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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which

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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 18 Aug 2013, 12:31
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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing

Originally posted by topmbaseeker on 28 Nov 2008, 23:41.
Last edited by mau5 on 18 Aug 2013, 12:31, edited 1 time in total.
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New post 22 Aug 2012, 08:12
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Hi guys,
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

Image

• The growth of the railroads led to
o the abolition of local times, and
o the establishment of regional times.
• Two characteristics of local times have been mentioned in the sentence:
o they were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian, and
they differed from city to city.

Image

1. Singular verb “was” does not agree in number with plural subject “local times”. SV must agree in number error.

2. Also “was” seem to be the verb for “abolition of local times”, meaning abolition was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian. This is certainly not the intended logical meaning of the sentence. Meaning error.

3. The two characteristics of “local times” must be parallel to each other. Here, “which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian” (a clause) is not parallel to “differing from city to city” ( a verb-ed modifier phrase). Parallelism error.

POE:

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing: Incorrect. Errors discussed above.

(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which differed: Incorrect. Same SV number agreement and meaning errors as in A.

(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing: Incorrect. Same parallelism error as in A.

(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed: Incorrect. “determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian” (a verb-ed modifier) is not parallel to “differed from city to city” (a verb phrase). Notice here that “determined” is not a verb here. It is a verb-ed modifier that is modifying “local times”. If it were a verb, ther would be no comma before it and the subject and the verb would be connected properly.

(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing: Correct. “determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian” (a verb-ed modifier phrase) is parallel to “differing from city to city” (a verb-ing modifier phrase). Both the modifiers are correctly presenting the characteristics of “local times”. Refer to OG 12#42 to see how verb-ing and verb-ed modifiers can be parallel to each other.

Image

1. SV pair must always agree in number.
2. SV pair must always make sense together.
3. In a list of parallelism, all the entities must be grammatically as well as logically parallel.

The concepts tested in this sentence have been covered in e-gmat concepts:
1. Level 1 - SV - Agree in Number (This concept features in Level 1 Preview Concepts that are available for free. Just register and learn.)
2. Level 2 - SV - Make Sense
3. Level 1 - Parallelism - Identify and Correct
4. Level 1 - Parallelism - Helpful Tips

You can also review our article on this topic by clicking on the following link:
verb-ed-verb-ing-can-be-parallel-126923.html

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Sep 2009, 22:23
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topmbaseeker wrote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by
when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
from city to city, and to the
establishment of regional times.
(A)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and
differing
(B)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which
differed
(C)which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and
differing
(D)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing


Answer E

The sentence goes like this:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times and to the establishment of regional times.

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, Modifier 1 and Modifier 2, and to the establishment of regional times.

Modifier 1 = determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian
Modifier 2 = differing from city to city

Sentence with modifier 1 only:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian, and to the establishment of regional times.

Sentence with modifier 2 only:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

Complete sentence:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Sep 2009, 09:22
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My take is E.

One imp point to note is - participles(both present and past) and adjectives can be made parallel as long as they modify the same noun.

(D)[determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian] and [differed]
(E)[determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian] and [differing]

Here both the above statements are adj of local times(local times are determined by when the sun....and local times are differeing from city to city.

Differed from city to city is not correct. So you are left with E.

In A,B,C time zones cannot be modified by a relative pronoun - which.
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Sep 2009, 23:23
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It is very much logical let me try to explain it logically.
we have to determine the time and it is determined by the position of Sun. Sun's position will always change let me say it is relative at every place....therefore we can not say differed from place to place.....position is differing from place to place is correct therefore E is correct.

Hope this will help.
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Sep 2009, 07:20
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here, You need to consider the action, similar to active and passive.

why determined and not determining?
Local times are not determining sun position or ....., but they are getting determined by (action performed by some other agent)
==> In this case we use past participle [determined]

differing vs. differed ==> differing is present property of the subject (local times). [*No other agent of action]
==>we use present participle.
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New post 20 Apr 2010, 18:28
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I found the discussion about this qsn in manhattan and find the reason for E:
This is a toughie - it looks like you've realized that the key to the problem is parallelism, but you've been tricked by the rather weird form of

parallelism exhibited here.

The only difference between choices D and E is differed/differing, and, as you've no doubt realized, the key issue is making the choice that's most parallel

to 'determined' (from the first half of the modifier).

