verb, because (a) it immediately follows a comma and (b) there's no subject you could match up with

determined in a normal subject-verb configuration. Even if you match determined with the noun "times" (to which the clause is referring) "times, determined

by" is not proper subject-verb config.

The discussion with detailed explanation can be found in the link:
http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/100 ... t1787.html

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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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New post 02 May 2010, 19:18
I narrowed it to (C) and (E)........but picked (C) because I thought "which" is correctly modifying "local times".

we need "differing" because the sentence mean to say that the local times are differing from city to city in present also....."differed" in past tense would have been incorrect.

However, can someone please explain why (C) is incorrect and (E) correct?


The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jun 2010, 07:32
Hi seekmba

Even I did the same because which seems to refer to the local times.

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [highlight]was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.[/highlight]

The highlighted portion seems to modify only the [highlight]local times[/highlight] and nothing else.

The sentence would have been just -

[highlight]The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times.[/highlight]

But the blah blah after the sentence creates the problems.

2 observations
1. which not required
2. from x to y is correct idiom

But I think this question will not appear on the gmat since it splits the idiom "from x to y" with and. Idioms are atomic.

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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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Ankit04041987 wrote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.
(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

How to choose between d&e

The only difference between choices D and E is differed/differing, and, as you've no doubt realized, the key issue is making the choice that's most parallel to 'determined' (from the first half of the modifier).

Here's the key: 'Determined' isn't a verb here. It's a PARTICIPLE: a verb form that functions as an adjective.
The local times were WEIRD (adjective).
The local times were DETERMINED (participle acting as adjective) by ...

So you need to pick the second half that's also 'participle acting as adjective'. Try them both:
D) The local times were DIFFERED: uh oh, that doesn't work.
E) The local times were DIFFERING from city to city. That works. It's a 'present participle' rather than a 'past participle', but it's the only one of the two that's a participle at all.

hope that helps.
Please visit the link for further explanation:

http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/100 ... t1787.html
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing----- local times which was determined --- SV mismatch
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed--- same as in A
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing ---- which were determined and diffeing –unparallel
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed--- determined is past participle and differed is a verb; The word differed as such can not make a participle
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing – right choice - differing, a present participle is the perfect foil for determined, a past participle.
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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Admission to a top B-School depends on one's GMAT score, determined by one's ability and ranging from 200 to 800.
or would you say :
Admission to a top B-School depends on one's GMAT score, determined by one's ability and ranged from 200 to 800.

E is good.
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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New post 23 Aug 2012, 05:32
@daagh or @ other verbal experts
I have a doubt regarding this question
Let us consider this additional option
which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which were differing.--> is this option right?
If this is correct then how is it different from the option
e)determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing.

In the correct option E, starting with "determined" modifies the entire preceding clause .But it is the local times which need to be modified right ?
Please share your views .
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2012, 18:29
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

Confused between D & E.

Isn't D parallelism and if it is, shouldn't that be the right answer?

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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2012, 19:17
qweert wrote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

Confused between D & E.

Isn't D parallelism and if it is, shouldn't that be the right answer?


In D parallelism is not maintained. Determined is past participle whereas differed is a verb
In E Parallelism is maintained. Determined is past participle and Differing is present participle.

Please refer this article by e-gmat ed-forms-verbs-or-modifiers-134691.html
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which [#permalink]

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shikhar wrote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.
(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing


Interesting question with lot of different explanations and answers !!!
Some expert please shed some light.


Eliminate answere choices first.
A is wrong because of two thing. use of 'which' - which is a relative pronoun. it can not be used for 'times' . Second, 'was' with 'times'.
B has the same 'was' issue, C has the same which issue.

in D and E, difference is between differed and differing at the end. Now, use of differed, a verb, at the end is wrong because it is not parallel to determined by, a participle.

Option E has perfect parallel components:
"The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times........ and to the establishment of regional times."
"determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian.... and differing from city to city"

Therefore, Ans E it is!

not sure what source is.. but poor quality question.
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which   [#permalink] 18 Jan 2013, 00:05

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