Here's the key: 'Determined' isn't a verb here. It's a PARTICIPLE: a verb form that functions as an adjective.
The local times were WEIRD (adjective).
The local times were DETERMINED (participle acting as adjective) by ...

So you need to pick the second half that's also 'participle acting as adjective'. Try them both:
D) The local times were DIFFERED: uh oh, that doesn't work.
E) The local times were DIFFERING from city to city. That works. It's a 'present participle' rather than a 'past participle', but it's the only one of the

two that's a participle at all.
In D and E, you can tell determined = participle, not verb, because (a) it immediately follows a comma and (b) there's no subject you could match up with

determined in a normal subject-verb configuration. Even if you match determined with the noun "times" (to which the clause is referring) "times, determined

by" is not proper subject-verb config.

The discussion with detailed explanation can be found in the link:
http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/100 ... t1787.html
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New post 28 Jun 2010, 06:48
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Hey, I found some real good explanation on other forum. Will post it here for everyone's benefit.

Quote:
It's a bit tricky to answer these questions sometimes, but the main idea behind whether to choose the -ing form or the -ed form this:

When we reduce a verb to its -ing or -ed form, we must look at one and only one thing: whether the noun that it will modify is the subject or object of that verb.

The -ing form is used for DOING the action, which means SUBJECT, which means ACTIVE voice.

The -ed form is used for RECEIVING the action, which means OBJECT, which means PASSIVE voice.

Before I go further, let me offer two examples that will make things clearer as we go along:

speaking person (the -ing form)
spoken words (the -ed form)

In this type of question, we always have two elements:

a particple, which is either in the -ing or -ed form
a noun that is modified by this participle

So, using the previous examples, speaking modifies person and spoken modifies words.

The next step is to realize that these participles all come from verbs--speaking and spoken both come from the verb speak.

Now, using these examples, and applying them to the rules I mentioned at the beginning, we will notice that if we made a sentence, person would be the subject of the verb speak and words would be the object of the verb speak. Using this procedure, we can figure out whether should use the -ing or -ed form of a participle that modifies a noun.

Of course, this is easy when the vocabulary is easy, and we often get confused when we are using difficult vocabulary because we sometimes don't know whether something is the subject or the object of the verb, but this procedure that I have explained is the only sure way to get the right answer.

In our sentence here, "which" replaces "times", and "times" is the object of "determined", but it is the subject of "differed".

In other words, we have something like this:

...somebody determined times...

but

times differing [not differed...]

I know some of you have learned that we should only use the -ing form only for actions that are ongoing/in progress in the present, but that's simply not true. We do occasionally use them correctly for past actions that were ongoing/in progress.

Finally, everybody gets confused simply because the -ed form appears in the second one, making people think the -ed form should appear again when it's reduced. We need to realize that there is truly no connection between the two; it's pure coincidence that each has the -ed form in it

If you stick to the rules that I just wrote, you'll be okay.
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New post 06 Apr 2012, 20:04
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Most of the problems with this text arise because of the difficulties posed by the nature of the participial modifiers both the past and the present. It must be noted that these participles do not carry a sense of tense per se. They are tenseless and can be used universally. To repeat, a past participle such as ‘determined’ can be used in present and future tense situations and the present participle ‘differing’ can be used in past, present, and future similarly.

Ex:written to satirize the eccentricities of the olden earldom of the English and read by millions over the world, Wodehouse’s books are a great hit— part participles used in present tense sentence

Working for just a couple of weeks, Joe dreamt that he could easily cross 750 in his GMAT. --Present participle in past tense context.

In this context, the participle ‘determined by’ and ‘differing’ are plain descriptives of a universal happening namely the local times. Therefore, it is acceptable to use a past participle and a present participle in the same sentence and still be parallel. There are more examples of this phenomenon in GMAT.

The problem with D is that, the word ‘differed’ (local times differed) becomes a past tense verb and thus breaks the parallelism by using a participle and a verb, when two participles should have been used. The past verb means that the local times differed only in the past and not these days. That is the reason E scores over D. In C the unnecessary intrusion of the past tense phrase ‘which were’ restricts the universality only to past

A real hair puller. Kudos to poster
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New post 16 Jun 2012, 10:12
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Ankit04041987 wrote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.
(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

How to choose between d&e

The only difference between choices D and E is differed/differing, and, as you've no doubt realized, the key issue is making the choice that's most parallel to 'determined' (from the first half of the modifier).

Here's the key: 'Determined' isn't a verb here. It's a PARTICIPLE: a verb form that functions as an adjective.
The local times were WEIRD (adjective).
The local times were DETERMINED (participle acting as adjective) by ...

So you need to pick the second half that's also 'participle acting as adjective'. Try them both:
D) The local times were DIFFERED: uh oh, that doesn't work.
E) The local times were DIFFERING from city to city. That works. It's a 'present participle' rather than a 'past participle', but it's the only one of the two that's a participle at all.

hope that helps.
Please visit the link for further explanation:

http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/100 ... t1787.html
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2012, 10:51
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(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing----- local times which was determined --- SV mismatch
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed--- same as in A
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing ---- which were determined and diffeing –unparallel
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed--- determined is past participle and differed is a verb; The word differed as such can not make a participle
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing – right choice - differing, a present participle is the perfect foil for determined, a past participle.
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New post 24 Jun 2012, 11:41
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Admission to a top B-School depends on one's GMAT score, determined by one's ability and ranging from 200 to 800.
or would you say :
Admission to a top B-School depends on one's GMAT score, determined by one's ability and ranged from 200 to 800.

E is good.
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New post 22 Aug 2012, 09:22
[quote="egmat"]
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed: Incorrect. “determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian” (a verb-ed modifier) is not parallel to “differed from city to city” (a verb phrase). Notice here that “determined” is not a verb here. It is a verb-ed modifier that is modifying “local times”. If it were a verb, ther would be no comma before it and the subject and the verb would be connected properly.


Why "differed from city to city" is a verb phrase and not a verb-ed modifier. In the context of the sentence

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

If we omit the red coloured part then "differed" can be treated as verb-ed modifier.

Please explain and make me understand the concept.
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New post 22 Aug 2012, 13:05
Hi Ranjeet,

Following are the links of two articles that deal with the usage of Verb-ed modifier and the difference between the verb-ed modifier and simple past tense. Please go through them. If you still have any doubts regarding any of these topics, feel free to ask us. :)
verb-ed-modifiers-vs-verb-ing-modifiers-125611.html
ed-forms-verbs-or-modifiers-134691.html

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New post 08 Jul 2013, 14:21
can we say then that meaning superseds grammer ?

.........yes indeed, otherwise what is the point of language if we cant convey the right information!
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New post 08 Jul 2013, 20:29
sankey wrote:
can we say then that meaning superseds grammer ?

.........yes indeed, otherwise what is the point of language if we cant convey the right information!

Hi Sankey,
I am not sure why you think that "meaning supersedes grammar"? You are correct in saying that the purpose of language (including rules of grammar) is to express the information. Now per the rule of grammar, elements in the list should be parallel to one another. That is the precise rule that is being followed here. So the correct choice uses appropriate grammatical construction to express the meaning.
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Re: Challenging Question  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2013, 12:37
egmat wrote:
Hi guys,
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

Image

• The growth of the railroads led to
o the abolition of local times, and
o the establishment of regional times.
• Two characteristics of local times have been mentioned in the sentence:
o they were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian, and
they differed from city to city.

Image

In option D and E, don't we have a clause without a subject?

1. Singular verb “was” does not agree in number with plural subject “local times”. SV must agree in number error.

2. Also “was” seem to be the verb for “abolition of local times”, meaning abolition was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian. This is certainly not the intended logical meaning of the sentence. Meaning error.

3. The two characteristics of “local times” must be parallel to each other. Here, “which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian” (a clause) is not parallel to “differing from city to city” ( a verb-ed modifier phrase). Parallelism error.

POE:

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing: Incorrect. Errors discussed above.

(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which differed: Incorrect. Same SV number agreement and meaning errors as in A.

(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing: Incorrect. Same parallelism error as in A.

(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed: Incorrect. “determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian” (a verb-ed modifier) is not parallel to “differed from city to city” (a verb phrase). Notice here that “determined” is not a verb here. It is a verb-ed modifier that is modifying “local times”. If it were a verb, ther would be no comma before it and the subject and the verb would be connected properly.

(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing: Correct. “determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian” (a verb-ed modifier phrase) is parallel to “differing from city to city” (a verb-ing modifier phrase). Both the modifiers are correctly presenting the characteristics of “local times”. Refer to OG 12#42 to see how verb-ing and verb-ed modifiers can be parallel to each other.

Image

1. SV pair must always agree in number.
2. SV pair must always make sense together.
3. In a list of parallelism, all the entities must be grammatically as well as logically parallel.

The concepts tested in this sentence have been covered in e-gmat concepts:
1. Level 1 - SV - Agree in Number (This concept features in Level 1 Preview Concepts that are available for free. Just register and learn.)
2. Level 2 - SV - Make Sense
3. Level 1 - Parallelism - Identify and Correct
4. Level 1 - Parallelism - Helpful Tips

You can also review our article on this topic by clicking on the following link:
verb-ed-verb-ing-can-be-parallel-126923.html

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha



Hi shraddha,

In answer choices D and E, don't we have a sentence which has no subject? could you please also mention a bit about the parallel structure that yu deduced over here

thanks
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New post 26 Jul 2013, 06:53
WaterFlowsUp wrote:
Hi shraddha,

In answer choices D and E, don't we have a sentence which has no subject? could you please also mention a bit about the parallel structure that yu deduced over here

thanks


Hi WayerFlowsUp,

Let’s analyze the complete sentence with both the answer choice.

Following is the sentence with Choice D:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

The subject in this sentence is “The growth of the railroads” and the verb is “led”. The word “determined” is the verb-ed modifier that modifies the preceding noun entity “local times”. Presence of “and” here tells us that we have a list here.

Another entity that gives some information about “local times” is “differed from city to city”. However, this entity is not parallel to “determined...”. In structure they do parallel, but actually ther are not because “determined” is a verb-ed modifier and “differed” is a verb. Take these examples:
• Your watch differs from mine.
• Jane’s dress differed from Joan’s.

A modifier cannot be parallel to a verb. Hence this sentence is incorrect. Now let’s study the sentence with Choice E:

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

Here again, the subject is “The growth of the railroads” and the verb is “led”. We know that “determined” is a verb-ed modifier. The error of Choice D has been corrected in this choice by turning the verb “differed” to the verb-ing modifier “differing”. When a verb-ing modifier is not preceded by a comma, it modifies the preceding noun entity. In this case, that entity is “local times”.

So both “determined” and “differing” now present information about the same entity “local times”. Both the entities are noun modifiers. They definitely look different, but they perform the same function, and hence they are parallel.

Read this article to learn how two different looking entities but performing the same function can be parallel:
parallelism-imperfect-list-142791.html

Probably, you thought that these two answer choices do not have a subject because there is no “which” in these options. But then you focused only on the underlined portion of the sentence. This should not be done. An answer choice must be evaluated in the context of the entire sentence. Else, we will land up choosing a wrong answer choice.

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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New post 26 Jul 2013, 07:04
Hi WaterFlowsUp,

Here is another similar question that tests the same concepts. Try this out as well.

The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating

Thanks. :)
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Re: Challenging Question  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jul 2013, 21:02
Quote:
The increased popularity and availability of televisions has led to the decline of regional dialects, language variations which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated by geographic isolation.

A. which originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
B. that originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
C. originated from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
D. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuated
E. originating from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages and perpetuating


Is OA - D ?

Meaning Analysis
"Language variations...isolation" defines "regional dialects" -- so it should be proper noun phrase

Error
"Language variations which originate" - two errors
* Major error - present tense "originate" makes it a general fact that language variations always originate from diverse ethnic and cultural heritages.
* Minor error - which is non essential modifier, so it is preferable as "comma which"

Choice Analysis
A) As above
B) This is interesting choice - but "that" clause means - now we are talking about a very specific language variations that originated from X and perpetuated by Y - and we are not talking about all language variations. It might mean there might be other type of language variations.
C) Makes "language variations originated" as a complete clause - but creates IC error.
D) Fixes all errors.
E) "language variations perpetuating by X" is wrong - it shall be "perpetuated by"

If there is contention in the answer choices, it will be between B and D.

Please correct me.
GMAT Club Bot
Re: Challenging Question &nbs [#permalink] 27 Jul 2013, 21:02

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